PURPOSE: To determine if female hormonal therapy (FHT) increases the incidence of noninfectious uveitis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Women exposed to FHT and matched women unexposed to FHT enrolled in a national insurance plan. METHODS: Estimation of noninfectious uveitis incidence used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. To account for differences between the exposed and unexposed cohorts, a propensity score for being prescribed FHT was created using logistic regression, and inverse probability of treatment weighting was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of noninfectious uveitis. For the primary outcome, incident noninfectious uveitis was defined as a new diagnosis code for noninfectious uveitis followed by a second instance of a noninfectious uveitis code within 120 days. For the alternative outcome definition, a corticosteroid prescription or code for an ocular corticosteroid injection within 120 days of the uveitis diagnosis code was used instead of the second uveitis diagnosis code. RESULTS: There were 217 653 women exposed to FHT and 928 408 women not unexposed to FHT. For the primary outcome, the hazard ratio (HR) for incident noninfectious uveitis was not significantly different between the FHT and unexposed cohorts (HR, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.17; P = 0.87). With the alternative outcome definition, the FHT cohort was more likely to develop uveitis (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41; P = 0.01). When examined by anatomic subtype, for anterior uveitis there was a greater likelihood of incident uveitis in the exposed cohort (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45; P = 0.01) for the alternative outcome definition but not for the primary outcome. With age stratification, women exposed to FHT aged ≥45 years at the time of FHT prescription were more likely to develop uveitis (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47; P = 0.03) for the alternative outcome definition. A similar HR (1.22) was seen for women aged ≤44 years at the time of prescription, but this association did not meet statistical significance (P = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to FHT increases the rate of incident noninfectious uveitis when uveitis is defined on the basis of both diagnostic codes and documentation of corticosteroid treatment. However, the risk is modest and FHT is likely safe with regard to noninfectious uveitis risk in the majority of patients exposed to these drugs.
Corneal dystrophies are broadly defined as inherited disorders that affect any layer of the cornea and are usually progressive, bilateral conditions that do not have systemic effects. The 2015 International Classification of Corneal Dystrophies classifies corneal dystrophies into four classes: epithelial and subepithelial dystrophies, epithelial-stromal TGFBI dystrophies, stromal dystrophies and endothelial dystrophies. Whereas some corneal dystrophies may result in few or mild symptoms and morbidity throughout a patient's lifetime, others may progress and eventually result in substantial visual and ocular disturbances that require medical or surgical intervention. Corneal transplantation, either with full-thickness or partial-thickness donor tissue, may be indicated for patients with advanced corneal dystrophies. Although corneal transplantation techniques have improved considerably over the past two decades, these surgeries are still associated with postoperative risks of disease recurrence, graft failure and other complications that may result in blindness. In addition, a global shortage of cadaveric corneal graft tissue critically limits accessibility to corneal transplantation in some parts of the world. Ongoing advances in gene therapy, regenerative therapy and cell augmentation therapy may eventually result in the development of alternative, novel treatments for corneal dystrophies, which may substantially improve the quality of life of patients with these disorders.
PURPOSE: To determine the preoperative characteristics, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes of eyes with posteriorly inserted vitreous base. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational, consecutive case series at 2 academic centers, 37 patients were studied who had posteriorly inserted vitreous base noted during vitrectomy. Posteriorly inserted vitreous base was defined as the insertion of the posterior hyaloid membrane being located posterior to the vortex veins. Fifteen eyes were analyzed in a histopathologic study of donor eyes to determine the average distance of the ora serrata from the vortex veins as this distance is uncertain. RESULTS: Posteriorly inserted vitreous base was identified during vitrectomy in 31 eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (84%), 4 with macular hole (11%), 1 with vitreous hemorrhage, and 1 with epiretinal membrane. Adjunctive buckle was used in 24%; 54% had 360° laser. Average number of tears seen preoperatively in those with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was 3.1. Thirty percent had new breaks identified intraoperatively. Forty-one percent had lattice degeneration; new breaks were found in 40% of eyes with lattice. Thirteen percent of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Average distance from the ora serrata to the vortex veins was 7.6 mm. CONCLUSION: Any eye undergoing vitrectomy may have posteriorly inserted vitreous base, but those with a high number of retinal breaks and lattice near the equator may be at highest risk. Redetachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy still occur despite knowledge of the disorder and adjuvant treatments.
Sohn EH, Mullins RF, Eliott D. Reply. Retina 2020;40(11):e68-e69.
We present a case of bilateral ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum in 1-day-old girl and describe our surgical approach. The bands connecting the upper and lower eyelids of both eyes were severed using blunt scissors. Point bleeding at the cut bands stopped in 1-2 minutes, without the need for cauterization or compression. The patient was able to open her eyes shortly after the procedure, as she woke up from anesthesia. Examination under general anesthesia showed normal eye examination appropriate for age. Postoperatively, the patient maintained open palpebral fissures. Visual development over 3 years' follow-up was normal.
Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1985. Pre-clinical studies suggest that Amiodarone induces cytotoxicity in several types of cancer cells, thus making it a potential candidate for use as an anti-cancer treatment. However, it is also known to cause a variety of severe side effects. We hypothesized that in addition to the cytotoxic effects observed in cancer cells Amiodarone also has an indirect effect on angiogensis, a key factor in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we examined Amiodarone's effects on a murine tumor model comprised of U-87 MG glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells, known to form highly vascularized tumors. We performed several in vitro assays using tumor and endothelial cells, along with in vivo assays utilizing three murine models. Low dose Amiodarone markedly reduced the size of GBM xenograft tumors and displayed a strong anti-angiogenic effect, suggesting dual cancer fighting properties. Our findings lay the ground for further research of Amiodarone as a possible clinical agent that, used in safe doses, maintains its dual properties while averting the drug's harmful side effects.
Purpose: To identify factors affecting family members' decision whether to donate eye organs. Methods: A community-based case-control study based on in-home interviews with families of deceased individuals who had or had not donated eye organs, in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India. Data collected were knowledge and awareness of eye donations, whether the deceased individual had expressed or pledged willingness to donate, and family members' attitudes and willingness to donate their own eye organs. Results: Seventy-six families of donors and 256 families of non-donors completed the survey. Multivariable analysis showed that the following variables were significantly associated with a donation: age, whether the deceased had registered for eye donation, pre-expressed willingness of deceased to donate, whether family members personally know beneficiaries of eye donations, and higher score on a scale evaluating knowledge and awareness about eye donation. The majority of donors' families (71%) had been encouraged by someone to donate. Among non-donor families, a substantially larger fraction (52.8%) indicated they would have donated had someone reminded or encouraged them to do so, in comparison with those who indicated lack of awareness or knowledge (14.5%). Conclusion: Community programs are likely to be effective if they encourage individuals to pledge their eyes or express their willingness to donate their eyes to family members in advance of death; they increase public awareness of the value of eye donation. A friend, family member, neighbor or counselor approaching bereaved families and having a dialogue about eye donation would substantially increase the probability of a decision to donate.
Intraocular inflammation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is commonly due to infectious uveitis. Ocular lesions due to opportunistic infections (OI) are the most common and have been described extensively in the pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Many eye lesions were classified as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses. HAART-associated improvement in immunity of the individual has changed the pattern of incidence of these hitherto reported known lesions leading to a marked reduction in the occurrence of ocular OI. Newer ocular lesions and newer ocular manifestations of known agents have been noted. Immune recovery uveitis (IRU), the new menace, which occurs as part of immune recovery inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in the eye, can present with significant ocular inflammation and can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Balancing the treatment of inflammation with the risk of reactivation of OI is a task by itself. Ocular involvement in the HAART era can be due to the adverse effects of some systemic drugs used in the management of HIV/AIDS. Drug-associated retinal toxicity and other ocular side effects are being increasingly reported. In this review, we discuss the ocular manifestations in HIV patients and its varied presentations following the introduction of HAART, drug-associated lesions, and the current treatment guidelines.
This article was withdrawn on October 15, 2020, at the request of the journal editors, with agreement from the authors, owing to a substantial amount of unattributed or improperly cited text overlap with other sources. In accordance with Annual Reviews' commitment to transparency, the original PDF of the article remains available for download at .
Substance P (SP) is a tachykinin neuropeptide, implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory conditions and a critical mediator in pain transmission. Recently, the role of SP was described in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED) through its role in the maturation of antigen-presenting cells at the ocular surface after exposure to desiccating stress. However, the effect of SP on regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are functionally impaired in DED, remains unclear. This study examined the phenotypic and functional changes in Tregs in response to SP in DED. The in vitro cultures of normal Tregs in the presence of SP led to a significant reduction in both Treg frequencies and their suppressive function, which was prevented by the addition of an SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor) antagonist. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in DED mice effectively restored Treg function, suppressed pathogenic T helper 17 response, and significantly ameliorated the disease. Our results show that a significant increase in SP levels promotes Treg dysfunction in DED, and blockade of SP effectively restores Treg function and suppresses DED severity.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current recommendations for glaucoma screening are decidedly neutral. No studies have yet documented improved long-term outcomes for individuals who undergo glaucoma screening versus those who do not. Given the long duration that would be required to detect a benefit, future studies that may answer this question definitively are unlikely. Nevertheless, advances in artificial intelligence and telemedicine will lead to more effective screening at lower cost. With these new technologies, additional research is needed to determine the costs and benefits of screening for glaucoma. RECENT FINDINGS: Using optic disc photographs and/or optical coherence tomography, deep learning systems appear capable of diagnosing glaucoma more accurately than human graders. Eliminating the need for expert graders along with better technologies for remote imaging of the ocular fundus will allow for less expensive screening, which could enable screening of individuals with otherwise limited healthcare access. In India and China, where most glaucoma remains undiagnosed, glaucoma screening was recently found to be cost-effective. SUMMARY: Recent advances in artificial intelligence and telemedicine have the potential to increase the accuracy, reduce the costs, and extend the reach of screening. Further research into implementing these technologies in glaucoma screening is required.
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the efficacy and safety of bioengineered acellular dermal matrix (BADM) grafts for lower eyelid retraction repair. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database initially in January 2018 and updated in July 2019 to identify all studies in the English language literature on the use of BADM grafts in eyelid reconstruction. The searches yielded 193 citations, and 15 of the 34 articles selected for full review met all inclusion criteria for this assessment. A panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating for each study. Two of the 15 studies included were rated level II and 13 were rated level III. RESULTS: The definition of success varied, but lower eyelid position improvement using lower lid margin-to-pupillary reflex distance was the most common outcome measure. Other end points were the amount of lagophthalmos, cosmesis, exposure, reoperation, or complications, as well as prosthesis retention in anophthalmic socket cases. The surgeon-reported success rate of these outcomes ranged from 75% to 100%. Minor complications included cyst formation, infection, chemosis, pyogenic granuloma, and corneal abrasion. No serious complications such as blindness, anaphylactic reaction, or terminal disease transmission occurred. Of the 526 implants included for assessment in these disparate studies, 27 cases (5%) required reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: No level I evidence was available, and the existing level II and level III studies have variable primary end points, study design limitations, and only short-term follow-up data. The current literature suggests that BADM grafts represent an implantation option for lower eyelid retraction repair. Short-term results are favorable, and the materials used may fill an important gap in care for patients for whom no acceptable alternatives exist, but long-term safety and efficacy remain unknown.
The prevalence of dry eye disease is high worldwide and poses a great burden on patients' daily lives. Accurate diagnosis of the disease is important, and it requires application of various methods. Hyperosmolarity is believed to be the disease marker and thus measuring it provides useful information. In this study we investigated utility of tear osmolarity measured with TearLab osmometer, along with other diagnostic tests (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, Tear film break-up time, Ocular Protection Index, Ocular Surface Staining, Schirmer I test, Meibomian gland functionality in 757 patients (1514 eyes) with dry eye disease and 29 healthy controls (58 eyes). Statistical differences between the patient group and the control group were observed for all the tests apart from tear osmolarity, regardless of cut-off value (>308 mOsm/L, >316 mOsm/L, and inter-eye difference >8 mOsm/L). Moreover, in the receiver operating characteristics curve analyses tear osmolarity measurement could not discriminate dry eye disease pathological scores. Therefore, our study suggests that tear osmolarity measured with TearLab osmometer cannot be used as a key indicator of DED.
Phase unwrapping is one of the major challenges in multiple branches of science that extract three-dimensional information of objects from wrapped signals. In several applications, it is important to extract the unwrapped information with minimal signal resolution degradation. However, most of the denoising techniques for unwrapping are designed to operate on the entire phase map to remove a limited number of phase residues, and therefore they significantly degrade critical information contained in the image. In this paper, we present a novel, smart, and automatic filtering technique for locally minimizing the number of phase residues in noisy wrapped holograms, based on the phasor average filtering (PAF) of patches around each residue point. Both patch sizes and PAF filters are increased in an iterative algorithm to minimize the number of residues and locally restrict the artifacts caused by filtering to the pixels around the residue pixels. Then, the improved wrapped phase can be unwrapped using a simple phase unwrapping technique. The feasibility of our method is confirmed by filtering, unwrapping, and enhancing the quality of a noisy hologram of neurons; the intensity distribution of the spatial frequencies demonstrates a 40-fold improvement, with respect to previous techniques, in preserving the higher frequencies.
In diabetes there is a long latency between the onset of hyperglycemia and the appearance of structural microangiopathy. Because Ly6C patrolling monocytes (PMo) behave as housekeepers of the vasculature, we tested whether PMo protect microvessels against diabetes. We found that in wild-type mice, diabetes reduced PMo in the general circulation but increased by fourfold the absolute number of PMo adherent to retinal vessels (leukostasis). Conversely, in diabetic NR4A1 mice, a model of absence of PMo, there was no increase in leukostasis, and at 6 months of diabetes, the number of retinal acellular capillaries almost doubled compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Circulating PMo showed gene expression changes indicative of enhanced migratory, vasculoprotective, and housekeeping activities, as well as profound suppression of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis. Promigratory CXCR4 was no longer upregulated at longer duration when retinal acellular capillaries begin to increase. Thus, after a short diabetes duration, PMo are the cells preferentially recruited to the retinal vessels and protect vessels from diabetic damage. These observations support the need for reinterpretation of the functional meaning of leukostasis in diabetes and document within the natural history of diabetic retinopathy processes of protection and repair that can provide novel paradigms for prevention.
PURPOSE: To investigate sex and age differences in symptoms and signs in a Norwegian clinic-based cohort of patients with dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: Visitors at the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic were examined using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire score, tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TFBUT), ocular surface staining, corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test, and meibum expressibility (ME) and quality (MQ). A diagnosis of DED was made by an ophthalmologist based on symptoms and signs, and only DED patients were enrolled in the study: 1823 patients (338 males; mean age 51.2 ± 16.2 years; 1485 females; mean age 52.5 ± 16.0 years). The patients were divided into age subgroups: 20-39 years, 40-59 years and ≥60 years. Sex differences in the aforementioned tests were analyzed. Values were reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U test. Multiple regression was used to analyze sex and age influences on symptoms and signs. RESULTS: When patients of all ages were analyzed, females had increased osmolarity, shorter TFBUT, reduced MQ and ME and higher corneal sensitivity. OSDI, Schirmer I test, ocular surface staining and corneal staining were not significantly different between the sexes. Only with TFBUT and ME were the sex difference present in all age subgroups. Multiple regression showed that all parameters were influenced by either sex or age, but only TFBUT and ME were influenced by both sex and age. (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sex and age differences in dry eye were most consistent in TFBUT and ME, that indicate differences in meibomian gland functionality. Sex and age subgroup stratification is important in future studies investigating DED in other populations.
SIGNIFICANCE: Electronic display devices used before bed may negatively affect sleep quality through the effects of short-wavelength (blue) light on melatonin production and the circadian cycle. We quantified the efficacy of night-mode functions and blue-light-reducing lenses in ameliorating this problem. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation produced by smartphones that reaches the eye when using night-mode functions or blue-light-reducing spectacle lenses. METHODS: Radiant flux of 64 smartphones was measured with an integrating sphere. The retinal illuminance was calculated from the radiant flux of the smartphones. For the night-mode functions, the spectra produced by the smartphones were measured. The transmittance of four blue-light-reducing spectacle lenses, which filter light with either antireflective coatings or tints, was measured using a spectrometer. To determine the impact of blue-light-reducing spectacles, the radiant flux of the smartphone was weighted by the transmission spectrum of these glasses. Visual and nonvisual (circadian) parameters were calculated to compute the melatonin suppression values (MSVs) through a logistic fitting of previously published data. The MSV was used as the figure of merit to evaluate the performance of blue-light spectacles and smartphone night-mode functions. RESULTS: Night-mode functions in smartphones reduced MSVs by up to 93%. The warmest mode produced the least suppression. Blue-light-reducing spectacles reduced melatonin suppression by 33%, the coated lenses being more efficient than tinted lenses. CONCLUSIONS: All smartphones in this study emit radiant power in the short-wavelength region of the visible spectrum. Such smartphones may impair the regulation of circadian cycles at nighttime. The activation of night-mode functions was more efficient than the commercially available blue-light-reducing spectacle lenses in reducing the amount of short-wavelength light (up to 2.25 times). These results can be extrapolated to most electronic devices because they share the same type of white radiant sources with smartphones.
Testi I, Agrawal R, Mahajan S, Agarwal A, Gunasekeran DV, Raje D, Aggarwal K, Murthy SI, Westcott M, Chee S-P, McCluskey P, Ho SL, Teoh S, Cimino L, Biswas J, Narain S, Agarwal M, Mahendradas P, Khairallah M, Jones N, Tugal-Tutkun I, Babu K, Basu S, Carreño E, Lee R, Al-Dhibi H, Bodaghi B, Invernizzi A, Goldstein DA, Herbort CP, Barisani-Asenbauer T, González-López JJ, Androudi S, Bansal R, Moharana B, Esposti SD, Tasiopoulou A, Nadarajah S, Agarwal M, Abraham S, Vala R, Singh R, Sharma A, Sharma K, Zierhut M, Kon OM, Cunningham ET, Kempen JH, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V. The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1: A Multinational Descriptive Review of Tubercular Uveitis in Paediatric Population. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine disease profile of tubercular uveitis (TBU) in Paediatric population. METHODS: Among 945 patients of the retrospective multinational study by the Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1, 29 Paediatric patients diagnosed with TBU were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age of disease presentation was 12.8 (range 4-18 years), with predominance of males (n = 14/20; 70.0%) and Asian ethnicity (n = 25/29; 86.2%). Posterior uveitis (n = 14/28; 50%) was the most frequent uveitis phenotype, with choroidal involvement occurring in 64.7% (n = 11/17). Incidence of optic disc edema and macular edema was higher in children (n = 8/18; 44.4% and n = 5/18; 27.8%, respectively) than in adults (n = 160/942; 16.9% and n = 135/942; 14.3%, respectively). Comparison of optic disc edema between subgroups showed a significant difference (). All patients received oral corticosteroids, most of them with antitubercular therapy. Treatment failure developed in 4.8% (n = 1/21). CONCLUSIONS: Children have a more severe inflammatory response to the disease, and an intensive anti-inflammatory therapeutic regimen is required to achieve a positive treatment outcome.
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of monocular elevation deficiency (MED) is unclear. It has previously been considered to arise due to a supranuclear abnormality. METHODS: Two brothers with MED were referred to Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK from the local opticians. Their father had bilateral ptosis and was unable to elevate both eyes, consistent with the diagnosis of congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM). Candidate sequencing was performed in all family members. RESULTS: Both affected siblings (aged 7 and 12 years) were unable to elevate the right eye. Their father had bilateral ptosis, left esotropia and bilateral limitation of elevation. Chin up head posture was present in the older sibling and the father. Bell's phenomenon and vertical rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex were absent in the right eye for both children. Mild bilateral facial nerve palsy was present in the older sibling and the father. Both siblings had slight difficulty with tandem gait. MRI revealed hypoplastic oculomotor nerve. Left anterior insular focal cortical dysplasia was seen in the older sibling. Sequencing of revealed a novel heterozygous variant (c.1263G>C, p.E421D) segregating with the phenotype. This residue is in the C-terminal H12 α-helix of β-tubulin and is one of three putative kinesin binding sites. CONCLUSION: We show that familial MED can arise from a variant and could be considered a limited form of CFEOM. Neurological features such as mild facial palsy and cortical malformations can be present in patients with MED. Thus, in individuals with congenital MED, consideration may be made for mutation screening.