PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) in ocular adnexal sebaceous carcinoma (OASC), and to appraise these findings within the context of recent comparable studies. DESIGNS: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Twenty cases of primary OASC were immunostained for PD-L1, PD-L2 and CD8. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression were graded with both the combined positive score (CPS) and the tumor proportion score (TPS). Both raw CPS and TPS were reported, as well as positivity with TPS and CPS ≥1. CD8 expression was graded on a 0-3 scale. Charts were reviewed for clinical correlations. The results of the current study were compared with results of similar recent investigations. RESULTS: For the 20 cases, mean expression of PD-L1 with CPS was 29.7 (range 0-101.5) and with TPS was 12.2 (range 0-95.8); mean expression of PD-L2 with CPS was 7.9 (range 0-37.3) and with TPS was 1.9 (range 0-12.9). PD-L1 CPS ≥1 was detected in 95% of OASC, while PD-L1 TPS ≥1 was found in 75%. PD-L2 CPS ≥1 was present in 60%, while only 20% had PD-L2 TPS ≥1. Immune cells appeared to contribute to a substantial proportion of PD-L1 and PD-L2 positivity, and a conspicuous CD8-positive T-lymphocytic infiltrate was present in most tumors. Significant correlations were identified between tissue expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8. Tissues with greater levels of PD-L1 tended to express higher levels of PD-L2 and CD8. The degree of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was also associated with the area in millimeters squared of the immunostained tumor, suggesting that tumor sampling may influence interpretation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in ocular adnexal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The current and preceding studies confirm that PD-L1 and PD-L2 are expressed in a high percentage of OASCs. These results support the premise that checkpoint inhibitor drugs hold considerable therapeutic promise for patients with OASC and stimulate the institution of clinical trials.
PURPOSE: To provide an overview of the current knowledge on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-associated retinopathies. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed, using the key terms "HIV Retinopathy OR Retinitis" and "HIV AND Retinitis" to find manuscripts published within the last ten years. RESULTS: If left untreated, HIV infection causes a progressive immunodeficiency caused by depletion of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. Noninfectious HIV retinopathy, clinically manifested by cotton wool spots. Once the CD4 count drops below 200 c/μl, immunodeficiency creates a vulnerability for systemic opportunistic infections. Within the posterior segment of the eye, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis has to be distinguished from infections with other members of the herpes virus family, as well as from toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, and syphilis. Upon restoration of the immune system, immune recovery uveitis may manifest in one third of CMV affected eyes. CONCLUSION: Targeted antiviral treatment and secondary recurrence prophylaxis prevent vision loss of the retina prior to immune recovery.
A growing body of evidence implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα stimulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) at the ocular surface through a c-Fos-dependent mechanism of ER stress. We found positive reactivity of the molecular chaperone BiP/GRP78 in conjunctival epithelium of patients with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid and increased levels of BiP/GRP78, sXBP1 and GRP94 in human corneal epithelial cells treated with TNFα. Pharmacological blockade of ER stress in vitro using dexamethasone or the chemical chaperones TUDCA and 4PBA attenuated MMP9 expression and secretion in the presence of TNFα. Moreover, expression analysis of genes associated with inflammation and autoimmunity identified the c-Fos proto-oncogene as a mediator of ER stress responses in epithelial cells. Substantially less TNFα-induced MMP9 expression occurred when c-Fos signaling was suppressed with a function-blocking antibody. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of ER stress contributes to promote inflammation-mediated proteolytic activity and uncovers a target for restoring tissue homeostasis in ocular autoimmune disease.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes, and in the advanced diabetic retinopathy appear vitreal fibrovascular membranes that consist of a variety of cells, including vascular endothelial cells (ECs). New therapeutic approaches for this diabetic complication are urgently needed. Here, we report that in cultured human retinal microvascular ECs, high glucose induced expression of p110δ, which was also expressed in ECs of fibrovascular membranes from patients with diabetes. This catalytic subunit of a receptor-regulated PI3K isoform δ is known to be highly enriched in leukocytes. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that p110δ activity in cultured ECs controls Akt activation, cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. Using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, p110δ inactivation was found to attenuate pathological retinal angiogenesis. p110δ inhibitors have been approved for use in human B-cell malignancies. Our data suggest that antagonizing p110δ constitutes a previously unappreciated therapeutic opportunity for diabetic retinopathy.
Given the prevalence of poor adherence to therapy and the biases of self-reporting across healthcare, we hypothesized that an engaging, personalized therapy may improve adherence and treatment outcomes in the home. We tested this hypothesis in the initial indication of amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder for which available treatments are limited by low adherence. We designed a novel digital therapeutic that modifies patient-selected cinematic content in real-time into therapeutic visual input, while objectively monitoring adherence. The therapeutic design integrated a custom-designed headset that delivers precise visual input to each eye, computational algorithms that apply real-time therapeutic modifications to source content, a cloud-based content management system that enables treatment in the home, and a broad library of licensed content. In a proof-of-concept human study on the therapeutic, we found that amblyopic eye vision improved significantly after 12 weeks of treatment, with higher adherence than that of available treatments. These initial results support the utility of personalized therapy in amblyopia and may have broader relevance for improving treatment outcomes in additional indications.
A longstanding question in sensory neuroscience is what types of stimuli drive neurons to fire. The characterization of effective stimuli has traditionally been based on a combination of intuition, insights from previous studies, and luck. A new method termed XDream (EXtending DeepDream with real-time evolution for activation maximization) combined a generative neural network and a genetic algorithm in a closed loop to create strong stimuli for neurons in the macaque visual cortex. Here we extensively and systematically evaluate the performance of XDream. We use ConvNet units as in silico models of neurons, enabling experiments that would be prohibitive with biological neurons. We evaluated how the method compares to brute-force search, and how well the method generalizes to different neurons and processing stages. We also explored design and parameter choices. XDream can efficiently find preferred features for visual units without any prior knowledge about them. XDream extrapolates to different layers, architectures, and developmental regimes, performing better than brute-force search, and often better than exhaustive sampling of >1 million images. Furthermore, XDream is robust to choices of multiple image generators, optimization algorithms, and hyperparameters, suggesting that its performance is locally near-optimal. Lastly, we found no significant advantage to problem-specific parameter tuning. These results establish expectations and provide practical recommendations for using XDream to investigate neural coding in biological preparations. Overall, XDream is an efficient, general, and robust algorithm for uncovering neuronal tuning preferences using a vast and diverse stimulus space. XDream is implemented in Python, released under the MIT License, and works on Linux, Windows, and MacOS.
PURPOSE: To classify subtypes of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and evaluate the dependency of dry eye signs, symptoms, and parameters on MGD subtype. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. STUDY POPULATION: the right eyes of 447 patients with MGD of various subtypes and 20 healthy volunteers. METHODS: Patients were divided into 4 subtypes of MGD based on meibum expression, meibum quality, and MG loss on meibography images (meibograde of 0-6). Subtypes were patients with high meibum delivery (hypersecretory and nonobvious MGD) and those with low meibum delivery (hyposecretory and obstructive MGD). Additional clinical tests included tear film break-up time (TFBUT), ocular staining, osmolarity, Schirmer I, blink interval timing and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 78 eyes had hypersecretory MGD; 49 eyes had nonobvious MGD; 66 eyes had hyposecretory MGD; and 254 eyes had obstructive MGD. Increased tear film osmolarity and lower TFBUT were found in the low-delivery groups; hyposecretory (P = 0.006, P = 0.016) and obstructive MGD (P = 0.008, P = 0.006) relative to high-delivery MGD (hypersecretory and nonobvious groups, respectively). Worse ocular symptoms and ocular staining were also found in low-delivery MGD groups than the high delivery MGD groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low-delivery MGD had worse dry eye parameters and ocular symptoms than those with high meibum delivery, indicating the pivotal role of meibum secretion in ocular surface health that should be targeted in MGD therapy. Furthermore, nonobvious MGD cannot be diagnosed using conventional dry eye tests and requires morphologic assessment of meibography images to confirm MG loss.
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding fibrotic eye disease that develops in 8-10% of patients who undergo primary retinal detachment-reparative surgery and in 40-60% of patients with open-globe injury. At present, there is no pharmacological treatment for this devastating disease. Vitreal growth factors activate their respective receptors of cells in the vitreous, trigger their downstream signaling transduction (e.g. phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3Ks)/Akt), and drive cellular responses intrinsic to the pathogenesis of PVR. PI3Ks play a central role in experimental PVR. However, which isoform(s) are involved in PVR pathogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we show that p110δ, a catalytic subunit of receptor-regulated PI3K isoform δ, is highly expressed in epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR, and that idelalisib, a specific inhibitor of PI3Kδ, effectively inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation, proliferation, migration and contraction of retinal pigment epithelial cells derived from an epiretinal membrane of a PVR patient. Small molecules of kinase inhibitors have shown great promise as a class of therapeutics for a variety of human diseases. The data herein suggest that idelalisib is a promising PVR prophylactic.
This study investigated the potential efficacy of pirarubicin (THP) in modulating rabbit conjunctival fibrosis both in vitro and in vivo and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Primary rabbit conjunctival fibroblasts (RCF) were cultured and treated with THP or mitomycin C (MMC) for 5 min, followed by assaying for cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic and autophagic pathways. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chemotaxis of macrophages by RCF were evaluated using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) labeling and transwell migration assay, respectively. Limbal stem cell excision in combination with alkali burn was performed on the rabbits to establish a model of limbal deficiency and conjunctival fibro-vascular invasion. After three months, the modeled fibro-vascular tissue was excised combined with topical subconjunctival 5-min exposure to THP compared with MMC intraoperatively. The recurrence of postoperative fibrosis and the expression of apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation markers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. All modeled rabbits developed conjunctival fibro-vascular lesions, which were similar to human recurrent pterygium (HRP). Both THP and MMC inhibited RCF proliferation and arrested cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. In particular, 7.5 μmol/L THP remarkably promoted RCF autophagy by upregulating the levels of Beclin 1, Atg 5/12 conjugate, and LC3B, whereas, 15 μmol/L THP significantly triggered a cascade of mitochondrial-associated RCF apoptosis. THP induced the production of ROS and enhanced the chemoattraction of macrophages by RCF. Similar to 600 μmol/L MMC, both 7.5 μmol/L and 15 μmol/L THP attenuated postoperative conjunctival fibrosis in the models; 7.5 μmol/L THP preferentially enhanced autophagy while causing fewer side effects. THP exerted its antifibrotic action by modulating autophagy in RCF, inducing cell cycle arrest, and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. THP at the dose of 7.5 μmol/L prevented postoperative conjunctival fibrosis in an animal model.
The nuclei of cone photoreceptors are located on the apical side of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in vertebrate retinas. However, the functional role of this evolutionarily conserved localization of cone nuclei is unknown. We previously showed that Linkers of the Nucleoskeleton to the Cytoskeleton (LINC complexes) are essential for the apical migration of cone nuclei during development. Here, we developed an efficient genetic strategy to disrupt cone LINC complexes in mice. Experiments with animals from both sexes revealed that disrupting cone LINC complexes resulted in mislocalization of cone nuclei to the basal side of ONL in mouse retina. This, in turn, disrupted cone pedicle morphology, and appeared to reduce the efficiency of synaptic transmission from cones to bipolar cells. Although we did not observe other developmental or phototransduction defects in cones with mislocalized nuclei, their dark adaptation was impaired, consistent with a deficiency in chromophore recycling. These findings demonstrate that the apical localization of cone nuclei in the ONL is required for the timely dark adaptation and efficient synaptic transmission in cone photoreceptors.
Purpose: The peripheral adult human retina has been found to contain neuroepithelial stem cells. In this study, we examined the efficacy of an auto-transplant of peripheral retina into refractory macular holes (MH) from both anatomic and physiologic perspectives. Methods: The population consisted of four female patients aged 72, 82, 65 and 84 years (cases 1-4, respectively) with persistent refractory MH status; internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling (case 1), ILM transplant (case 2), and inverted ILM (cases 3 and 4 with myopic MH). In all our cases, retinal grafts were harvested beyond the equator from the far retinal periphery using curved horizontal scissors and gently moved toward the MH using a forceps. A 25-G manipulator with a silicone ball tip was used to tuck the trimmed graft into the MH, followed by fluid-air exchange and infusion of silicone oil, which was removed three months later. Results: Partial restoration and integration of the outer retinal layer were confirmed on an OCT-B scan imaging. The visual acuity (VA) was improved in all cases: 1.2 to 1.0 logMAR (case 1), 2.0 to 1.3 logMAR (case 2), 2.3 to 1.4 logMAR (case 3) and 2.0 to 1.0 logMAR (case 4). Microperimetry showed improved retinal sensitivity in every case. No intra- or post-operative complications were observed. Conclusion: Under pathological conditions, the Müller glia reportedly serves as a source of neuronal progenitor cells in regenerating retina, continuing to divide and migrate to the outer nuclear layer thus replacing lost photo-receptors. Although the histological findings remain unknown, the positive anatomic and physiologic outcomes of the auto-transplanted retinal flap in our series suggest that this technique may offer an effective option for treating recalcitrant MH. Further studies are warranted.
Most irreversible blindness results from retinal disease. To advance our understanding of the etiology of blinding diseases, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptomes of ~85,000 cells from the fovea and peripheral retina of seven adult human donors. Utilizing computational methods, we identified 58 cell types within 6 classes: photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, retinal ganglion and non-neuronal cells. Nearly all types are shared between the two retinal regions, but there are notable differences in gene expression and proportions between foveal and peripheral cohorts of shared types. We then used the human retinal atlas to map expression of 636 genes implicated as causes of or risk factors for blinding diseases. Many are expressed in striking cell class-, type-, or region-specific patterns. Finally, we compared gene expression signatures of cell types between human and the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis. We show that over 90% of human types correspond transcriptomically to those previously identified in macaque, and that expression of disease-related genes is largely conserved between the two species. These results validate the use of the macaque for modeling blinding disease, and provide a foundation for investigating molecular mechanisms underlying visual processing.
Transcriptional mechanisms that drive angiogenesis and organotypic vascular endothelial cell specialization are poorly understood. Here, we show that retinal endothelial sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs), which restrain vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis, spatially restrict expression of JunB, a member of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family of transcription factors (TFs). Mechanistically, VEGF induces JunB expression at the sprouting vascular front while S1PR-dependent vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin assembly suppresses JunB expression in the nascent vascular network, thus creating a gradient of this TF. Endothelial-specific JunB knockout mice showed diminished expression of neurovascular guidance genes and attenuated retinal vascular network progression. In addition, endothelial S1PR signaling is required for normal expression of β-catenin-dependent genes such as TCF/LEF1 and ZIC3 TFs, transporters, and junctional proteins. These results show that S1PR signaling restricts JunB function to the expanding vascular front, thus creating an AP-1 gradient and enabling organotypic endothelial cell specialization of the vascular network.
PURPOSE: Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator resolvin (Rv) E1 stimulates secretion including mucins from conjunctival goblet cells. RvE1 can use both its ChemR23 receptor and the LTB receptor BLT1 to increase [Ca]. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of ChemR23 and BLT1 and receptors on conjunctival goblet cells and the respective roles these two receptors play in goblet cell responses to RvE1. METHODS: Goblet cells were cultured from male rat or human conjunctiva from both sexes. Western blotting analysis, reverse transcription PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate the expression of ChemR23 and BLT1 in conjunctival goblet cells. High molecular weight glycoprotein secretion was determined using an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Signaling pathways were studied by measuring the increase in [Ca] using fura 2/AM. RESULTS: ChemR23 and BLT1 and receptors were present on both rat and human conjunctival goblet cells. The BLT1 inhibitors LY293111 and U75302 significantly blocked RvE1-and LTB-stimulated [Ca] increase. RvE1-and LTB-stimulated [Ca] and secretion increases were blocked by BLT1-targeted siRNA. RvE1-stimulated [Ca] and secretion increases were also blocked by ChemR23-targeted siRNA. Addition of RvE1 2 min before or simultaneously with LTB desensitized the LTB [Ca] response. Addition of RvE1 and LTB simultaneously caused secretion that was decreased compared to either response alone. CONCLUSION: RvE1, in addition to the ChemR23 receptor, uses the BLT1 receptor to increase [Ca] and stimulate secretion in both rat and human cultured conjunctival goblet cells.
Contact between inflammatory cells and endothelial cells (ECs) is a crucial step in vascular inflammation. Recently, we demonstrated that the cell-surface level of endomucin (EMCN), a heavily -glycosylated single-transmembrane sialomucin, interferes with the interactions between inflammatory cells and ECs. We have also shown that, in response to an inflammatory stimulus, EMCN is cleared from the cell surface by an unknown mechanism. In this study, using adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a tagged EMCN in human umbilical vein ECs, we found that treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or the strong oxidant pervanadate leads to loss of cell-surface EMCN and increases the levels of the C-terminal fragment of EMCN 3- to 4-fold. Furthermore, treatment with the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat (BB94) or inhibition of ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 with two small-molecule inhibitors, GW280264X and GI254023X, or with siRNA significantly reduced basal and TNFα-induced cell-surface EMCN cleavage. Release of the C-terminal fragment of EMCN by TNF-α treatment was blocked by chemical inhibition of ADAM10 alone or in combination with ADAM17. These results indicate that cell-surface EMCN undergoes constitutive cleavage and that TNF-α treatment dramatically increases this cleavage, which is mediated predominantly by ADAM10 and ADAM17. As endothelial cell-surface EMCN attenuates leukocyte-EC interactions during inflammation, we propose that EMCN is a potential therapeutic target to manage vascular inflammation.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major proinflammatory mediator important in host defense, whereas resolvins (Rvs) are produced during the resolution phase of inflammation. The authors determined the actions of both RvE1 and RvD1 on LTB4-induced responses of goblet cells cultured from rat conjunctiva. The responses measured were an increase in the intracellular [Ca] ([Ca]) and high-molecular-weight glycoprotein secretion. Treatment with RvE1 or RvD1 for 30 minutes significantly blocked the LTB4-induced [Ca] increase. The actions of RvE1 on LTB4-induced [Ca] increase were reversed by siRNA for the RvE1 receptor, and the actions of RvD1 were reversed by an RvD1 receptor inhibitor. The RvE1 and RvD1 block of LTB4-stimulated increase in [Ca] was also reversed by an inhibitory peptide to β-adrenergic receptor kinase. LTB4 and block of the LTB4-stimulated increase in [Ca] by RvE1 and RvD1 were partially mediated by the depletion of intracellular Ca stores. RvE1, but not RvD1, counterregulated the LTB4-induced high-molecular-weight glycoprotein secretion. Thus, both RvE1 and RvD1 receptors directly inhibit LTB4 by phosphorylating the LTB4 receptor using β adrenergic receptor kinase. RvE1 receptor counterregulates the LTB4-induced increase in [Ca] and secretion, whereas RvD1 receptor only counterregulates LTB4-induced [Ca] increase.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is associated with clinical proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is characterized by formation of sub- or epi-retinal membranes that consist of cells including retinal pigment epithelial （RPE） cells and extracellular matrix. RPE cells play an important role in PVR pathogenesis. Previous findings indicated that PDGF receptor (PDGFR)α was essential in experimental PVR induced by fibroblasts. In RPE cells derived from epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR (RPEMs)， Akt was activated by PDGF-B but not PDGF-A, which suggested that PDGFRβ was the predominant PDGFR isoform expressed in RPEMs. Indeed, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion of PDGFRβ in RPEMs attenuated patient vitreous-induced Akt activation and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR including cell proliferation, migration, and contraction. We conclude that PDGFRβ appears to be the PVR relevant PDGFR isoform in RPEMs.
PURPOSE: To develop an artificial intelligence (AI) dashboard for monitoring glaucomatous functional loss. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 31 591 visual fields (VFs) on 8077 subjects, 13 231 VFs from the most recent visit of each patient were included to develop the AI dashboard. Longitudinal VFs from 287 eyes with glaucoma were used to validate the models. METHOD: We entered VF data from the most recent visit of glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous patients into a "pipeline" that included principal component analysis (PCA), manifold learning, and unsupervised clustering to identify eyes with similar global, hemifield, and local patterns of VF loss. We visualized the results on a map, which we refer to as an "AI-enabled glaucoma dashboard." We used density-based clustering and the VF decomposition method called "archetypal analysis" to annotate the dashboard. Finally, we used 2 separate benchmark datasets-one representing "likely nonprogression" and the other representing "likely progression"-to validate the dashboard and assess its ability to portray functional change over time in glaucoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The severity and extent of functional loss and characteristic patterns of VF loss in patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: After building the dashboard, we identified 32 nonoverlapping clusters. Each cluster on the dashboard corresponded to a particular global functional severity, an extent of VF loss into different hemifields, and characteristic local patterns of VF loss. By using 2 independent benchmark datasets and a definition of stability as trajectories not passing through over 2 clusters in a left or downward direction, the specificity for detecting "likely nonprogression" was 94% and the sensitivity for detecting "likely progression" was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: The AI-enabled glaucoma dashboard, developed using a large VF dataset containing a broad spectrum of visual deficit types, has the potential to provide clinicians with a user-friendly tool for determination of the severity of glaucomatous vision deficit, the spatial extent of the damage, and a means for monitoring the disease progression.
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED), but little is known about the contribution of substance P (SP) to DED. In this study, we investigated the expression of SP at the ocular surface and evaluated its effect on maturation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the key cell component involved in the induction of type 17 helper T-cell (Th17) response in DED. The effect of topical blockade of SP signaling was further investigated using neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) inhibitors on APC maturation, Th17 cell activation, and disease severity in a mouse model of DED. The results demonstrate that SP is constitutively expressed at the ocular surface, and trigeminal ganglion neurons are the major source of SP in DED. SP derived from trigeminal ganglion enhanced the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II maturation marker by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, an effect that is abrogated by blockade of SP signaling using NK1R antagonist spantide. Finally, using a well-established murine model of DED, topical treatment of DED mice with NK1R antagonists CP-99,994 and L-733,060 suppressed APC acquisition of major histocompatibility complex class II, reduced Th17 cell activity, and ameliorated DED severity. These findings are of translational value, as they suggest that antagonizing NK1R-mediated SP signaling may be an effective strategy in suppressing Th17-mediated ocular surface disease.