BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a paucity of large trials investigating the effect of management strategies for paediatric non-infectious uveitis on complications requiring surgery. The purpose of our study is to investigate whether earlier initiation of systemic immunosuppression in paediatric non-infectious uveitis is associated with fewer ophthalmic surgeries. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on 48 children with non-infectious uveitis assessed in 1998-2013. Patients were divided into uveitis diagnosed before December 2008 (group 1) and after January 2009 (group 2). Duration from uveitis onset to methotrexate initiation (U-MTX) and biological addition (U-Biologic) were reviewed. Follow-up visits with topical corticosteroids >3 times daily and active uveitis (≥1+ cells) during 3.5 years were documented. The main outcome measure was the need for ≥1 ophthalmic surgery at 3.5 years. RESULTS: In group 1, 69.5% of patients required ≥1 ophthalmic surgery at 3.5 years versus 26.9% in group 2 (p=0.005). U-MTX was 28.9±11.8 weeks and 14.2±10.0 weeks for groups 1 and 2 (p=0.028). U-Biologic was 134.6±46.0 weeks and 82.3±43.3 weeks for groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0016). Corticosteroid use >3 times daily was 85.9±52.7 weeks and 14.6±11.1 weeks for groups 1 and 2. Multivariate regression showed methotrexate initiation within 6 months of uveitis onset lowered the likelihood of needing ophthalmic surgery at 3.5 years (OR=6.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 33.4; p=0.033). Univariate regression demonstrated biological addition within 18 months of uveitis onset reduced the likelihood of requiring ophthalmic surgery (OR 12.57, 95% CI 1.28 to 123.48; p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Earlier control of uveitis by addition of immunosuppressive therapy reduced the need for ophthalmic surgery.
Patients with hematological malignancies or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are vulnerable to colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant organisms, including vancomycin-resistant (VREfm). Over a 10-y period, we collected and sequenced the genomes of 110 VREfm isolates from gastrointestinal and blood cultures of 24 pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancy at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. We used patient-specific reference genomes to identify variants that arose over time in subsequent gastrointestinal and blood isolates from each patient and analyzed these variants for insight into how VREfm adapted during colonization and bloodstream infection within each patient. Variants were enriched in genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and phenotypic analysis identified associated differences in carbohydrate utilization among isolates. In particular, a Y585C mutation in the sorbitol operon transcriptional regulator was associated with increased bacterial growth in the presence of sorbitol. We also found differences in biofilm-formation capability between isolates and observed that increased biofilm formation correlated with mutations in the putative capsular polysaccharide () biosynthetic locus, with different mutations arising independently in distinct genetic backgrounds. Isolates with mutations showed improved survival following exposure to lysozyme, suggesting a possible reason for the selection of capsule-lacking bacteria. Finally, we observed mutations conferring increased tolerance of linezolid and daptomycin in patients who were treated with these antibiotics. Overall, this study documents known and previously undescribed ways that VREfm evolve during intestinal colonization and subsequent bloodstream infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients.
Herpes simplex keratitis, caused primarily by human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), remains the most common infectious cause of unilateral blindness and vision impairment in the industrialized world. Major advances in the care of HSV keratitis have been driven in large part by the landmark Herpetic Eye Disease Study randomized clinical trials, which were among the first in ophthalmology to reflect emerging trial conventions, including multicenter subject enrollment, double-masking, placebo controls, and a priori sample size determinations. The results of these trials now form much of the evidence basis for the management of this disease. However, management patterns in clinical practice often deviate from evidence-based care. These perceived quality gaps have given rise to the evolving field of implementation science, which is concerned with the methods of promoting the application of evidence-based medicine within routine care. To overcome variations in the quality and consistency of care for HSV keratitis, a range of clinical- and technology-based innovations are proposed. The most pressing needs include the following: a rational and tractable disease classification scheme that provides an immediate link between the anatomical localization of disease (corneal epithelial, stromal, or endothelial) and the appropriate treatment, and the actualization of an electronic medical record system capable of providing evidence-based treatment algorithms at relevant points of care. The latter would also input data to population-wide disease registries to identify implementation-rich targets for quality improvement, education, and research. These innovations may allow us to reduce the human and economic burdens of this highly morbid, and often blinding, disease.
Over the last decade, genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have accelerated the discovery of genes and genomic regions contributing to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), a leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Here, we review the findings of genetic studies of POAG published in English prior to September 2019. In total, 74 genomic regions have been associated at a genome-wide level of significance with POAG susceptibility. Recent POAG GWAS provide not only insight into global and ethnic-specific genetic risk factors for POAG susceptibility across populations of diverse ancestry, but also important functional insights underlying biological mechanisms of glaucoma pathogenesis. In this review, we also summarize the genetic overlap between POAG, glaucoma endophenotypes, such as intraocular pressure and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), and other eye disorders. We also discuss approaches recently developed to increase power for POAG locus discovery and to predict POAG risk. Finally, we discuss the recent development of POAG gene-based therapies and future strategies to treat glaucoma effectively. Understanding the genetic architecture of POAG is essential for an earlier diagnosis of this common eye disorder, predictive testing of at-risk patients, and design of gene-based targeted medical therapies none of which are currently available.
: To present five cases of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) successfully repaired with a conjunctival-sparing surgical technique.: The records of one surgeon (SKF) were reviewed to identify patients with lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP who underwent repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique between September 1, 2016 and October 18, 2017. The medical records were reviewed and extracted data included: age, gender, past medical history, current medical and OCP status, clinical examination, details of entropion repair surgery, and outcome.: Five patients (three female, two male) were included with ages ranging from 44 to 93 years. All had biopsy proven OCP, which was in remission at the time of surgery, and all were currently receiving immunomodulatory medications. All patients were symptomatic from cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP and underwent successful lower eyelid entropion repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique described herein, involving infraciliary rotation with suture fixation of the orbicularis muscle to the tarsus. Other contributing mechanisms of eyelid malposition including horizontal eyelid laxity and orbicularis oculi override were addressed simultaneously with lateral tarsal plication or orbicularis muscle debulking, resulting in 100% anatomic success and relief of symptoms with no cases of OCP reactivation, and with good durability with an average 13.9 months follow up (range 6.5-22 months).: Successful repair of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion in immunomodulated patients with OCP can be achieved without disease reactivation using a surgical technique that spares the conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors.
A healthy 56-year-old man presented with vision changes and left upper extremity motor and sensory changes. MRI of the brain without contrast was significant for multifocal areas of restricted diffusion in multiple vascular territories. Neuro-Ophthalmic evaluation revealed an inferonasal visual field defect in the left eye, thickened choroid on optical coherence tomography, and bilateral delayed arteriovenous and choroidal filling on fluorescein angiogram. Repeat MRI demonstrated interval enlargement of many of the same foci of abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging signal. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed 3 distinct lobulated retroperitoneal masses that were biopsied and found to be consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Brain biopsy specimens showed intravascular lymphocytes, confirming a diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma (IVL). In this diagnostically challenging case, a link was established between the presence of multiple strokes (some of which showed slow evolution over time) and retinochoroidal hypoperfusion, which provided a critical clue to the ultimate diagnosis of IVL.
The functional competence of corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs) is critical for survival of corneal allografts, but these cells are often targets of the immune response mediated by graft-attacking effector T cells. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been studied for their role in regulating the host's alloimmune response towards the graft, the cytoprotective function of these cells on CEnCs has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether Tregs suppress effector T cell-mediated and inflammatory cytokine-induced CEnC death, and to elucidate the mechanism by which this cytoprotection occurs. Using 2 well-established models of corneal transplantation (low-risk and high-risk models), we show that Tregs derived from low-risk graft recipients have a superior capacity in protecting CEnCs against effector T cell-mediated and interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced cell death compared to Tregs derived from high-risk hosts. We further demonstrate that the cytoprotective function of Tregs derived from low-risk hosts occurs independently of direct cell-cell contact and is mediated by the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Our study is the first to report that Tregs provide cytoprotection for CEnCs through secretion of IL-10, indicating potentially novel therapeutic targets for enhancing CEnC survival following corneal transplantation.
Cogné B, Latypova X, Senaratne LDS, Martin L, Koboldt DC, Kellaris G, Fievet L, Le Meur G, Caldari D, Debray D, Nizon M, Frengen E, Bowne SJ, Consortium L99, Cadena EL, Daiger SP, Bujakowska KM, Pierce EA, Gorin M, Katsanis N, Bézieau S, Petersen-Jones SM, Occelli LM, Lyons LA, Legeai-Mallet L, Sullivan LS, Davis EE, Isidor B. Mutations in the Kinesin-2 Motor KIF3B Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Ciliopathy. Am J Hum Genet 2020;106(6):893-904.Abstract
Kinesin-2 enables ciliary assembly and maintenance as an anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) motor. Molecular motor activity is driven by a heterotrimeric complex comprised of KIF3A and KIF3B or KIF3C plus one non-motor subunit, KIFAP3. Using exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous KIF3B variants in two unrelated families with hallmark ciliopathy phenotypes. In the first family, the proband presents with hepatic fibrosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and postaxial polydactyly; he harbors a de novo c.748G>C (p.Glu250Gln) variant affecting the kinesin motor domain encoded by KIF3B. The second family is a six-generation pedigree affected predominantly by retinitis pigmentosa. Affected individuals carry a heterozygous c.1568T>C (p.Leu523Pro) KIF3B variant segregating in an autosomal-dominant pattern. We observed a significant increase in primary cilia length in vitro in the context of either of the two mutations while variant KIF3B proteins retained stability indistinguishable from wild type. Furthermore, we tested the effects of KIF3B mutant mRNA expression in the developing zebrafish retina. In the presence of either missense variant, rhodopsin was sequestered to the photoreceptor rod inner segment layer with a concomitant increase in photoreceptor cilia length. Notably, impaired rhodopsin trafficking is also characteristic of recessive KIF3B models as exemplified by an early-onset, autosomal-recessive, progressive retinal degeneration in Bengal cats; we identified a c.1000G>A (p.Ala334Thr) KIF3B variant by genome-wide association study and whole-genome sequencing. Together, our genetic, cell-based, and in vivo modeling data delineate an autosomal-dominant syndromic retinal ciliopathy in humans and suggest that multiple KIF3B pathomechanisms can impair kinesin-driven ciliary transport in the photoreceptor.
PURPOSE: To investigate via volumetric analysis whether orbital fat atrophy occurs in late post-traumatic enophthalmos. METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study identified patients with diagnoses of both orbital fracture and enophthalmos with a CT orbits >3 months after injury. Exclusion criteria were surgical repair, other orbital disease or surgery, adjacent sinus disease, and an abnormal contralateral orbit. Images were analyzed using OsiriX imaging software (v.9.0.2, Pixmeo, Switzerland). Total orbital volume and orbital fat volume for the fractured and normal contralateral orbits were measured via three-dimensional volume rendering assisted region-of-interest computation. Enophthalmos was measured radiographically. Paired samples -tests were used to compare orbital fat and total orbital volumes between the fractured and normal contralateral orbits. RESULTS: Thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria. The numbers of patients with each fracture pattern were floor (4), medial wall (4), floor/medial wall (3), zygomaticomaxillary complex (floor+lateral wall) (1), zygomaticomaxillary complex+medial (inferior/medial/lateral walls) (1). Mean time from injury to CT scan was 21.8 ± 16.3 months. Comparing the fractured and normal contralateral orbits, there was a statistically significant decrease in orbital fat volume (mean difference 0.9 ml (14.2%), = .0002) and increase in total orbital volume (mean difference 2.0 ml (7.0%), = .0001). One ml orbital volume change was responsible for 0.83 mm enophthalmos. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to an increase in total orbital volume, orbital fat loss occurs with late post-traumatic enophthalmos due to unrepaired fractures. This suggests correction of bony change alone may be insufficient in some cases, and the use of custom implants may compensate for fat atrophy.
Intraocular injury by epinephrine auto-injector has been rarely reported. Toxic risk to the intraocular structures is suspected, but the evidence is inconclusive. We present the case of a 2-year-old girl who sustained an injury to her right eye by inadvertent epinephrine injection. Cataract surgery was performed to treat an increasingly opaque lens, and an intraocular lens was implanted. The visual outcome was good, with no retinal damage.
The outer segments (OS) of rod and cone photoreceptor cells are specialized sensory cilia that contain hundreds of opsin-loaded stacked membrane disks that enable phototransduction. The biogenesis of these disks is initiated at the OS base, but the driving force has been debated. Here, we studied the function of the protein encoded by the photoreceptor-specific gene , which is mutated in inherited retinal dystrophy (RP54). We demonstrate that C2orf71/PCARE (photoreceptor cilium actin regulator) can interact with the Arp2/3 complex activator WASF3, and efficiently recruits it to the primary cilium. Ectopic coexpression of PCARE and WASF3 in ciliated cells results in the remarkable expansion of the ciliary tip. This process was disrupted by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based down-regulation of an actin regulator, by pharmacological inhibition of actin polymerization, and by the expression of PCARE harboring a retinal dystrophy-associated missense mutation. Using human retinal organoids and mouse retina, we observed that a similar actin dynamics-driven process is operational at the base of the photoreceptor OS where the PCARE module and actin colocalize, but which is abrogated in mice. The observation that several proteins involved in retinal ciliopathies are translocated to these expansions renders it a potential common denominator in the pathomechanisms of these hereditary disorders. Together, our work suggests that PCARE is an actin-associated protein that interacts with WASF3 to regulate the actin-driven expansion of the ciliary membrane at the initiation of new outer segment disk formation.
PURPOSE: There have been few systematic reports of vision-related activity limitations of people with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We report a merging of data from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) obtained in five previous studies. We asked whether the Vision Function Scale (VFS; Pesudovs et al., 2010) which was developed for cataract patients would apply in this new population (condition). METHODS: Five hundred ninety-four individuals completed a total of 1753 questionnaires, with 209 participants providing responses over at least 4 years. Rasch analysis showed that the 15-item VFS was poorly targeted. A new instrument created by adding four driving-related items to the VFS had better targeting. As an indirect validation, VFS-plus person scores were compared to visual field area measured using a Goldmann perimeter, to the summed score for the combined 30-2 and 30/60-1 Humphrey Field Analyzer programs (HFA), to 30-Hz full-field cone electroretinogram (ERG) amplitude, and to ETDRS visual acuity. Changes in VFS-plus person scores with age and between four common heredity groups were also examined. RESULTS: The Rasch model of responses to the 19 VFS-plus items had person and item separation of 2.66 and 24.43 respectively. The VFS-plus person scores were related to each vision measure (p < 0.001). Over a five-year period, there was a reduction in person scores of 0.5 logits (p < 0.001). Person scores fell by an average of 0.34 logits per decade (p < 0.0001). Participants with an X-linked hereditary pattern had, on average, lower person scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The VFS-plus instrument quantified a highly-significant annual reduction in perceived vision-related ability over a five-year period. The outcome was consistent with clinical measures of vision, and detected lower perceived vision-related ability in participants with X-linked disease. It may be of use in future studies, but this needs to be tested in a representative population sample.
PURPOSE: The origin of blood in glaucoma-related disc hemorrhages (DH) remains unknown. A prior clinic-based study of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG)-related DH showed that they had grayscale pixel intensities more similar to blood from retinal macroaneurysms and adjacent retinal arterioles than to blood from retinal vein occlusions or adjacent retinal venules, suggesting an arterial source. Here we assessed the densitometric profile of DH from fundus photographs in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study of prospectively collected images. METHODS: Stereo disc photographs of 161 DH events from 83 OHTS participants (mean age [standard deviation (SD)]: 65.6 [9.2] years; 46.6% female; 13.0% black race) were imported into ImageJ to measure densitometry differences (adjacent arterioles minus DH [ΔA] or venules minus DH [ΔV]). Their size as percentage of disc area, ratio of length to midpoint width, and location relative to the disc margin were also analyzed. We performed t tests to compare ΔA and ΔV, analysis of variance to compare ΔA and ΔV across DH recurrent events, and multivariable linear regression to identify determinants of ΔA and ΔV. RESULTS: Mean (SD) ΔA and ΔV were -2.2 (8.7) and -11.4 (9.7) pixel intensity units, respectively (P < .001). ΔA and ΔV each did not differ significantly across recurrence of DH (P ≥ .92) or between DH events with and without POAG (P ≥ .26). CONCLUSIONS: OHTS DH had densitometric measurements more similar in magnitude to adjacent arterioles than venules, supporting an arterial origin for DH. Vascular dysregulation may contribute to disc hemorrhage formation in ocular hypertension.
Craig JE, Han X, Qassim A, Hassall M, Cooke Bailey JN, Kinzy TG, Khawaja AP, An J, Marshall H, Gharahkhani P, Igo RP, Graham SL, Healey PR, Ong J-S, Zhou T, Siggs O, Law MH, Souzeau E, Ridge B, Hysi PG, Burdon KP, Mills RA, Landers J, Ruddle JB, Agar A, Galanopoulos A, White AJR, Willoughby CE, Andrew NH, Best S, Vincent AL, Goldberg I, Radford-Smith G, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Vitart V, Hoehn R, Wojciechowski R, Jonas JB, Aung T, Pasquale LR, Cree AJ, Sivaprasad S, Vallabh NA, Vallabh NA, and Consortium UKBEV, Viswanathan AC, Pasutto F, Haines JL, Klaver CCW, van Duijn CM, Casson RJ, Foster PJ, Khaw PT, Hammond CJ, Mackey DA, Mitchell P, Lotery AJ, Wiggs JL, Hewitt AW, Macgregor S. Multitrait analysis of glaucoma identifies new risk loci and enables polygenic prediction of disease susceptibility and progression. Nat Genet 2020;52(2):160-166.Abstract
Glaucoma, a disease characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration, can be prevented through timely diagnosis and treatment. We characterize optic nerve photographs of 67,040 UK Biobank participants and use a multitrait genetic model to identify risk loci for glaucoma. A glaucoma polygenic risk score (PRS) enables effective risk stratification in unselected glaucoma cases and modifies penetrance of the MYOC variant encoding p.Gln368Ter, the most common glaucoma-associated myocilin variant. In the unselected glaucoma population, individuals in the top PRS decile reach an absolute risk for glaucoma 10 years earlier than the bottom decile and are at 15-fold increased risk of developing advanced glaucoma (top 10% versus remaining 90%, odds ratio = 4.20). The PRS predicts glaucoma progression in prospectively monitored, early manifest glaucoma cases (P = 0.004) and surgical intervention in advanced disease (P = 3.6 × 10). This glaucoma PRS will facilitate the development of a personalized approach for earlier treatment of high-risk individuals, with less intensive monitoring and treatment being possible for lower-risk groups.
PURPOSE: To report the results of adjustable graded augmentation of superior rectus transposition, a novel modification of superior rectus transposition (SRT) designed to reduce postoperative vertical or torsional diplopia. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent adjustable graded augmentation of SRT with or without adjustable medial rectus recession (MRc) from February 2017 to December 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. A Mendez ring was used to monitor torsional change after transposition of the superior rectus muscle to the lateral rectus muscle and after sequential placement of 2 or 3 augmentation sutures by superior rectus-lateral rectus loop myopexy. If excessive mechanical intorsion was induced, the responsible augmentation suture was severed intraoperatively. If torsional or vertical diplopia was noted after recovery, the distal-most augmentation suture was cut. Exotropia was managed by severing the distal-most augmentation suture or by medial rectus adjustment. RESULTS: A total of 8 patients who underwent adjustable graded augmentation of SRT were included (6 using the 3-suture technique): 3 for esotropic Duane syndrome, 2 for abducens nerve palsy, 1 for Moebius syndrome, and 2 for combined trochlear and abducens nerve palsies. Of the 8 patients, 4 had prior strabismus surgery, and 1 patient had previously undergone treatment with botulinum toxin. Severing one augmentation suture in 3 cases resolved vertical (n = 2) or torsional (n = 1) diplopia and consecutive exotropia (n = 1), resulting in excellent alignment and reduction of torticollis to <4° in 7 cases. The technique proved insufficient in 1 patient, who had undergone 3 prior strabismus procedures. CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, adjustable graded augmentation of SRT effectively managed the risk of postoperative vertical or torsional diplopia.