2022

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Tran JA, Jurkunas UV, Yin J, Davies EC, Sola-Del Valle DA, Chen TC, Lin MM. Netarsudil-associated reticular corneal epithelial edema. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;25:101287.Abstract
Purpose: To describe 8 cases of reversible reticular corneal epithelial edema of the cornea that developed after use of the topical Rho-kinase inhibitor netarsudil. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review case series of 8 patients treated with netarsudil at an academic medical center. Observations: Patients had predisposing corneal conditions including penetrating keratoplasty, corneal decompensation after trabeculectomy-associated endophthalmitis, congenital glaucoma with Haab striae, aphakic bullous keratopathy, history of Ahmed valve and silicone oil, and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy undergoing Descemet stripping only. One patient did not have clear predisposing corneal disease other than low endothelial cell density and a history of trabeculectomy. All patients developed reticular corneal epithelial edema, which appeared as collections of moderate sized superficial epithelial bullae arranged in a reticular pattern resembling a honeycomb. Most developed these changes within weeks of initiating netarsudil, but unique to this series are 2 cases in which netarsudil was tolerated by the cornea for months before developing reticular corneal epithelial edema after diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. In cases which underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography, the imaging demonstrated that the corneal stroma was not edematous, and the reticular corneal epithelial edema involved both host and donor corneal epithelium in cases of penetrating keratoplasty. This fully resolved in all cases upon cessation of netarsudil, and this series is the first to document resolution via a pattern in which the individual bullae become smaller and more widely spaced apart. Conclusion: Netarsudil can cause a reversible reticular corneal epithelial edema.
Trofimov AV, Aronow ME, Gragoudas ES, Keane FK, Kim IK, Shih HA, Bhagwat MS. A systematic comparison of dose distributions delivered in iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy and proton radiation therapy for ocular melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize dose distributions with iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy as compared to proton radiation therapy for ocular melanoma, for relevant clinical scenarios, based upon tumor base diameter (d), apical height (h), and location. METHOD: Plaque and proton treatment plans were created for four groups of cases: 1) REF: 39 instances of reference midsize circular-base tumor (d=12 mm, h=5 mm), in locations varying by retinal clock hours, and distance to fovea, optic disc, corneal limbus; 2) SUP: 25 superiorly located; 3) TEMP: 25 temporal; and 4) NAS: 25 nasally located tumors that were a fixed distance from the fovea, but varying in d (6-18 mm), and h (3-11 mm). For both modalities, 111 unique scenarios were characterized in terms of the distance to points of interest, doses delivered to fovea, optic disc, optic nerve at 3 mm posterior to the disc (ON@3mm), lens, and retina. Comparative statistical evaluation was performed with the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: Superior dose distributions favored plaque for sparing of (i) fovea in large (d+h≥21 mm) NAS tumors; (ii) ON@3mm in REF cases located ≤4 dd (disc diameters) from disc, and in NAS overall. Protons achieved superior dose sparing of (i) fovea, optic disc in REF, SUP, TEMP; (ii) ON@3mm in REF >4 dd from disc, and in SUP, TEMP; (iii) the lens center overall, and lens periphery in REF ≤6 mm from the corneal limbus, and in TEMP, NAS with h≥5 mm. Although protons could completely spare sections of the retina, plaque dose was more target-conformal in the high-dose range (50% and 90% of prescription dose). CONCLUSION: Although comparison between plaque and proton therapy is not straightforward, due to the disparity in dose rate, prescriptions, applicators and delivery techniques, it is possible to identify distinctions between dose distributions, which could help inform decisions by providers and patients.
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Valdes L, Cox JT, Yang J, Susarla G, Han S, Papaliodis GN, Sobrin L. Anti-infliximab antibodies and clinical response in noninfectious uveitis and scleritis patients treated with infliximab: A retrospective review. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101634.Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the clinical response to infliximab in ocular inflammation patients who develop anti-infliximab antibodies (AIA) vs. those patients who do not develop AIA. Observations: A retrospective review was performed of patients treated with infliximab for noninfectious uveitis (NIU) or scleritis. Clinical response was determined as a composite clinical endpoint and classified as complete, partial, or absent. Nine of 32 infliximab-treated patients (28%) were found to develop AIA. Among the AIA-positive patients, clinical response was complete in 7 patients (78%) and partial in 2 patients (22%). Among the AIA-negative patients, clinical response was complete in 15 patients (65%), partial in 6 patients (26%) and absent in 2 patients (9%). Serum infliximab levels tended to decrease with appearance of AIA but rarely became undetectable. Conclusions and Importance: In this pilot study, AIA-positive patients did not have diminished clinical response to infliximab when compared with AIA-negative patients. There was a high rate of complete clinical response to infliximab in this group of NIU and scleritis patients. Approximately a quarter of patients developed AIA. AIA-positive patients did not have diminished rates of clinical response when compared with AIA-negative patients. This suggests that routine AIA monitoring may not be clinically useful, although validation of this finding in larger cohorts is necessary.
VanderVeen DK, McClatchey TS, McClatchey SK, Nizam A, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Effective lens position and pseudophakic refraction prediction error at 10½ years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: The refraction prediction error (PE) for infants with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is large, possibly related to an effective lens position (ELP) that is different than in adult eyes. If these eyes still have nonadult ELPs as they age, this could result in persistently large PE. We aimed to determine whether ELP or biometry at age 10½ years correlated with PE in children enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: We compared the measured refraction of eyes randomized to primary IOL implantation to the "predicted refraction" calculated by the Holladay 1 formula, based on biometry at age 10½ years. Eyes with incomplete data or IOL exchange were excluded. The PE (predicted - measured refraction) and absolute PE were calculated. Measured anterior chamber depth (ACD) was used to assess the effect of ELP on PE. Multiple regression analysis was performed on absolute PE versus axial length, corneal power, rate of refractive growth, refractive error, and best-corrected visual acuity. RESULTS: Forty-three eyes were included. The PE was 0.63 ± 1.68 D; median absolute PE, 0.85 D (IQR, 1.83 D). The median absolute PE was greater when the measured ACD was used to calculate predicted refraction instead of the standard A-constant (1.88 D [IQR, 1.72] D vs 0.85 D [IQR, 1.83], resp. [P = 0.03]). Absolute PE was not significantly correlated with any other parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in ELP did not contribute significantly to PE 10 years after infant cataract surgery.
VanderVeen DK, Oke I, Nihalani BR. Deviations From Age-Adjusted Normative Biometry Measures in Children Undergoing Cataract Surgery: Implications for Postoperative Target Refraction and IOL Power Selection. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;239:190-201.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether pediatric eyes that deviate from age-adjusted normative biometry parameters predict variation in myopic shift after cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a single institution longitudinal cohort study combining prospectively collected biometry data from normal eyes of children <10 years old with biometry data from eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Refractive data from patients with a minimum of 5 visits over ≥5 years of follow-up were used to calculate myopic shift and rate of refractive growth. Cataractous eyes that deviated from the middle quartiles of the age-adjusted normative values for axial length and keratometry were studied for variation in myopic shift and rate of refractive growth to 5 years and last follow-up visit. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the association between myopic shift and rate of refractive growth and factors of age, sex, laterality, keratometry, axial length, intraocular lens power, and follow-up length. RESULTS: Normative values were derived from 100 eyes; there were 162 eyes in the cataract group with a median follow-up of 9.6 years (interquartile range: 7.3-12.2 years). The mean myopic shift ranged from 5.5 D (interquartile range: 6.3-3.5 D) for 0- to 2-year-olds to 1.0 D (interquartile range: 1.5-0.6 D) for 8- to 10-year-olds. Multivariable analysis showed that more myopic shift was associated with younger age (P < .001), lower keratometry (P = .01), and male gender (P = .027); greater rate of refractive growth was only associated with lower keratometry measures (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Age-based tables for intraocular lens power selection are useful, and modest adjustments can be considered for eyes with lower keratometry values than expected for age.
Vemula SK, Kim SA, Muvavarirwa T, Bell JL, Whitman MC. Impaired Extraocular Muscle Innervation Is Present Before Eye Opening in a Mouse Model of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022;63(10):4.Abstract
Purpose: To determine if extraocular muscles (EOMs) from mice with nystagmus show abnormalities in myofiber composition and innervation, as seen in EOMs from human nystagmus patients, and to determine when in development those changes occur. Methods: Balb/c albino mice were crossed to pigmented mice to generate heterozygous mice, which were mated to create experimental litters containing albinos and wild-type controls. Orbits were harvested from adult animals (12 weeks old); on postnatal day (P)0, P10, P14, and P21; and from 6-week-old animals. EOM sections were collected from the intraorbital portion of the muscles. Sections were immunostained for slow and fast myosin and for neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The proportion of each myofiber subtype and the density and size of NMJs were quantified. Initial innervation patterns were assessed using whole-mount immunostaining of embryonic day (E)13.5 embryos expressing IslMN:GFP. Results: Adult albino EOMs display an increased proportion of slow myofibers, larger slow myofibers, and a decreased density of NMJs-similar to human nystagmus patients. The percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is also lower in albino animals. The initial innervation pattern of the incoming ocular motor neurons is normal in E13.5 albino embryos. Differences in the proportion of slow and fast myofiber subtypes are present as early as P14, and a lower percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is present by P21. There is a lower density of NMJs on albino EOMs as early as P10, prior to eye opening. Conclusions: Changes in NMJ development observed before eye opening indicate that nystagmus is not solely secondary to poor vision.
Vingopoulos F, Garg I, Lee Kim E, Thomas M, Silverman RF, Kasetty M, Hassan ZY, Yu G, Joltikov K, Choi EY, Laíns I, Kim LA, Zacks DN, Miller JB. Quantitative contrast sensitivity test to assess visual function in central serous chorioretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: To characterise the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) compared with healthy controls using novel computerised contrast sensitivity (CS) testing with active learning algorithms. METHODS: Prospective observational study measuring CSF in CSCR eyes and controls using the Manifold Platform (Adaptive Sensory Technology, San Diego, California). Mixed effects multivariate regression models were used. Outcomes included area under the log CSF (AULCSF), CS thresholds at 1, 1.5, 3, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (cpd) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Associations of contrast outcomes with structural findings on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and subjective symptomatology were investigated. RESULTS: Forty CSCR eyes and 89 controls were included with median BCVA logarithm of median angle of resolution 0.10 (20/25) versus 0.00 (20/20), respectively (p=0.01). When accounting for age, CSCR was associated with significantly reduced median AULCSF (p=0.02, β=-0.14) and reduced CS thresholds at 6 cpd (p=0.009, β=-0.18), 12 cpd (p<0.001, β=-0.23) and 18 cpd (p=0.04, β=-0.09), versus controls. Within the CSCR group, subjectively perceived visual impairment (N=22) was associated with significantly decreased CS thresholds at all spatial frequencies and in AULCSF compared with asymptomatic CSCR eyes (N=18). Ellipsoid zone attenuation and subfoveal fluid on OCT were associated with decreased AULCSF and CS thresholds specifically at 3, 6 and 12 cpd, whereas presence of extrafoveal fluid at 1.5 and 3 cpd. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity is significantly reduced in CSCR, and strongly correlates with subjective visual impairment. Different structural biomarkers correlate with contrast thresholds reductions at different spatial frequencies.
Vingopoulos F, Kasetty M, Garg I, Silverman RF, Katz R, Vasan RA, Lorch AC, Luo ZK, Miller JB. Active Learning to Characterize the Full Contrast Sensitivity Function in Cataracts. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:3109-3118.Abstract
Background: To characterize contrast sensitivity function (CSF) in cataractous and pseudophakic eyes compared to healthy control eyes using a novel quantitative CSF test with active learning algorithms. Methods: This is a prospective observational study at an academic medical center. CSF was measured in eyes with visually significant cataract, at least 2+ nuclear sclerosis (NS) and visual acuity (VA) ≥ 20/50, in pseudophakic eyes and in healthy controls with no more than 1+ NS and no visual complaints, using the Manifold Contrast Vision Meter. Outcomes included Area under the Log CSF (AULCSF) and CS thresholds at 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). A subgroup analysis as performed on cataract eyes with VA ≥ 20/25. Results: A total of 167 eyes were included, 58 eyes in the cataract group, 77 controls, and 32 pseudophakic eyes with respective median AULCSF of 1.053 (0.352) vs 1.228 (0.318) vs 1.256 (0.360). In our multivariate regression model, cataract was associated with significantly reduced AULCSF (P= 0.04, β= -0.11) and contrast threshold at 6 cpd (P= 0.01, β= -0.16) compared to controls. Contrast threshold at 6 cpd was significantly reduced even in the subgroup of cataractous eyes with VA ≥ 20/25 (P=0.02, β=-0.16). Conclusion: The novel qCSF test detected disproportionate significant contrast deficits at 6 cpd in cataract eyes; this remained significant even in the cataractous eyes with VA ≥ 20/25. CSF testing may enhance cataract evaluation and surgical decision-making, particularly in patients with subjective visual complaints despite good VA.
VK N, SK F, N W. Histopathologic alterations in the eyelid after Hughes tarsoconjunctival flap: loss of Meibomian glands with preservation of accessory lacrimal glands. Orbit 2022;
Vongsachang H, Fliotsos MJ, Lorch AC, Singman EL, Woreta FA, Justin GA. The impact of COVID-19 on ophthalmology resident surgical experience: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. BMC Med Educ 2022;22(1):142.Abstract
BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant disruption to in-office and surgical procedures in the field of ophthalmology. The magnitude of the impact of the pandemic on surgical training among ophthalmology residents is not known. This study aims to quantify changes in average case logs among United States (U.S.) ophthalmology residency graduates prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of aggregate, national data on case logs of U.S. ophthalmology residency graduates from 2012 to 2020. The yearly percent change in the average number of procedures performed in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) ophthalmology resident case logs were analyzed using linear regression on log-transformed dependent variables. The average percent change from 2019 to 2020 was compared to the average yearly percent change from 2012 to 2019 for procedures performed as the primary surgeon, and primary surgeon and surgical assistant (S + A), as well as procedures for which there are ACGME minimum graduating numbers. RESULTS: Across all procedures and roles, average case logs in 2020 were lower than the averages in 2019. While average total cases logged as primary surgeon increased yearly by 3.2% (95% CI: 2.7, 3.8%, p < 0.001) from 2012 to 2019, total primary surgeon case logs decreased by 11.2% from 2019 to 2020. Cataract (-22.0%) and keratorefractive (-21.1%) surgery experienced the greatest percent decrease in average primary surgeon cases logged from 2019 to 2020. Average total cases logged as S + A experienced an average yearly increase by 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9,1.6%, p < 0.001) prior to 2020, but decreased by 9.6% from 2019 to 2020. For ACGME minimum requirements, similar changes were observed. Specifically, the average case logs in YAG, SLT, filtering (glaucoma), and intravitreal injections had been increasing significantly prior to 2020 (p < 0.05 for all) but decreased in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the vulnerability of ophthalmology residency programs to a significant interruption in surgical volume. There is a critical need for development of competency-based, rather than volume-based, requirements to evaluate readiness for independent practice.
Vongsachang H, Bleicher ID, Reshef ER, Stagner AM, Wolkow N. Wells Syndrome Presenting as Atypical Periorbital Cellulitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(6):e167-e170.Abstract
A 62-year-old man presented with diffuse, painless, left-sided preseptal edema, erythema, and woody induration extending to the left temple. The induration generated an orbital compartment syndrome with markedly elevated intraocular pressure necessitating lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. Although atypical for an infectious etiology, empiric broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics were initiated with no improvement. A tissue biopsy demonstrated extensive perivascular and interstitial eosinophils with focal flame figures, and the patient was diagnosed with a severe hypersensitivity reaction or eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome). The disease process remitted rapidly upon initiation of oral prednisone. Wells syndrome is a rare inflammatory eosinophilic dermatosis, most often presenting in the limbs and trunk, with few reports of facial and periorbital involvement. This case highlights the importance of considering Wells syndrome in the differential diagnosis of atypical periorbital cellulitis that is nonresponsive to antibiotics and reviews the clinicopathologic nature of this disease.
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Wai KM, Vingopoulos F, Garg I, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Katz R, Laíns I, Miller JW, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Kim LA, Miller JB. Contrast sensitivity function in patients with macular disease and good visual acuity. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(6):839-844.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) may better estimate a patient's visual function compared with visual acuity (VA). Our study evaluates the quick CSF (qCSF) method to measure visual function in eyes with macular disease and good letter acuity. METHODS: Patients with maculopathies (retinal vein occlusion, macula-off retinal detachment, dry age-related macular degeneration and wet age-related macular degeneration) and good letter acuity (VA ≥20/30) were included. The qCSF method uses an intelligent algorithm to measure CSF across multiple spatial frequencies. All maculopathy eyes combined and individual macular disease groups were compared with healthy control eyes. Main outcomes included area under the log CSF (AULCSF) and six CS thresholds ranging from 1 cycle per degree (cpd) to 18 cpd. RESULTS: 151 eyes with maculopathy and 93 control eyes with VA ≥20/30 were included. The presence of a maculopathy was associated with significant reduction in AULCSF (β: -0.174; p<0.001) and CS thresholds at all spatial frequencies except for 18 cpd (β: -0.094 to -0.200 log CS, all p<0.01) compared with controls. Reductions in CS thresholds were most notable at low and intermediate spatial frequencies (1.5 cpd, 3 cpd and 6 cpd). CONCLUSION: CSF measured with the qCSF active learning method was found to be significantly reduced in eyes affected by macular disease despite good VA compared with healthy control eyes. The qCSF method is a promising clinical tool to quantify subtle visual deficits that may otherwise go unrecognised by current testing methods.
Wai KM, Begaj T, Patil S, Chen EM, Miller JB, Kylstra J, Aronow ME, Young LH, Huckfeldt R, Husain D, Kim LA, Vavvas DG, Eliott D. The Effect of Sample Medication Use on Subsequent Anti-VEGF Agent Selection for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Semin Ophthalmol 2022;
Wang Y, Jacobs DS. Role of therapeutic contact lenses in management of corneal disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(4):306-310.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights areas of innovation and research in the use of contact lenses in the treatment of corneal ectasia and ocular surface disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of academic reports were published by a committee of experts reviewing evidence-based practice patterns of contact lens use. There continues to be active research in the use of contact lenses in the management of keratoconus, including mini-scleral lenses, custom impression-based scleral lenses and wavefront-guided scleral lenses. Recent reports on contact lenses for ocular surface disease were primarily reviews, retrospective case reports or case series, with publications on contact lens use in corneal epithelial defects, graft-vs.-host disease, limbal stem cell deficiency and neurotrophic keratitis. There are recent publications on advances in drug-eluting contact lenses. SUMMARY: Corneal specialists should be aware of current advances in the field of contact lens expanding their use in corneal ectasia and ocular surface disease.
Wang JC, Lu Y, Sobrin L, Husain D. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS PRESENTING WITH MACULAR INVOLVEMENT. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(3):347-350.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of early macular necrosis in acute retinal necrosis and its features on multimodal imaging. METHODS: Findings on fundus examination, laboratory workup, fluorescein angiography, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. RESULTS: A 31-year-old healthy woman presented with 1 week of photophobia and central scotoma of the right eye. Initial examination revealed vitritis, hyperemia of the optic disc, and a yellow-white macular lesion without any peripheral findings. Peripheral involvement was first noted only 4 days later. The patient was diagnosed with acute retinal necrosis secondary to varicella zoster virus and was successfully treated with intravitreal and oral antiviral medications. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the macular lesion showed involvement of both the inner and outer retina. Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed a large flow void in the choriocapillaris, which has not been previously demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Multimodal imaging offers valuable information in the evaluation of patients with acute retinal necrosis.
Wang Z, Wiggs JL, Aung T, Khawaja AP, Khor CC. The genetic basis for adult onset glaucoma: Recent advances and future directions. Prog Retin Eye Res 2022;90:101066.Abstract
Glaucoma, a diverse group of eye disorders that results in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, is the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness. Apart from age and ancestry, the major risk factor for glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP). In primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the anterior chamber angle is open but there is resistance to aqueous outflow. In primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), crowding of the anterior chamber angle due to anatomical alterations impede aqueous drainage through the angle. In exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma, deposition of white flaky material throughout the anterior chamber directly interfere with aqueous outflow. Observational studies have established that there is a strong hereditable component for glaucoma onset and progression. Indeed, a succession of genome wide association studies (GWAS) that were centered upon single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have yielded more than a hundred genetic markers associated with glaucoma risk. However, a shortcoming of GWAS studies is the difficulty in identifying the actual effector genes responsible for disease pathogenesis. Building on the foundation laid by GWAS studies, research groups have recently begun to perform whole exome-sequencing to evaluate the contribution of protein-changing, coding sequence genetic variants to glaucoma risk. The adoption of this technology in both large population-based studies as well as family studies are revealing the presence of novel, protein-changing genetic variants that could enrich our understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucoma. This review will cover recent advances in the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma, primary angle-closure glaucoma and exfoliation glaucoma, which collectively make up the vast majority of all glaucoma cases in the world today. We will discuss how recent advances in research methodology have uncovered new risk genes, and how follow up biological investigations could be undertaken in order to define how the risk encoded by a genetic sequence variant comes into play in patients. We will also hypothesise how data arising from characterising these genetic variants could be utilized to predict glaucoma risk and the manner in which new therapeutic strategies might be informed.
Wang J, Cui Y, Vingopoulos F, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Katz R, Kim L, Miller JB. Disorganisation of retinal inner layers is associated with reduced contrast sensitivity in retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(2):241-245.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine if disorganisation of retinal inner layers (DRIL) is associated with reduced contrast sensitivity (CS) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with a history of macular oedema (ME). METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with a history of ME secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) from October 2017 to July 2019 at a single institution were included. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and CS testing using the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method. Eyes with coexisting macular disease were excluded. SD-OCT images were analysed for presence and extent of DRIL, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), hyperreflective foci, epiretinal membrane (ERM), external limiting membrane (ELM) disruption, ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption, central macular thickness (CMT) and central foveal thickness (CFT). Multivariable mixed-effect linear regressions were performed for the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) using Stata (StataCorp). P values <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 58 visits from 31 patients were included (1.9±1.2 visits per patient). 29 (50%) were for CRVO. The average age was 63.9±10.5 years. On multivariable analysis, DRIL extent (p<0.001), CMT (p=0.007), CFT (p=0.024) and moderate cataract (p=0.001) were significantly associated with worse AULCSF. CONCLUSIONS: DRIL extent is associated with reduced CS in eyes with ME secondary to RVO. DRIL is an imaging feature that has important implications for visual function.
Wang F, Liu LQ, Liang RB, Zhang LJ, Shu HY, Liao XL, Pan YC, Wu J, Su T, Shao Y. Decreased Macular Retinal Thickness in Patients With Pterygium. Front Neurol 2022;13:881190.Abstract
Purpose: To explore alterations in macular retinal thickness (RT) and analyze correlation between macular RT and pterygium area, length in pterygium patients. Methods: Totally 13 patients with pterygium (left eye) and 13 healthy controls (left eye) were recruited. OCTA was applied to scan each eye to generate three-dimensional images. Based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) method, each image was divided into nine subregions for the ETDRS: central (C); inner superior (IS); outer superior (OS); inner nasal (IN); outer nasal (ON); inner inferior (II); outer inferior (OI); inner temporal (IT); and outer temporal (OT). The macular RT in each subregion was measured. Furthermore, the correlation between RT and the area, length of pterygium was analyzed. Results: The visual acuity of pterygium patient was different from that of the control (P < 0.05). Besides, decreased intraretinal thickness of the IN and ON, increased intraretinal thickness of OT, decreased extraretinal thickness of OT, IN, ON, OS, and decreased retinal full layer thickness of medial superior, OS, IN, ON, and II subregions in pterygium group were observed. There was a negative correlation between RT of the IN and ON subregions and the length of pterygium (r = -0.5803 and r = -0.6013, P = 0.0376 and P = 0.0297). The RT of IN subregion was negatively correlated with pterygium area (r = -0.5844, P = 0.0359). According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, in the ON subregion, the areas under the curve of the inner retinal thickness, outer retinal thickness and the whole retinal thickness were 1.0 (95% CI: 1.0), 0.882 (95% CI: 0.715 and 0.963), and 1.0 (95% CI: 1.0). The smallest area under the curve of retinal thickness in OT subregion was 0.018 (95% CI: 0-0.059). Conclusion: RT of pterygium patients was significantly decreased, and the main alterations occurred in the temporal side suggesting there might exist retinal structural alterations in pterygium.
Wang J, Zhao L, Gu X, Xue Y, Wang S, Xiao R, Vandenberghe LH, Peng KA, Shu Y, Li H. Efficient Delivery of Adeno-Associated Virus into Inner Ear In Vivo Through Trans-Stapes Route in Adult Guinea Pig. Hum Gene Ther 2022;33(13-14):719-728.Abstract
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) are potent vectors to achieve treatment against hearing loss resulting from genetic defects. However, the effects of delivery routes and the corresponding transduction efficiencies for clinical applications remain elusive. In this study, we screened AAV vectors of three serotypes (AAV 8 and 9 and Anc80L65) into the inner ears of adult normal guinea pigs through trans-stapes (oval window) and trans-round window delivery routes in vivo. Trans-stapes route is akin to stape surgeries in humans. Then, auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were conducted to evaluate postoperative hearing, and inner ear tissues were harvested for transduction efficiency analysis. Results showed that AAV8 targeted partial inner hair cells (IHCs) in cochlear basal turn; AAV9 targeted IHCs in cochlear basal and second turn, also a part of vestibular hair cells (VHCs). In contrast, Anc80L65 contributed to green fluorescent proteins (GFP) signals of 80 - 95% IHCs and 67 - 91% outer hair cells (OHCs), as well as 69% VHCs through the trans-round window route, with 15-20 decibel (dB) ABR threshold shifts. And, through the trans-stapes (oval window) route, there were 71 - 90% IHCs and 42 - 81% OHCs, along with 64% VHCs demonstrating GFP positive, and the ABR threshold shifts were within 10 dB. This study revealed AAV could be efficiently delivered into mammalian inner ear cells in vivo through the trans-stapes (oval window) route with postoperative hearing preservation, and both delivery routes showed promise of virus-based clinical translation of hearing impairment treatment.
Wang S, J X, V B, A B. Change blindness in simulated driving in individuals with homonymous visual field loss. Cogn Res Princ Implic 2022;7(1):44.

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