2020

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Wilson LB, Melia M, Kraker RT, VanderVeen DK, Hutchinson AK, Pineles SL, Galvin JA, Lambert SR. Accuracy of Autorefraction in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2020;127(9):1259-1267.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the accuracy of autorefraction compared with cycloplegic retinoscopy in children. METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in October 2019 in the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases for studies published in English. The combined searches yielded 118 citations, of which 53 were reviewed in full text. Of these, 31 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologists. Four articles were rated level I, 11 were rated level II, and 16 were rated level III articles. The 16 level III articles were excluded from this review. RESULTS: Thirteen of the 15 studies comparing cycloplegic autorefraction with cycloplegic retinoscopy found a mean difference in spherical equivalent or sphere of less than 0.5 diopters (D); most were less than 0.25 D. Even lower mean differences were found when evaluating the cylindrical component of cycloplegic autorefraction versus cycloplegic retinoscopy. Despite low mean variability, there was significant individual measurement variability; the 95% limits of agreement were wide and included clinically relevant differences. Comparisons of noncycloplegic with cycloplegic autorefractions found that noncyloplegic refraction tends to over minus by 1 to 2 D. CONCLUSIONS: Cycloplegic autorefraction is appropriate to use in pediatric population-based studies. Cycloplegic retinoscopy can be valuable in individual clinical cases to confirm the accuracy of cycloplegic autorefraction, particularly when corrected visual acuity is worse than expected or the autorefraction results are not consistent with expected findings.
Winkler TW, Grassmann F, Brandl C, Kiel C, Günther F, Strunz T, Weidner L, Zimmermann ME, Korb CA, Poplawski A, Schuster AK, Müller-Nurasyid M, Peters A, Rauscher FG, Elze T, Horn K, Scholz M, Cañadas-Garre M, McKnight AJ, Quinn N, Hogg RE, Küchenhoff H, Heid IM, Stark KJ, Weber BHF. Genome-wide association meta-analysis for early age-related macular degeneration highlights novel loci and insights for advanced disease. BMC Med Genomics 2020;13(1):120.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness. While around half of the genetic contribution to advanced AMD has been uncovered, little is known about the genetic architecture of early AMD. METHODS: To identify genetic factors for early AMD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis (14,034 cases, 91,214 controls, 11 sources of data including the International AMD Genomics Consortium, IAMDGC, and UK Biobank, UKBB). We ascertained early AMD via color fundus photographs by manual grading for 10 sources and via an automated machine learning approach for > 170,000 photographs from UKBB. We searched for early AMD loci via GWAS and via a candidate approach based on 14 previously suggested early AMD variants. RESULTS: Altogether, we identified 10 independent loci with statistical significance for early AMD: (i) 8 from our GWAS with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10), (ii) one previously suggested locus with experiment-wise significance (P < 0.05/14) in our non-overlapping data and with genome-wide significance when combining the reported and our non-overlapping data (together 17,539 cases, 105,395 controls), and (iii) one further previously suggested locus with experiment-wise significance in our non-overlapping data. Of these 10 identified loci, 8 were novel and 2 known for early AMD. Most of the 10 loci overlapped with known advanced AMD loci (near ARMS2/HTRA1, CFH, C2, C3, CETP, TNFRSF10A, VEGFA, APOE), except two that have not yet been identified with statistical significance for any AMD. Among the 17 genes within these two loci, in-silico functional annotation suggested CD46 and TYR as the most likely responsible genes. Presence or absence of an early AMD effect distinguished the known pathways of advanced AMD genetics (complement/lipid pathways versus extracellular matrix metabolism). CONCLUSIONS: Our GWAS on early AMD identified novel loci, highlighted shared and distinct genetics between early and advanced AMD and provides insights into AMD etiology. Our data provide a resource comparable in size to the existing IAMDGC data on advanced AMD genetics enabling a joint view. The biological relevance of this joint view is underscored by the ability of early AMD effects to differentiate the major pathways for advanced AMD.
Wladis EJ, Aakalu VK, Foster JA, Freitag SK, Sobel RK, Tao JP, Yen MT. Intense Pulsed Light for Meibomian Gland Disease: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2020;127(9):1227-1233.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) on the eyelids in the management of meibomian gland disease (MGD) and meibomian gland-related ocular surface disease. METHODS: A literature search was last conducted on May 15, 2019, in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for English-language original research that assessed the effect of IPL on MGD in adult patients. Thirty-three articles were identified, and 12 studies were determined to be relevant to the criteria outlined for assessment. The panel methodologist (V.K.A.) assigned a level of evidence rating to each study; 4 studies were rated level II, and 8 studies were rated level III. Five studies had potential conflicts of interest and design limitations that affected interpretation of results. RESULTS: All studies documented improvement in clinically meaningful metrics, including tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining and eyelid margin measurements, meibum quality, meibomian gland expressability, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), and standard patient evaluation of eye dryness (SPEED) questionnaire scores. Side effects were relatively uncommon but included discomfort, cutaneous erythema, blistering, eyelash loss, and floaters; these were uniformly self-limited. CONCLUSIONS: Although methodological limitations and potential conflicts of interest in some studies raised concern, the existing body of literature demonstrates improvements in the signs and symptoms of MGD after IPL therapy.
Wolfe JM. Visual Search: How Do We Find What We Are Looking For?. Annu Rev Vis Sci 2020;6:539-562.Abstract
In visual search tasks, observers look for targets among distractors. In the lab, this often takes the form of multiple searches for a simple shape that may or may not be present among other items scattered at random on a computer screen (e.g., Find a red T among other letters that are either black or red.). In the real world, observers may search for multiple classes of target in complex scenes that occur only once (e.g., As I emerge from the subway, can I find lunch, my friend, and a street sign in the scene before me?). This article reviews work on how search is guided intelligently. I ask how serial and parallel processes collaborate in visual search, describe the distinction between search templates in working memory and target templates in long-term memory, and consider how searches are terminated.
Wolfe JM. Forty years after feature integration theory: An introduction to the special issue in honor of the contributions of Anne Treisman. Atten Percept Psychophys 2020;
Wolfe JM. Major issues in the study of visual search: Part 2 of "40 Years of Feature Integration: Special Issue in Memory of Anne Treisman". Atten Percept Psychophys 2020;
Wolkow N, Yoon MK. Seborrheic Keratosis Concealing a Basal Cell Carcinoma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Afrogheh AH, Kidd M, Eagle RC, Pai SI, Faquin WC. PD-L1 and PD-L2 Expression Levels Are Low in Primary and Secondary Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas of the Orbit: Therapeutic Implications. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;36(5):444-450.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if there is a biologic rationale for using checkpoint inhibitor drugs targeting programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the orbit. METHODS: Twenty-three cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the orbit (13 primary lacrimal gland, 5 secondarily extending into the orbit, and 5 unspecified) were examined histopathologically. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8 was performed. Charts were reviewed for clinical correlations. RESULTS: Expression of PD-L1 and of PD-L2 was overall low in adenoid cystic carcinoma (mean expression 1.4 ± 0.9 of 5 for PD-L1, mean 0.83 ± 1.1 of 5 for PD-L2), and tumor-infiltrating CD8-positive T-lymphocytes were sparse (mean 1.1 ± 0.51 of 3). Only 13 of the 23 (57%) cases expressed PD-L1 as a combined positive score ≥1 of cells. No associations were found between expression levels of these markers and patient sex, tumor site of origin, Tumor, Node, Metastasis stage, or patient outcome. A significant association was observed between stromal PD-L1 expression and tumor histopathologic subtype (p = 0.05), and between tumor PD-L1 expression and prior exposure to radiation (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Checkpoint inhibitor drugs may have limited impact in the treatment and clinical course of orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma based on the low frequency of CD8 infiltrate and low expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. Pretreatment with radiation, however, may improve tumor response to checkpoint inhibitor drugs.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Afrogheh AH, Pai SI, Faquin WC. High Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Programmed Death Ligand 2 in Ophthalmic Sebaceous Carcinoma: The Case for a Clinical Trial of Checkpoint Inhibitors. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;220:128-139.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) in ocular adnexal sebaceous carcinoma (OASC), and to appraise these findings within the context of recent comparable studies. DESIGNS: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Twenty cases of primary OASC were immunostained for PD-L1, PD-L2 and CD8. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression were graded with both the combined positive score (CPS) and the tumor proportion score (TPS). Both raw CPS and TPS were reported, as well as positivity with TPS and CPS ≥1. CD8 expression was graded on a 0-3 scale. Charts were reviewed for clinical correlations. The results of the current study were compared with results of similar recent investigations. RESULTS: For the 20 cases, mean expression of PD-L1 with CPS was 29.7 (range 0-101.5) and with TPS was 12.2 (range 0-95.8); mean expression of PD-L2 with CPS was 7.9 (range 0-37.3) and with TPS was 1.9 (range 0-12.9). PD-L1 CPS ≥1 was detected in 95% of OASC, while PD-L1 TPS ≥1 was found in 75%. PD-L2 CPS ≥1 was present in 60%, while only 20% had PD-L2 TPS ≥1. Immune cells appeared to contribute to a substantial proportion of PD-L1 and PD-L2 positivity, and a conspicuous CD8-positive T-lymphocytic infiltrate was present in most tumors. Significant correlations were identified between tissue expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8. Tissues with greater levels of PD-L1 tended to express higher levels of PD-L2 and CD8. The degree of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was also associated with the area in millimeters squared of the immunostained tumor, suggesting that tumor sampling may influence interpretation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in ocular adnexal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The current and preceding studies confirm that PD-L1 and PD-L2 are expressed in a high percentage of OASCs. These results support the premise that checkpoint inhibitor drugs hold considerable therapeutic promise for patients with OASC and stimulate the institution of clinical trials.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Gragoudas ES. LONG-TERM OBSERVATION OF MULTIFOCAL METASTATIC INTRAOCULAR CARCINOID WITH ACQUIRED IRIS HETEROCHROMIA. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2020;14(3):265-267.Abstract
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To report a unique case of a pulmonary carcinoid tumor unilaterally metastatic to the iris and ciliary body and bilaterally to the choroid that was conservatively followed. METHODS: A 46-year-old woman presented with bilateral choroidal lesions and a left iris tumor. Ultrasound biomicroscopy disclosed a ciliary body component. A diagnosis of metastatic carcinoid tumor was made based on the clinical features. Rather than an excision, photodynamic therapy, or radiation treatment, as has been reported in all previous cases of carcinoid tumor metastatic to the iris, the patient was observed. RESULTS: Excellent vision was maintained for 8 years. The iris tumor gradually enlarged, but the choroidal lesions remained unchanged. The iris with the carcinoid tumor gradually acquired a brown pigmentation; this is the first reported case of acquired iris heterochromia in the setting of carcinoid tumor. CONCLUSION: We conclude, in cases of metastatic carcinoid in which visual acuity is excellent and the patient is asymptomatic, that observation of the ocular lesions is an acceptable course of action. The iris heterochromia is believed to have been caused by secretory factors produced by the tumor.
Wons J, Kempen J, Garweg JG. HIV-induced Retinitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020;28(8):1259-1268.Abstract
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the current knowledge on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-associated retinopathies. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed, using the key terms "HIV Retinopathy OR Retinitis" and "HIV AND Retinitis" to find manuscripts published within the last ten years. RESULTS: If left untreated, HIV infection causes a progressive immunodeficiency caused by depletion of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. Noninfectious HIV retinopathy, clinically manifested by cotton wool spots. Once the CD4 count drops below 200 c/μl, immunodeficiency creates a vulnerability for systemic opportunistic infections. Within the posterior segment of the eye, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis has to be distinguished from infections with other members of the herpes virus family, as well as from toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, and syphilis. Upon restoration of the immune system, immune recovery uveitis may manifest in one third of CMV affected eyes. CONCLUSION: Targeted antiviral treatment and secondary recurrence prophylaxis prevent vision loss of the retina prior to immune recovery.
Woodward AM, Di Zazzo A, Bonini S, Argüeso P. Endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes inflammation-mediated proteolytic activity at the ocular surface. Sci Rep 2020;10(1):2216.Abstract
A growing body of evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα stimulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) at the ocular surface through a c-Fos-dependent mechanism of ER stress. We found positive reactivity of the molecular chaperone BiP/GRP78 in conjunctival epithelium of patients with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and increased levels of BiP/GRP78, sXBP1 and GRP94 in human corneal epithelial cells treated with TNFα. Pharmacological blockade of ER stress in vitro using dexamethasone or the chemical chaperones TUDCA and 4PBA attenuated MMP9 expression and secretion in the presence of TNFα. Moreover, expression analysis of genes associated with inflammation and autoimmunity identified the c-Fos proto-oncogene as a mediator of ER stress responses in epithelial cells. Substantially less TNFα-induced MMP9 expression occurred when c-Fos signaling was suppressed with a function-blocking antibody. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of ER stress contributes to promote inflammation-mediated proteolytic activity and uncovers a target for restoring tissue homeostasis in ocular autoimmune disease.
Wu W, Zhou G, Han H, Huang X, Jiang H, Mukai S, Kazlauskas A, Cui J, Matsubara JA, Vanhaesebroeck B, Xia X, Wang J, Lei H. PI3Kδ as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Pathological Angiogenesis. Diabetes 2020;69(4):736-748.Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, and in the advanced diabetic retinopathy appear vitreal fibrovascular membranes that consist of a variety of cells, including vascular endothelial cells (ECs). New therapeutic approaches for this diabetic complication are urgently needed. Here, we report that in cultured human retinal microvascular ECs, high glucose induced expression of p110δ, which was also expressed in ECs of fibrovascular membranes from patients with diabetes. This catalytic subunit of a receptor-regulated PI3K isoform δ is known to be highly enriched in leukocytes. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that p110δ activity in cultured ECs controls Akt activation, cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, p110δ inactivation was found to attenuate pathological retinal angiogenesis. p110δ inhibitors have been approved for use in human B-cell malignancies. Our data suggest that antagonizing p110δ constitutes a previously unappreciated therapeutic opportunity for diabetic retinopathy.
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Xiao S, Gaier ED, Mazow ML, Stout AU, Travers DA, Angjeli E, Wu HC, Binenbaum G, Hunter DG. Improved adherence and treatment outcomes with an engaging, personalized digital therapeutic in amblyopia. Sci Rep 2020;10(1):8328.Abstract
Given the prevalence of poor adherence to therapy and the biases of self-reporting across healthcare, we hypothesized that an engaging, personalized therapy may improve adherence and treatment outcomes in the home. We tested this hypothesis in the initial indication of amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder for which available treatments are limited by low adherence. We designed a novel digital therapeutic that modifies patient-selected cinematic content in real-time into therapeutic visual input, while objectively monitoring adherence. The therapeutic design integrated a custom-designed headset that delivers precise visual input to each eye, computational algorithms that apply real-time therapeutic modifications to source content, a cloud-based content management system that enables treatment in the home, and a broad library of licensed content. In a proof-of-concept human study on the therapeutic, we found that amblyopic eye vision improved significantly after 12 weeks of treatment, with higher adherence than that of available treatments. These initial results support the utility of personalized therapy in amblyopia and may have broader relevance for improving treatment outcomes in additional indications.
Xiao J, Adil MY, Chen X, Utheim ØA, Ræder S, Tønseth KA, Lagali NS, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. Functional and Morphological Evaluation of Meibomian Glands in the Assessment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Subtype and Severity. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;209:160-167.Abstract
PURPOSE: To classify subtypes of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and evaluate the dependency of dry eye signs, symptoms, and parameters on MGD subtype. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. STUDY POPULATION: the right eyes of 447 patients with MGD of various subtypes and 20 healthy volunteers. METHODS: Patients were divided into 4 subtypes of MGD based on meibum expression, meibum quality, and MG loss on meibography images (meibograde of 0-6). Subtypes were patients with high meibum delivery (hypersecretory and nonobvious MGD) and those with low meibum delivery (hyposecretory and obstructive MGD). Additional clinical tests included tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular staining, osmolarity, Schirmer I, blink interval timing and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 78 eyes had hypersecretory MGD; 49 eyes had nonobvious MGD; 66 eyes had hyposecretory MGD; and 254 eyes had obstructive MGD. Increased tear film osmolarity and lower TFBUT were found in the low-delivery groups; hyposecretory (P = 0.006, P = 0.016) and obstructive MGD (P = 0.008, P = 0.006) relative to high-delivery MGD (hypersecretory and nonobvious groups, respectively). Worse ocular symptoms and ocular staining were also found in low-delivery MGD groups than the high delivery MGD groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low-delivery MGD had worse dry eye parameters and ocular symptoms than those with high meibum delivery, indicating the pivotal role of meibum secretion in ocular surface health that should be targeted in MGD therapy. Furthermore, nonobvious MGD cannot be diagnosed using conventional dry eye tests and requires morphologic assessment of meibography images to confirm MG loss.
Xiao W, Kreiman G. XDream: Finding preferred stimuli for visual neurons using generative networks and gradient-free optimization. PLoS Comput Biol 2020;16(6):e1007973.Abstract
A longstanding question in sensory neuroscience is what types of stimuli drive neurons to fire. The characterization of effective stimuli has traditionally been based on a combination of intuition, insights from previous studies, and luck. A new method termed XDream (EXtending DeepDream with real-time evolution for activation maximization) combined a generative neural network and a genetic algorithm in a closed loop to create strong stimuli for neurons in the macaque visual cortex. Here we extensively and systematically evaluate the performance of XDream. We use ConvNet units as in silico models of neurons, enabling experiments that would be prohibitive with biological neurons. We evaluated how the method compares to brute-force search, and how well the method generalizes to different neurons and processing stages. We also explored design and parameter choices. XDream can efficiently find preferred features for visual units without any prior knowledge about them. XDream extrapolates to different layers, architectures, and developmental regimes, performing better than brute-force search, and often better than exhaustive sampling of >1 million images. Furthermore, XDream is robust to choices of multiple image generators, optimization algorithms, and hyperparameters, suggesting that its performance is locally near-optimal. Lastly, we found no significant advantage to problem-specific parameter tuning. These results establish expectations and provide practical recommendations for using XDream to investigate neural coding in biological preparations. Overall, XDream is an efficient, general, and robust algorithm for uncovering neuronal tuning preferences using a vast and diverse stimulus space. XDream is implemented in Python, released under the MIT License, and works on Linux, Windows, and MacOS.
Xin T, Han H, Wu W, Huang X, Cui J, Matsubara JA, Song J, Wang F, Colyer M, Lei H. Idelalisib inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation and proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial cells from epiretinal membranes. Exp Eye Res 2020;190:107884.Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding fibrotic eye disease that develops in 8-10% of patients who undergo primary retinal detachment-reparative surgery and in 40-60% of patients with open-globe injury. At present, there is no pharmacological treatment for this devastating disease. Vitreal growth factors activate their respective receptors of cells in the vitreous, trigger their downstream signaling transduction (e.g. phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3Ks)/Akt), and drive cellular responses intrinsic to the pathogenesis of PVR. PI3Ks play a central role in experimental PVR. However, which isoform(s) are involved in PVR pathogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we show that p110δ, a catalytic subunit of receptor-regulated PI3K isoform δ, is highly expressed in epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR, and that idelalisib, a specific inhibitor of PI3Kδ, effectively inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation, proliferation, migration and contraction of retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from an epiretinal membrane of a PVR patient. Small molecules of kinase inhibitors have shown great promise as a class of therapeutics for a variety of human diseases. The data herein suggest that idelalisib is a promising PVR prophylactic.
Xu L-J, Rong S-S, Xu Y-S, Zheng L-B, Qiu W-Y, Zhang X, Jiang L-J, Duan R-P, Tian T, Yao Y-F. Anti-fibrosis potential of pirarubicin via inducing apoptotic and autophagic cell death in rabbit conjunctiva. Exp Eye Res 2020;200:108215.Abstract
This study investigated the potential efficacy of pirarubicin (THP) in modulating rabbit conjunctival fibrosis both in vitro and in vivo and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Primary rabbit conjunctival fibroblasts (RCF) were cultured and treated with THP or mitomycin C (MMC) for 5 min, followed by assaying for cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic and autophagic pathways. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chemotaxis of macrophages by RCF were evaluated using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) labeling and transwell migration assay, respectively. Limbal stem cell excision in combination with alkali burn was performed on the rabbits to establish a model of limbal deficiency and conjunctival fibro-vascular invasion. After three months, the modeled fibro-vascular tissue was excised combined with topical subconjunctival 5-min exposure to THP compared with MMC intraoperatively. The recurrence of postoperative fibrosis and the expression of apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation markers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. All modeled rabbits developed conjunctival fibro-vascular lesions, which were similar to human recurrent pterygium (HRP). Both THP and MMC inhibited RCF proliferation and arrested cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. In particular, 7.5 μmol/L THP remarkably promoted RCF autophagy by upregulating the levels of Beclin 1, Atg 5/12 conjugate, and LC3B, whereas, 15 μmol/L THP significantly triggered a cascade of mitochondrial-associated RCF apoptosis. THP induced the production of ROS and enhanced the chemoattraction of macrophages by RCF. Similar to 600 μmol/L MMC, both 7.5 μmol/L and 15 μmol/L THP attenuated postoperative conjunctival fibrosis in the models; 7.5 μmol/L THP preferentially enhanced autophagy while causing fewer side effects. THP exerted its antifibrotic action by modulating autophagy in RCF, inducing cell cycle arrest, and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. THP at the dose of 7.5 μmol/L prevented postoperative conjunctival fibrosis in an animal model.
Xue Y, Razafsky D, Hodzic D, Kefalov VJ. Mislocalization of cone nuclei impairs cone function in mice. FASEB J 2020;Abstract
The nuclei of cone photoreceptors are located on the apical side of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in vertebrate retinas. However, the functional role of this evolutionarily conserved localization of cone nuclei is unknown. We previously showed that Linkers of the Nucleoskeleton to the Cytoskeleton (LINC complexes) are essential for the apical migration of cone nuclei during development. Here, we developed an efficient genetic strategy to disrupt cone LINC complexes in mice. Experiments with animals from both sexes revealed that disrupting cone LINC complexes resulted in mislocalization of cone nuclei to the basal side of ONL in mouse retina. This, in turn, disrupted cone pedicle morphology, and appeared to reduce the efficiency of synaptic transmission from cones to bipolar cells. Although we did not observe other developmental or phototransduction defects in cones with mislocalized nuclei, their dark adaptation was impaired, consistent with a deficiency in chromophore recycling. These findings demonstrate that the apical localization of cone nuclei in the ONL is required for the timely dark adaptation and efficient synaptic transmission in cone photoreceptors.
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Yamada K, Maeno T, Kusaka S, Arroyo JG, Yamada M. Recalcitrant Macular Hole Closure by Autologous Retinal Transplant Using the Peripheral Retina. Clin Ophthalmol 2020;14:2301-2306.Abstract
Purpose: The peripheral adult human retina has been found to contain neuroepithelial stem cells. In this study, we examined the efficacy of an auto-transplant of peripheral retina into refractory macular holes (MH) from both anatomic and physiologic perspectives. Methods: The population consisted of four female patients aged 72, 82, 65 and 84 years (cases 1-4, respectively) with persistent refractory MH status; internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling (case 1), ILM transplant (case 2), and inverted ILM (cases 3 and 4 with myopic MH). In all our cases, retinal grafts were harvested beyond the equator from the far retinal periphery using curved horizontal scissors and gently moved toward the MH using a forceps. A 25-G manipulator with a silicone ball tip was used to tuck the trimmed graft into the MH, followed by fluid-air exchange and infusion of silicone oil, which was removed three months later. Results: Partial restoration and integration of the outer retinal layer were confirmed on an OCT-B scan imaging. The visual acuity (VA) was improved in all cases: 1.2 to 1.0 logMAR (case 1), 2.0 to 1.3 logMAR (case 2), 2.3 to 1.4 logMAR (case 3) and 2.0 to 1.0 logMAR (case 4). Microperimetry showed improved retinal sensitivity in every case. No intra- or post-operative complications were observed. Conclusion: Under pathological conditions, the Müller glia reportedly serves as a source of neuronal progenitor cells in regenerating retina, continuing to divide and migrate to the outer nuclear layer thus replacing lost photo-receptors. Although the histological findings remain unknown, the positive anatomic and physiologic outcomes of the auto-transplanted retinal flap in our series suggest that this technique may offer an effective option for treating recalcitrant MH. Further studies are warranted.

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