A 43-year-old woman was referred with a 10 month history of persistent pain in the left orbit. Two years prior, she experienced similar pain in the right orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time revealed an enlarged right medial rectus muscle. She was diagnosed with idiopathic orbital myositis and was successfully treated with oral corticosteroids. A year later, she developed symptoms in the left orbit with similar imaging findings. For ten months, she remained on high dose corticosteroids for presumed left medial rectus myositis before presenting to our service. Computed tomography (CT) imaging after corticosteroid taper revealed enlarged left medial rectus and left lateral rectus muscles. Orbital biopsy established a diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), for which she was successfully treated with rituximab. This case underscores the importance of not only proceeding with biopsy in atypical cases of orbital myositis but to also taper steroids prior to biopsy.
PURPOSE: To create a novel nomenclature to characterize the longitudinal sequence of visual field (VF) defects in patients with progression of thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON). METHODS: A retrospective review of records from 1 institution identified patients with progressive Humphrey VF defects secondary to TED-CON. The VF defects were analyzed by 2 independent reviewers and classified into 1 of 10 categories, divided into 3 stages that reflect the observed progression pattern, plus a miscellaneous category (stage X). Stage 1 VF defects are the earliest detectable and involve the inferior visual field with 3 levels of severity. Stage 2 VF defects include 2 distinguishable levels of severity and occur as the inferior defects advance above the horizontal midline to involve the superior VF. Stage 3 involves progression of stage 2 VF defects to complete loss of inferior and superior hemifields. RESULTS: Of 234 VFs in 37 eyes of 23 subjects, inferior defects were most common, including stage 1a (small inferior paracentral defect) in 22 of 234 VFs (9.4%), stage 1b (large inferior paracentral defect) in 112 of 234 VFs (47.9%), and stage 1c (inferior altitudinal defect) in 11 of 234 VFs (4.7%). Stage 2a (inferior altitudinal with superior advancement above the horizontal meridian) occurred in 41 of 234 VFs (17.5%), stage 2b (inferior altitudinal with superior arcuate) occurred in 6 of 234 VFs (2.6%), and stage 3 (total loss) occurred in 5 of 234 VFs (2.1%). The longitudinal sequence of VF defects from the 37 eyes of 23 patients was analyzed. Thirty-one of 37 eyes (83.8%) demonstrated a predictable progression pattern from least to more severe: stage 1a, stage 1b, stage 1c, stage 2a, stage 2b, and stage 3. A reverse order of VF defect progression was noted in 15 eyes with improving TED-CON. A minority of progression patterns (16.2%) originated from stage X (central/paracentral, enlarged blind spot, and scatter). CONCLUSIONS: Humphrey VF defects resulting from TED-CON are most often inferior, often have a predictable pattern of progression, and can be categorized into a novel descriptive nomenclature system. NOTE: Publication of this article is sponsored by the American Ophthalmological Society.
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the management of eyelid and conjunctival malignancy. METHODS: A literature search was performed in August 2019 and January 2020 for articles published in English in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. This search yielded 151 articles that were reviewed for relevancy, of which 27 were deemed to have met the inclusion criteria for this assessment. The data from these articles were abstracted and the articles were rated for strength of evidence by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: All 27 studies were rated level III, and a total of 197 SLNBs were reported. Diagnoses included conjunctival and eyelid cutaneous melanoma (85 and 42 patients, respectively), sebaceous gland carcinoma (35 patients), squamous cell carcinoma (26 patients), Merkel cell carcinoma (6 patients), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoid tumor (1 patient), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1 patient), and signet ring carcinoma (1 patient). Tracer was found in regional lymph nodes in 100% of patients in 21 of 27 articles and in 191 of 197 patients overall. The number of lymph nodes removed ranged from 1 to 16, with most ranging from 1 to 5. Tumor-positive lymph nodes were found in 33 of 197 patients (16.8%), prompting recommendations for adjuvant treatments. Survival data were reported for 16 of these patients, with follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 36 months (average, 12.7 months). Fourteen of 16 patients received adjuvant treatments. Nine were alive and well, 1 was alive with metastases, and 6 had died of metastatic disease (including 2 patients who declined additional treatment). False-negative SLNB results were reported in 5 articles involving 9 of 197 procedures (4.6%). Complications were documented in 7 of 27 articles and included transient facial nerve weakness, persistent blue dye staining of the conjunctiva, neck hematoma, and suture abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a promising procedure in patients with eyelid and conjunctival malignancy, and it is useful in identifying sentinel lymph nodes. However, at present, insufficient evidence exists showing that SLNB improves patient outcomes and survival. Recognition of microscopic metastatic disease may prove beneficial in staging and guiding adjuvant therapy.
The tightly structured neural retina has a unique vascular network comprised of three interconnected plexuses in the inner retina (and choroid for outer retina), which provide oxygen and nutrients to neurons to maintain normal function. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that neuronal metabolic needs control both normal retinal vascular development and pathological aberrant vascular growth. Particularly, photoreceptors, with the highest density of mitochondria in the body, regulate retinal vascular development by modulating angiogenic and inflammatory factors. Photoreceptor metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation may cause adaptive but ultimately pathological retinal vascular responses, leading to blindness. Here we focus on the factors involved in neurovascular interactions, which are potential therapeutic targets to decrease energy demand and/or to increase energy production for neovascular retinal disorders.
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and leukemia predisposition. Approximately 90% of cases are due to biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond (SBDS) gene. Additional phenotypic features variably associated with SDS include skeletal, neurologic, hepatic, cardiac, endocrine, and dental abnormalities. We report five subjects with SDS who developed a range of inflammatory manifestations. Three patients developed inflammatory eye conditions. Single cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and scleroderma were also noted. Clinical presentation and treatment responses are described. Proteomic analysis revealed increased inflammatory signatures in SDS subjects as compared to controls. Treatment of inflammatory manifestations in patients with SDS may be complicated by potential myelosuppressive toxicities of anti-rheumatic medications. Further research is needed to better understand the potential link between inflammatory disorders and SDS to inform effective treatment strategies.
BACKGROUND: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is an optic neuropathy with high intraocular pressure (IOP) that manifests within the first few years of a child's life and is not associated with other systemic or ocular abnormalities. PCG results in considerable morbidity even in high-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different surgical techniques for PCG. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2020, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (last searched 23 June 2014); ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing different surgical interventions in children under five years of age with PCG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 trials (13 RCTs and three quasi-RCTs) with 587 eyes in 446 children. Eleven (69%) trials were conducted in Egypt and the Middle East, three in India, and two in the USA. All included trials involved children younger than five years of age, with follow-up ranging from six to 80 months. The interventions compared varied across trials. Three trials (on 68 children) compared combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy (CTT) with trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of these trials suggests there may be little to no evidence of a difference between groups in mean IOP (mean difference (MD) 0.27 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.74 to 1.29; 88 eyes; 2 studies) and surgical success (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 102 eyes; 3 studies) at one year postoperatively. We assessed the certainty of evidence as very low for these outcomes, downgrading for risk of bias (-1) and imprecision (-2). Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome in both groups (no meta-analysis due to considerable heterogeneity; I = 83%). Two trials (on 39 children) compared viscotrabeculotomy to conventional trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of 42 eyes suggests there is no evidence of between groups difference in mean IOP (MD -1.64, 95% CI -5.94 to 2.66) and surgical success (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.78) at six months postoperatively. We assessed the certainty of evidence as very low, downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision due to small sample size. Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome (38% in viscotrabeculotomy and 28% in conventional trabeculotomy), with no evidence of difference difference (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.83). Two trials (on 95 children) compared microcatheter-assisted 360-degree circumferential trabeculotomy to conventional trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of two trials suggests that mean IOP may be lower in the microcatheter group at six months (MD -2.44, 95% CI -3.69 to -1.19; 100 eyes) and at 12 months (MD -1.77, 95% CI -2.92 to -0.63; 99 eyes); and surgical success was more likely to be achieved in the microcatheter group compared to the conventional trabeculotomy group (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.21; 60 eyes; 1 trial at 6 months; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.97; 99 eyes; 2 trials at 12 months). We assessed the certainty of evidence for these outcomes as moderate due to small sample size. Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome (40% in the microcatheter group and 17% in the conventional trabeculotomy group), with greater likelihood of occurring in the microcatheter group (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.04); the evidence was of moderate certainty due to small sample size (-1). Of the nine remaining trials, no two trials compared the same two surgical interventions: one trial compared CTT versus CTT with sclerectomy; three trials compared various suturing techniques and adjuvant use including mitomycin C, collagen implant in CTT; one trial compared CTT versus Ahmed valve implant in previously failed surgeries; one trial compared CTT with trabeculectomy; one trial compared trabeculotomy to goniotomy; and two trials compared different types of goniotomy. No trials reported quality of life or economic data. Many of the included trials had limitations in study design, implementation, and reporting, therefore the reliability and applicability of the evidence remains unclear. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that there may be little to no evidence of difference between CTT and routine conventional trabeculotomy, or between viscotrabeculotomy and routine conventional trabeculotomy. A 360-degree circumferential trabeculotomy may show greater surgical success than conventional trabeculotomy. Considering the rarity of the disease, future research would benefit from a multicenter, possibly international trial, involving parents of children with PCG and with a follow-up of at least one year.
The vasa hyaloidea propria, a component of the fetal hyaloidal vasculature, is characterized by multiple persistent fetal vasculatures branching into the vitreous. We present a 4-month-old girl with stage 4 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, with multiple ectopic retinal vessels extending into the vitreous, confirmed with fluorescein angiography, which was consistent with persistent vasa hyaloidea propia/retinae making contact with the retina. The patient underwent vitreoretinal surgery to address the retinal detachment, during which the patent stalks of the persistent vasa hyaloidea propia/retinae were transected.
PURPOSE: Orbital trauma, particularly with open globe injury, can have a wide range of visual outcomes, which can be difficult to predict at presentation. Clinical features on presentation may provide insight into visual prognosis. We hypothesized that patients with open globe injuries and concomitant orbital fractures have poorer visual outcomes than patients without orbital fractures. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 77 patients with isolated open globe injuries (OG) and 76 patients with open globe injuries and concomitant orbital fractures (OGOF). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the relative influence of individual presenting historical and clinical features on visual outcome. RESULTS: OGOF patients were more likely to have sustained blunt trauma than a sharp, penetrating injury compared to OG patients. Ocular wound locations were more posterior and likely to involve multiple zones in OGOF compared to OG patients. Among OGOF patients, orbital floor fractures were the most common and roof fractures were the least common, but the latter was associated with presenting NLP vision and multiple zone involvement. The presence of an orbital fracture independently increased the odds of subsequent evisceration/enucleation (OR: 4.6, 95% CI 1.3-20.1, = .0246) and NLP vision (OR: 6.81, 95% CI 2.42-21.85, = .0005) when controlling for zone, mechanism of injury, uveal prolapse and demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an orbital fracture independently confers a worse visual and ocular prognosis in patients with open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries in this category should be appropriately counseled.
: To describe and distinguish clinical phenotypes with the overlapping feature of optic atrophy caused by distinct mutations in the same gene, OPA3. We report 3 affected siblings in a consanguineous family harboring a novel OPA3 mutation causing 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III with optic atrophy.: Retrospective case series.: Three siblings (2 male, 1 female) among 6 children in a consanguineous Afghani family developed decreased vision from early childhood. Both parents and all extended family members were unaffected. All 3 affected siblings suffered from severe visual impairment ranging from visual acuities of 20/150 to counting fingers. All had spastic lower extremity weakness and ataxia. Two of the three affected siblings also had a history of seizures, and the female sibling had limited cognition with diffuse atrophic changes on brain MRI. Two of the three individuals also had migraine-like headaches. Urine organic acid analysis revealed mildly elevated 3-methylglutaconic acid for the male siblings. Whole exome sequencing and subsequent PCR confirmation revealed a novel variant in OPA3 (intron1, c.142 + 2_142 + 3dupTG), affecting the consensus sequence of the splice site, for which all 3 clinically affected siblings were homozygous.: Mutations in OPA3 can cause optic atrophy in a dominant pattern of inheritance associated with cataract or in a recessive pattern associated with spastic paresis and ataxia. The novel recessive mutation and clinical presentations described herein further support how different mutation types affecting OPA3 can produce distinct clinical phenotypes and underscore the critical and susceptible role of mitochondrial health in optic nerve function.
The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogenic changes that occur in myoepithelial cells (MECs) from lacrimal glands of a mouse model of Sjögren syndrome. MECs were cultured from lacrimal glands of C57BL/6J [wild type (WT)] and thrombospondin 1 null (TSP1, alias Thbs1) mice and from mice expressing α-smooth muscle actin-green fluorescent protein that labels MECs. MECs were stimulated with cholinergic and α-adrenergic agonists, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and the purinergic agonists ATP and UTP. Then intracellular [Ca] was measured using fura-2, and contraction was observed using live cell imaging. Expression of purinergic receptors was determined by Western blot analysis, and mRNA expression was analyzed by microarray. The increase in intracellular [Ca] with VIP and UTP was significantly smaller in MECs from TSP1 compared with WT mice. Cholinergic agonists, ATP, and UTP stimulated contraction in MECs, although contraction of MECs from TSP1 mice was reduced compared with WT mice. The amount of purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y11, and P2Y13 was significantly decreased in MECs from TSP1 compared with WT mice, whereas several extracellular matrix and inflammation genes were up-regulated in MECs from TSP1 mice. We conclude that lacrimal gland MEC function is altered by inflammation because the functions regulated by cholinergic agonists, VIP, and purinergic receptors are decreased in TSP1 compared with WT mice.
Childhood glaucoma is an important cause of blindness world-wide. Eleven genes are currently known to cause inherited forms of glaucoma with onset before age 20. While all the early-onset glaucoma genes cause severe disease, considerable phenotypic variability is observed among mutations carriers. In particular, FOXC1 genetic variants are associated with a broad range of phenotypes including multiple forms of glaucoma and also systemic abnormalities, especially hearing loss. FOXC1 is a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors and is involved in neural crest development necessary for formation of anterior eye structures and also pharyngeal arches that form the middle ear bones. In this study we review the clinical phenotypes reported for known FOXC1 mutations and show that mutations in patients with reported ocular anterior segment abnormalities and hearing loss primarily disrupt the critically important forkhead domain. These results suggest that optimal care for patients affected with anterior segment dysgenesis should include screening for FOXC1 mutations and also testing for hearing loss.
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by benign hamartomas occurring in multiple organ systems including the brain, kidneys, heart, lungs, liver, skin, and the eyes. Typical retinal findings associated with TSC include astrocytic hamartoma and achromic patch. While rare cases of cataract occurring in the setting of TSC have been reported, this is the first analysis of a large series of individuals with TSC that aims to quantify the frequency of this finding and to describe its clinical and genetic associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 244 patients from the Herscot Center for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex at the Massachusetts General Hospital who underwent complete ophthalmic examination. We describe the clinical and genetic findings in five individuals with TSC and juvenile cataract. RESULTS: Four of five cases (80%) were unilateral. The cataract was described as having an anterior subcapsular component in 3 of 5 cases (60%). Three individuals (60%) underwent lensectomy with intraocular lens (IOL) implant and two individuals (40%) were observed. Genetic testing revealed a known disease-causing mutation in in 100% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Recent evidence suggests that mTOR signaling may play a role in cataract formation which could explain the relatively high incidence of juvenile cataract in this population. Juvenile cataract is a potentially under-recognized ocular manifestation of TSC.
PURPOSE: To report long term results of treatment with intravitreal injections of aflibercept in a newly diagnosed case of Coats' disease. CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old man presented to the Retina Clinic of our Hospital complaining of blurred vision in the right eye (OD) for the past 3 months. His past medical and ocular history were unremarkable. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/200 OD and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy in OD revealed extensive macular edema with a circinate ring of hard exudates in the posterior pole temporally to the macula. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated macular edema with subretinal fluid. Peripheral telangiectasias and light bulb aneurysms in the inferior temporal arcade, as well as in the nasal far periphery were found in OD in fluorescein angiography (FA), confirming the diagnosis of stage 2B Coats' disease. The left eye was normal. The original therapeutic strategy proposed was anti-VEGF injections in OD followed by laser photocoagulation. However, the patient did not consent to laser treatment and was treated with aflibercept monotherapy with 8 monthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept followed by 6 injections every 2 months for a total of 14 injections over a period of 2 years. The BCVA in OD improved to 20/25 while OCT imaging revealed significant decrease in retinal thickness with resolution of macular edema and FA demonstrated prominent regression of aneurysms and leakage. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first case treated with aflibercept monotherapy, suggesting the significant role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vascular permeability in Coats' and supporting the rationale that anti-VEGFs are a valuable therapeutic option for Coats' disease.
Georgiou M, Robson AG, Fujinami K, Leo SM, Vincent A, Nasser F, Cabral De Guimarães TA, Khateb S, Pontikos N, Fujinami-Yokokawa Y, Liu X, Tsunoda K, Hayashi T, Vargas ME, Thiadens AAHJ, de Carvalho ER, Nguyen X-T-A, Arno G, Mahroo OA, Martin-Merida MI, Jimenez-Rolando B, Gordo G, Carreño E, Carmen A, Sharon D, Kohl S, Huckfeldt RM, Wissinger B, Boon CJF, Banin E, Pennesi ME, Khan AO, Webster AR, Zrenner E, Héon E, Michaelides M. KCNV2-associated Retinopathy: Genetics, Electrophysiology and Clinical Course - KCNV2 Study Group Report 1. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate genetics, electrophysiology and clinical course of KCNV2-associated retinopathy in a cohort of children and adults. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter international clinical cohort study. METHODS: Review of clinical notes and molecular genetic testing. Full-field electroretinography (ERG) incorporating the international standards were reviewed and quantified and compared with age and recordings from control subjects. RESULTS: In total 230 disease-associated alleles were identified from 117 patients, corresponding to 75 different KCNV2 variants, with 28 being novel. The mean age of onset was 3.9 years old. All patients were symptomatic before the age of 12 years (age range: 0-11 years). Decreased visual acuity was present in all patients, and four other symptoms were common: reduced color vision (78.6%), photophobia (53.5%), nyctalopia (43.6%), and nystagmus (38.6%). After a mean follow of 8.4 years, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, ±SD) decreased from 0.81 LogMAR (0.27 LogMAR) to 0.90 LogMAR (0.31 LogMAR). Full-field ERGs showed pathognomonic waveform features. Quantitative assessment revealed a wide range of ERG amplitudes and peak times, with a mean rate of age-associated reduction indistinguishable from the control group. Mean amplitude reductions for the DA 0.01 ERG, DA 10 ERG a-wave, LA30Hz and LA3 ERG b-wave were 55%, 21%, 48% and 74% respectively. Peak times showed stability across 6 decades. CONCLUSION: In KCNV2-retinopathy full-field ERGs are diagnostic, and consistent with largely stable peripheral retinal dysfunction. Report No.1 highlights the severity of the clinical phenotype and established a large cohort of patients, emphasizing the unmet need for trials of novel therapeutics.
The enterococci, which are among the leading causes of multidrug-resistant (MDR) hospital infection, are notable for their environmental ruggedness, which extends to intrinsic antibiotic resistance. To identify genes that confer this unique property, we used Tn-seq to comprehensively explore the genome of MDR strain MMH594 for genes important for growth in nutrient-containing medium and with low-level antibiotic challenge. As expected, a large core of genes for DNA replication, expression, and central metabolism, shared with other bacteria, are intolerant to transposon disruption. However, genes were identified that are important to that are either absent from or unimportant for and fitness when similarly tested. Further, 217 genes were identified that when challenged by sub-MIC antibiotic levels exhibited reduced tolerance to transposon disruption, including those previously shown to contribute to intrinsic resistance, and others not previously ascribed this role. is one of the few Gram-positive bacteria experimentally shown to possess a functional Entner-Doudoroff pathway for carbon metabolism, a pathway that contributes to stress tolerance in other microbes. Through functional genomics and network analysis we defined the unusual structure of this pathway in and assessed its importance. These approaches also identified toxin-antitoxin and related systems that are unique and active in Finally, we identified genes that are absent in the closest nonenterococcal relatives, the vagococci, and that contribute importantly to fitness with and without antibiotic selection, advancing an understanding of the unique biology of enterococci. Enterococci are leading causes of antibiotic-resistant infection transmitted in hospitals. The intrinsic hardiness of these organisms allows them to survive disinfection practices and then proliferate in the gastrointestinal tracts of antibiotic-treated patients. The objective of this study was to identify the underlying genetic basis for its unusual hardiness. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified traits and pathways of general importance for enterococcal survival and growth that distinguish them from closely related pathogens as well as ancestrally related species. We further identified unique traits that enable them to survive antibiotic challenge, revealing a large set of genes that contribute to intrinsic antibiotic resistance and a smaller set of uniquely important genes that are rare outside enterococci.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on advances in the understanding of pediatric demyelinating optic neuritis. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past decade, the disease phenotypes for demyelinating syndromes in children have been more clearly defined. Pediatric optic neuritis may present as a clinically isolated syndrome or in the setting of underlying neurologic disease. In addition to optic neuritis associated with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica, recent work has identified antibodies to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG IgG) as a unique demyelinating cause with distinct features regarding treatment and prognosis. The disease phenotypes for demyelinating pediatric optic neuritis have expanded. Treatment strategies vary and are not universally effective for each cause of demyelinating disease. Accurately distinguishing among these unique clinical syndromes is therefore critical for initiation of appropriate treatment to prevent disability, to maximize visual outcomes, and to provide insight into long-term prognosis.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the natural history and ophthalmologic morbidity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced rash and mucositis (MIRM) and propose a treatment algorithm. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all MIRM patients examined by the department of ophthalmology at a tertiary children's hospital. Diagnosis was established clinically concomitant with either positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM or PCR testing from January 1, 2010, until December 31, 2019. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, long-term ocular sequelae, and duration and type of ophthalmic intervention. RESULTS: There were 15 patients (10 male and 5 female) aged 10.9 ± 4.2 years who had primary episodes of MIRM; of those, 4 had multiple episodes. All patients required topical steroid treatment, 3 required amniotic membrane transplantation, and 1 patient underwent placement of a sutureless biologic corneal badage device. There were no patients who suffered visual loss, but 1 was left with mild symblephara near the lateral canthus in each eye and 2 others had scarring of the eyelid margins and blepharitis. CONCLUSIONS: The ocular morbidity is significantly less in MIRM than in other closely related syndromes such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. However, these patients still require close observation and a low threshold for intervention to avoid permanent ophthalmic sequelae and possible blindness.
Importance: Among eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema (CI-DME) and good visual acuity (VA), randomized clinical trial results showed no difference in VA loss between initial observation plus aflibercept only if VA decreased, initial focal/grid laser plus aflibercept only if VA decreased, or prompt aflibercept. Understanding the initial observation approach is relevant to patient management. Objective: To assess the DRCR Retina Network protocol-defined approach and outcomes of initial observation with aflibercept only if VA worsened. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a post hoc secondary analyses of a randomized clinical trial of the DRCR Retina Network Protocol V that included 91 US and Canadian sites from November 2013 to September 2018. Participants were adults (n = 236) with type 1 or 2 diabetes, 1 study eye with CI-DME, and VA letter score at least 79 (Snellen equivalent, 20/25 or better) assigned to initial observation. Data were analyzed from March 2019 to November 2019. Interventions: Initial observation and follow-up with aflibercept only for VA loss of at least 10 letters from baseline at 1 visit or 5 to 9 letters at 2 consecutive visits. Follow-up occurred at 8 weeks and then every 16 weeks unless VA or optical coherence tomography central subfield thickness worsened. Main Outcomes and Measures: Whether individuals received aflibercept. Results: Among 236 eyes in 236 individuals (149 [63%] male; median age, 60 years [interquartile range, 53-67 years]) randomly assigned to initial observation, 80 (34%) were treated with aflibercept during 2 years of follow-up. At 2 years, the median VA letter score was 86.0 (interquartile range, 89.0-81.0; median Snellen equivalent, 20/20 [20/16-20/25]). Receipt of aflibercept was more likely in eyes with baseline central subfield thickness at least 300 μm (Zeiss-Stratus equivalent) vs less than 300 μm (45% vs 26%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.98 [95% CI, 1.26-3.13], continuous P = .005), moderately severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study retinopathy severity level 47) and above vs moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (retinopathy severity level 43) and below (51% vs 27%; HR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.42-3.47], ordinal P < .001), and among participants whose nonstudy eye received DME treatment within 4 months of randomization vs not (52% vs 25%; HR, 2.55 [95% CI, 1.64-3.99], P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Most eyes managed with initial observation plus aflibercept only if VA worsened maintained good vision at 2 years and did not require aflibercept for VA loss. However, the eyes in the trial were approximately twice as likely to receive aflibercept for VA loss if they had greater baseline central subfield thickness, worse diabetic retinopathy severity level, or a nonstudy eye receiving treatment for DME. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01909791.