Purpose: The guarded light pipe is a recently described alternative endoillumination technique to chandelier illumination. We sought to compare the outcomes of scleral buckling (SB) under indirect ophthalmoscopy (ID) to heads-up three-dimensional visualization with a guarded light pipe (3DGLP). Methods: A retrospective comparative study was performed, including 47 eyes that underwent SB for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair with either traditional ID (n = 31) or 3DGLP (n = 16). Results: The single surgery anatomic success rate was 87.0% in the ID group and 87.5% in the 3DGLP group. The final anatomic success rate was 100% in both groups. The median (interquartile range) post-operative logMAR was 0.10 (0.0-0.20) in the ID group and 0.08 (0.02-0.69) in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.51). The median operative time was 107 (94-123) minutes in the ID group and 100 (90-111) minutes in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.25). Among eyes that underwent subretinal fluid drainage, the operative time was significantly longer in the ID group compared to the 3DGLP group, 113 (100-135) minutes vs 93 (85-111) minutes (p = 0.035). There were no post-operative complications in the ID group and one complication of self-resolving vitreous hemorrhage associated with a malfunctioning cryoprobe in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.34). There were no cases of post-operative cataract progression in either group. Conclusion: Compared to traditional SB, 3DGLP improves ergonomics and educational value with similar anatomical, visual, intra and post-operative outcomes and may result in shorter operative time in cases requiring subretinal fluid drainage.
BACKGROUND: Retinovascular changes are reported on fundus imaging in schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first study to use swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to comprehensively examine retinal microvascular changes in SZ. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with SZ/schizoaffective disorder (8 early and 15 chronic) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). All assessments were performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts Eye and Ear. All participants underwent swept-source OCT-A of right (oculus dextrus [OD]) and left (oculus sinister [OS]) eye, clinical, and cognitive assessments. Macular OCT-A images (6 × 6 mm) were collected with the DRI Topcon Triton for superficial, deep, and choriocapillaris vascular regions. Microvasculature was quantified using vessel density (VD), skeletonized vessel density (SVD), fractal dimension (FD), and vessel diameter index (VDI). RESULTS: Twenty-one HCs and 26 SZ subjects were included. Compared to HCs, SZ patients demonstrated higher overall OD superficial SVD, OD choriocapillaris VD, and OD choriocapillaris SVD, which were primarily observed in the central, central and outer superior, and central and outer inferior/superior, respectively. Early-course SZ subjects had significantly higher OD superficial VD, OD choriocapillaris SVD, and OD choriocapillaris FD compared to matched HCs. Higher bilateral (OU) superficial VD correlated with lower Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive scores, and higher OU deep VDI was associated with higher PANSS negative scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These results suggest the presence of microvascular dysfunction associated with early-stage SZ. Clinical associations with microvascular alterations further implicate this hypothesis, with higher measures being associated with worse symptom severity and functioning in early stages and with lower symptom severity and better functioning in later stages.
Methods to deliver gene editing agents in vivo as ribonucleoproteins could offer safety advantages over nucleic acid delivery approaches. We report the development and application of engineered DNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) that efficiently package and deliver base editor or Cas9 ribonucleoproteins. By engineering VLPs to overcome cargo packaging, release, and localization bottlenecks, we developed fourth-generation eVLPs that mediate efficient base editing in several primary mouse and human cell types. Using different glycoproteins in eVLPs alters their cellular tropism. Single injections of eVLPs into mice support therapeutic levels of base editing in multiple tissues, reducing serum Pcsk9 levels 78% following 63% liver editing, and partially restoring visual function in a mouse model of genetic blindness. In vitro and in vivo off-target editing from eVLPs was virtually undetected, an improvement over AAV or plasmid delivery. These results establish eVLPs as promising vehicles for therapeutic macromolecule delivery that combine key advantages of both viral and nonviral delivery.
PURPOSE: To document a unique case of granular cell tumor of the orbit, located lateral to and abutting the optic nerve, that benefited from treatment with proton beam irradiation, with a comprehensive review of the literature on granular cell tumor of the orbit. METHODS: Clinicopathologic case report with detailed imaging features and histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation for cytoplasmic tumor biomarkers differentiating granular cell tumor (GCT) from it mimicking lesions with relevant literature citations. The authors reviewed 20 cases of orbital GCT from 2011 to 2020 in addition to 40 cases from 1948 to 2011 and included a summary of imaging and clinical features, outcomes, and recommended treatment modalities. RESULTS: A 32-year-old man with 1-year history of left retrobulbar pain and diplopia on lateral gaze, intermittent left eyelid swelling, and a tonic left pupil was found to have a fusiform intraconal mass extending toward the orbital apex and abutting the optic nerve. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations collectively supplied data diagnostic of a GCT with an initial low proliferation rate. GCT is a soft tissue neoplasm that originates in the nervous system and can occur anywhere in the body. This enhancing tumor is isointense to gray matter on T1-weighted MRI, hypointense on T2. After an incisional biopsy, the patient's symptoms persisted, and follow-up imaging several months later revealed further growth of the mass. The impossibility of complete surgical removal prompted the decision to treat with proton beam radiation therapy, which resulted in substantial regression in the size of the residual tumor. Most frequently involving the inferior rectus muscle (42%), orbital GCT is usually benign with only 4 reported cases of malignant orbital GCT (7%). Wide surgical resection with complete removal is usually curative for benign orbital GCT, and proton beam radiation therapy can aid in tumor shrinkage. CONCLUSIONS: GCT should be considered in the differential diagnosis when encountering patients with mass lesions involving the extraocular muscles, peripheral nerves, or less frequently, the optic nerve or orbital apex. Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsied tissue is required for the definitive diagnosis of GCT. Consideration of adjuvant therapies such as proton beam radiation therapy may be appropriate in cases of incomplete surgical resection of benign GCT. Proton beam radiation therapy can be an excellent therapeutic option for symptomatic relief and residual tumor size reduction with an acceptable toxicity profile.
PURPOSE: To examine the efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in patients who received a diagnosis of primary angle-closure suspect (PACS). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter, randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00347178) enrolled 480 patients older than 50 years from glaucoma clinics in Singapore with bilateral asymptomatic PACS (defined as having ≥2 quadrants of appositional angle closure on gonioscopy). METHODS: Each participant underwent prophylactic LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, whereas the fellow eye served as a control. Patients were followed up yearly for 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was development of primary angle closure (PAC; defined as presence of peripheral anterior synechiae, intraocular pressure [IOP] of >21 mmHg, or both or acute angle closure [AAC]) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) over 5 years. RESULTS: Of the 480 randomized participants, most were Chinese (92.7%) and were women (75.8%) with mean age of 62.8 ± 6.9 years. Eyes treated with LPI reached the end point less frequently after 5 years (n = 24 [5.0%]; incidence rate [IR], 11.65 per 1000 eye-years) compared with control eyes (n = 45 [9.4%]; IR, 21.84 per 1000 eye-years; P = 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for progression to PAC was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.83; P = 0.004) in LPI-treated eyes compared with control eyes. Older participants (per year; HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.10; P < 0.001) and eyes with higher baseline IOP (per millimeter of mercury; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.22-1.50; P < 0.0001) were more likely to reach an end point. The number needed to treat to prevent an end point was 22 (95% CI, 12.8-57.5). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with bilateral asymptomatic PACS, eyes that underwent prophylactic LPI reached significantly fewer end points compared with control eyes over 5 years. However, the overall incidence of PAC or PACG was low.
Dry eye disease affects millions of people worldwide, causing pain, vision disturbance, and reduced productivity. Meibomian gland dysfunction, a major cause of dry eye, is characterized by chronic glandular inflammation, thickening of the meibum, obstruction of terminal ducts, and glandular atrophy. Treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction can utilize heat and pressure applied to the meibomian glands, increasing meibum expression. With self-treatments, however, not all patients achieve lasting improvement, and compliance is often low. In-office thermal systems offer a second line of treatment and could be a much-needed addition for patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. We critically evaluated the efficacy and safety of LipiFlow, iLux, and TearCare based on existing literature. While the studies found a single in-office thermal treatment to be safe and effective in improving short-term signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye, long-term efficacy needs to be further evaluated. Thus, well-controlled, long-term efficacy studies are warranted to draw clear conclusions. The treatment seemed to provide rapid relief of symptoms that may last up to 1 year, but at a considerably higher cost than the at-home treatments. The choice of treatment depends on cost, compliance with at-home treatment, and personal preference.
PURPOSE: To present a protocol for audiologic monitoring in the setting of teprotumumab treatment of thyroid eye disease, motivated by 4 cases of significant hearing loss, and review the relevant literature. METHODS: Cases of hearing loss in the setting of teprotumumab were retrospectively elicited as part of a multi-institutional focus group, including oculoplastic surgeons, a neurotologist and an endocrinologist. A literature review was performed. RESULTS: An aggregate of 4 cases of teprotumumab-associated hearing loss documented by formal audiologic testing were identified among 3 clinicians who had treated 28 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Teprotumumab may cause a spectrum of potentially irreversible hearing loss ranging from mild to severe, likely resulting from the inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway. Due to the novelty of teprotumumab and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of its effect on hearing, the authors endorse prospective investigations of hearing loss in the setting of teprotumumab treatment. Until the results of such studies are available, the authors think it prudent to adopt a surveillance protocol to include an audiogram and tympanometry before, during and after infusion, and when prompted by new symptoms of hearing dysfunction.
We quantitatively evaluated the efficacy of antitubercular therapy (ATT) in tubercular uveitis (TBU) patients. Main outcome measures include inflammation recurrence, inflammation reduction, complete resolution of inflammation, improved visual acuity (VA), ability to taper corticosteroids to < 10 mg/day without inflammatory progression, and use of adjunctive immunosuppressants while on ATT. This review is prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020206845). Forty-nine studies reporting data for 4,017 TBU patients were included. In comparative studies, the odds ratio (OR) of inflammatory recurrence was 0.33 (95%CI:0.19-0.60) for TBU patients treated with ATT±corticosteroid versus no ATT. For TBU patients treated with ATT±corticosteroid, the pooled absolute incidences of inflammatory recurrence, inflammatory reduction, complete resolution of inflammation, and visual acuity improvement were 13% (n=310/2,216; 95%CI:9-18), 81% (n=217/276; 95%CI: 62-95), 83% (n=1,167/1,812; 95%CI: 77-89), and 65% (n=347/542; 95%CI:51-78), respectively. Corticosteroids were tapered to <10 mg/day without inflammatory progression in 91% (n=326/395; 95%CI:78-99) of patients, 9% (n=121/1,376; 95%CI:6-13) of whom were administered concomitant immunosuppressive agents alongside ATT. We conclude that treatment of TBU with ATT±corticosteroid is associated with a high level of control or improvement of inflammation. More prospective studies with detailed reporting of ATT regimens, patient subgroups, and outcomes are required to better evaluate ATT effectiveness.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects the macula - the central part of the retina. It is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. AMD onset is marked by the presence of lipid- and protein-rich extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of polarized, pigmented epithelial cells located between the photoreceptors and the choroidal blood supply. Progression of AMD to the late nonexudative "dry" stage of AMD, also called geographic atrophy, is linked to progressive loss of areas of the RPE, photoreceptors, and underlying choriocapillaris leading to a severe decline in patients' vision. Differential susceptibility of macular RPE in AMD and the lack of an anatomical macula in most lab animal models has promoted the use of in vitro models of the RPE. In addition, the need for high throughput platforms to test potential therapies has driven the creation and characterization of in vitro model systems that recapitulate morphologic and functional abnormalities associated with human AMD. These models range from spontaneously formed cell line ARPE19, immortalized cell lines such as hTERT-RPE1, RPE-J, and D407, to primary human (fetal or adult) or animal (mouse and pig) RPE cells, and embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived RPE. Hallmark RPE phenotypes, such as cobblestone morphology, pigmentation, and polarization, vary significantly betweendifferent models and culture conditions used in different labs, which would directly impact their usability for investigating different aspects of AMD biology. Here the AMD Disease Models task group of the Ryan Initiative for Macular Research (RIMR) provides a summary of several currently used in vitro RPE models, historical aspects of their development, RPE phenotypes that are attainable in these models, their ability to model different aspects of AMD pathophysiology, and pros/cons for their use in the RPE and AMD fields. In addition, due to the burgeoning use of iPSC derived RPE cells, the critical need for developing standards for differentiating and rigorously characterizing RPE cell appearance, morphology, and function are discussed.
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective database study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one thousand nine hundred fifteen eyes of 27 483 patients with a diagnosis of NK. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of visits associated with a diagnosis of NK between 2013 and 2018 using the American Academy of Ophthalmology Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic information, prevalence, visual acuity (VA), concomitant diagnosis and procedure codes, and risk factors impacting VA most closely after NK onset date. RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) age at initial diagnosis of NK was 68.0 ± 16.0 years, and 58.91% of patients were women (P < 0.0001). Presentation was unilateral in 58.14%, bilateral in 16.13%, and unspecified in 25.73%. Average 6-year prevalence of NK in the IRIS Registry was 21.34 cases per 100 000 patients. Mean ± SD VA was 0.60 ± 0.79 logMAR before diagnosis and 0.88 ± 0.94 logMAR after diagnosis (P < 0.0001). Most common concomitant diagnoses included herpetic keratitis (33.70%), diabetes (31.59%), and corneal dystrophy (14.28%). Common procedures for NK management included the use of amniotic membrane (29.90%), punctal plugs (29.65%), and bandage contact lenses (22.67%). Age, male sex, Black race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, unilateral involvement, concomitant diagnoses of diabetes, corneal transplantation, and herpetic keratitis were associated significantly with worse VA. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the IRIS Registry, the prevalence of NK is 21.34 cases per 100 000 patients. Visual acuity was significantly worse after NK diagnosis compared with other time points. Neurotrophic keratopathy was associated most commonly with herpetic keratitis and diabetes. Worse VA in patients with NK was associated with several demographic characteristics, history of diabetes, corneal transplantation, and herpetic keratitis.
INTRODUCTION: Since 2009, the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study has been assessing in vitro antibiotic resistance for bacterial isolates sourced from ocular infections in the US. The main goal of this systematic review was to compare in vitro resistance data for ocular pathogens from published US studies with the most recently published data from the ARMOR study (2009-2018) and, where possible, to evaluate trends in bacterial resistance over time over all studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE®, BIOSIS Previews®, and EMBASE® databases (1/1/1995-6/30/2021). Data were extracted from relevant studies and antibiotic susceptibility rates for common ocular pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci [CoNS], Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae), longitudinal changes in susceptibility, and multidrug resistance (MDR) were compared descriptively. RESULTS: Thirty-two relevant studies were identified. High in vitro resistance was found among S. aureus and CoNS to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and methicillin/oxacillin across studies, with high rates of MDR noted, specifically among methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Data from studies pre-dating or overlapping the early years of ARMOR reflected increasing rates of S. aureus resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, methicillin/oxacillin, and aminoglycosides, while the ARMOR data suggested slight decreases in resistance to these classes between 2009 and 2018. Overall, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence peaked from 2005 to 2015 with a possible decreasing trend in more recent years. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Data from local and regional US datasets were generally consistent with data from the national ARMOR surveillance study. Continued surveillance of ocular bacterial pathogens is needed to track trends such as methicillin resistance and MDR prevalence and any new emerging antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Susceptibility data from ARMOR can inform initial choice of therapy, especially in practice areas where local antibiograms are unavailable.
A 49-year-old man presented with acute unilateral blurred vision one week after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. A unilateral serous detachment of the macula, intraretinal hemorrhages, vitritis, and anterior chamber cell was found. Diagnostic testing was negative for infectious and inflammatory causes, and a diagnosis of acute idiopathic maculopathy (AIM) was made. Symptoms and serous detachment resolved over 12 weeks, with residual retinal pigment epithelial changes consistent with the disease course. AIM is a rare diagnosis that presented in close proximity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination without evidence of coxsackievirus infection. Further research is necessary to clarify an association between this vaccine and uveitis.
PURPOSE: Open globe injuries (OGIs) are categorized by zone, with Zone 3 (Z3) comprising wounds >5mm beyond the limbus. Outcomes of Z3 OGIs are highly heterogenous. OGIs with far posterior wounds (pZ3) were hypothesized to have worse visual and anatomic outcomes. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective cohort study PARTICIPANTS: 258 eyes with zone 3 open globe injuries METHODS: A retrospective review of Z3 OGIs treated at a tertiary center over 12 years. Wounds ≥10mm posterior to the limbus were defined as pZ3. Outcomes were compared between pZ3 and anterior Z3 (aZ3) eyes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity on a logMAR scale. Secondary outcomes included anatomic outcomes, development of retinal detachment (RD) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and number of secondary surgeries. RESULTS: A total of 258 Z3 OGI eyes with >30 days follow-up were assessed; 161 (62%) were pZ3. At 3 month follow-up, pZ3 OGIs were more likely to exhibit NLP (pZ3: 38%; aZ3: 17%; p<0.003), lack count fingers vision (pZ3: 72%; aZ3: 43%; p<0.002) and fail to read a letter on the eye chart (pZ3: 83%; aZ3: 64%; p<0.001). The visual acuity distribution at 3 months was significantly worse for pZ3 compared to aZ3 injuries (p<0.004). Similar results were found at final follow-up. Multiple linear regression showed that pZ3 location was independently associated with worse visual acuity (β 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09-0.50, p<0.006) in addition to presenting acuity, age, vitreous hemorrhage, uveal prolapse and afferent pupillary defect. pZ3 injuries were more likely to develop RDs (pZ3: 87%; aZ3: 71%; p<0.01) and PVR (pZ3 66%; aZ3 47%; p<0.03). Patients with pZ3 OGIs were significantly more likely to reach a poor anatomic outcome (phthisis, enucleation, need for keratoprosthesis) compared with aZ3 OGI patients (pZ3: 56%; aZ3: 40%; p<0.03). CONCLUSION: Posterior OGI extension independently portends worse visual and anatomic outcomes. The effect on visual outcome was durable and clinically relevant compared with established predictors of OGI outcomes. Application of these findings improve prognostic precision and will guide future research efforts to optimize surgical decision-making in severe OGI cases.
BACKGROUND: Radium-223 is used for the treatment of osseous metastases in castrate-resistant prostate cancer, and has been shown to increase time to the first skeletal-related event, reduce the rate of hospitalization, and improve quality of life. It is well tolerated, with hematologic toxicity as the main adverse event. Thus far, no ocular complication has been reported in the literature after initial administration of radium-223 with a single case reported of ocular complications after a patient's second course of radium-223. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present three cases of ocular complications after the use of radium-223 in patients with metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. Ocular complications presented as blurry vision, and formal diagnosis included uveitis and hyphema. CONCLUSIONS: Documentation of adverse events is exceedingly important due to the high incidence of metastatic prostate cancer and increasing interest for the use of radium-223 in other osteoblastic disease. The authors postulate that these ocular complications may be a result of radiation's potential effect on neovascularization, polypharmacy, or the biomolecular effects of radium-223 on integral signaling proteins, potentially coupled with poor underlying ocular health.
Purpose: Localization of the lacrimal sac is a critical step during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (endo-DCR). A "light pipe" can be used to transilluminate the lacrimal sac endonasally. We hypothesized that this may misguide the surgeon learning endo-DCR to create an osteotomy mostly posterior to the maxillary line if only the bone overlying the transillumination was to be removed, as the thinner lacrimal bone will transmit light more readily than the thicker maxillary bone of the frontal process of the maxilla that forms the anterior lacrimal sac fossa.Methods: The charts of 32 patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction in whom a lighted system was used during endo-DCR at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from April 2015 through October 2016 were reviewed. Patients with prior history of lacrimal surgery or trauma directly to the lacrimal sac fossa were excluded. Location of the maximal point of transillumination in relation to the maxillary line was observed and noted intraoperatively.Results: Of a total of 39 endo-DCR surgeries performed, the intraoperative transillumination point was entirely posterior to the maxillary line in 32 instances (82%).Conclusions: Use of an endocanalicular light pipe preferentially illuminates posterior to the maxillary line endonasally. The anterior lacrimal sac fossa (maxillary line and anterior as visualized endonasally) is rarely transilluminated, likely due to thicker bone in that region. Surgeons learning how to perform endo-DCR using a light pipe should be aware of this phenomenon.
AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) versus non-preloaded DMEK (n-pDMEK) for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: From a societal and healthcare perspective, this retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis analysed a cohort of 58 patients with FECD receiving pDMEK (n=38) or n-pDMEK (n=30) from 2016 to 2018 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgeries (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery), including other keratoplasty procedures, ocular pathological conditions as glaucoma, amblyopia, laser treatments, or any retinal or corneal disease. The main outcome parameters were the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and net monetary benefit (NMB). RESULTS: pDMEK was less costly compared with n-pDMEK (healthcare: $13 886 vs $15 329; societal: $20 805 vs $22 262), with a slighter greater utility (QALY 0.6682 vs QALY 0.6640) over a time horizon of 15 years. pDMEK offered a slightly higher clinical effectiveness (+0.0042 QALY/patient) at a lower cost (healthcare: -$1444 per patient; societal: -$1457 per patient) in improving visual acuity in this cohort of patients with FECD. pDMEK achieved a favourable ICUR and NMB compared with n-pDMEK. Based on sensitivity analyses performed, the economic model was robust. CONCLUSIONS: From the societal and healthcare perspective, pDMEK was less costly and generated comparable utility values relative to n-pDMEK. Therefore, pDMEK appears to be cost-effective and cost saving with respect to n-pDMEK. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.
Dysfunction of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) contributes to the pathophysiology of several vascular eye diseases, often resulting in retinal edema and subsequent vision loss. The inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) is mainly composed of retinal vascular endothelium with low permeability under physiological conditions. This feature of low permeability is tightly regulated and maintained by low rates of paracellular transport between adjacent retinal microvascular endothelial cells, as well as transcellular transport (transcytosis) through them. The assessment of retinal transcellular barrier permeability may provide fundamental insights into iBRB integrity in health and disease. In this study, we describe an endothelial cell (EC) transcytosis assay, as an in vitro model for evaluating iBRB permeability, using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). This assay assesses the ability of HRMECs to transport transferrin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in receptor- and caveolae-mediated transcellular transport processes, respectively. Fully confluent HRMECs cultured on porous membrane were incubated with fluorescent-tagged transferrin (clathrin-dependent transcytosis) or HRP (caveolae-mediated transcytosis) to measure the levels of transferrin or HRP transferred to the bottom chamber, indicative of transcytosis levels across the EC monolayer. Wnt signaling, a known pathway regulating iBRB, was modulated to demonstrate the caveolae-mediated HRP-based transcytosis assay method. The EC transcytosis assay described here may provide a useful tool for investigating the molecular regulators of EC permeability and iBRB integrity in vascular pathologies and for screening drug delivery systems.
PURPOSE: To characterize long-term strabismus outcomes in children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of long-term ocular alignment characteristics of children aged 10.5 years who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating aphakic management after unilateral cataract surgery between 1 and 6 months of age. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 96 of 109 children (88%) developed strabismus through age 10.5 years. Half of the 20 children who were orthophoric at distance through age 5 years maintained orthophoria at distance fixation at 10.5 years. Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus prior to age 5 years (56/109 [51%]), whereas exotropia (49/109 [45%]) was the most common type of strabismus at 10.5 years (esotropia, 21%; isolated hypertropia, 17%). Strabismus surgery had been performed on 52 children (48%), with 18 of these (35%) achieving microtropia <10Δ. Strabismus was equally prevalent in children randomized to contact lens care compared with those randomized to primary intraocular lens implantation (45/54 [83%] vs 45/55 [82%]; P = 0.8). Median visual acuity in the study eye was 0.56 logMAR (20/72) for children with orthotropia or microtropia <10Δ versus 1.30 logMAR (20/400) for strabismus ≥10Δ (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus-in particular, exotropia-is common irrespective of aphakia management 10 years following infant monocular cataract surgery. The delayed emergence of exotropia with longer follow-up indicates a need for caution in managing early esotropia in these children. Children with better visual acuity at 10 years of age are more likely to have better ocular alignment.