2022

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Chen Y, Wang S, Alemi H, Dohlman T, Dana R. Immune regulation of the ocular surface. Exp Eye Res 2022;218:109007.Abstract
Despite constant exposure to various environmental stimuli, the ocular surface remains intact and uninflamed while maintaining the transparency of the cornea and its visual function. This 'immune privilege' of the ocular surface is not simply a result of the physical barrier function of the mucosal lining but, more importantly, is actively maintained through a variety of immunoregulatory mechanisms that prevent the disruption of immune homeostasis. In this review, we focus on essential molecular and cellular players that promote immune quiescence in steady-state conditions and suppress inflammation in disease-states. Specifically, we examine the interactions between the ocular surface and its local draining lymphoid compartment, by encompassing the corneal epithelium, corneal nerves and cornea-resident myeloid cells, conjunctival goblet cells, and regulatory T cells (Treg) in the context of ocular surface autoimmune inflammation (dry eye disease) and alloimmunity (corneal transplantation). A better understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms will facilitate the development of novel, targeted immunomodulatory strategies for a broad range of ocular surface inflammatory disorders.
Cheng Y, Yin Y, Zhang A, Bernstein AM, Kawaguchi R, Gao K, Potter K, Gilbert H-Y, Ao Y, Ou J, Fricano-Kugler CJ, Goldberg JL, He Z, Woolf CJ, Sofroniew MV, Benowitz LI, Geschwind DH. Transcription factor network analysis identifies REST/NRSF as an intrinsic regulator of CNS regeneration in mice. Nat Commun 2022;13(1):4418.Abstract
The inability of neurons to regenerate long axons within the CNS is a major impediment to improving outcome after spinal cord injury, stroke, and other CNS insults. Recent advances have uncovered an intrinsic program that involves coordinate regulation by multiple transcription factors that can be manipulated to enhance growth in the peripheral nervous system. Here, we use a systems genomics approach to characterize regulatory relationships of regeneration-associated transcription factors, identifying RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor (REST; Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor, NRSF) as a predicted upstream suppressor of a pro-regenerative gene program associated with axon regeneration in the CNS. We validate our predictions using multiple paradigms, showing that mature mice bearing cell type-specific deletions of REST or expressing dominant-negative mutant REST show improved regeneration of the corticospinal tract and optic nerve after spinal cord injury and optic nerve crush, which is accompanied by upregulation of regeneration-associated genes in cortical motor neurons and retinal ganglion cells, respectively. These analyses identify a role for REST as an upstream suppressor of the intrinsic regenerative program in the CNS and demonstrate the utility of a systems biology approach involving integrative genomics and bio-informatics to prioritize hypotheses relevant to CNS repair.
Chinn RN, Raghuram A, Curtiss MK, Gehring AM, De Paula AJ, Roberts TL. Repeatability of the Accommodative Response Measured by the Grand Seiko Autorefractor in Children With and Without Amblyopia and Adults. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;236:221-231.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess test-retest repeatability of the accommodative response (AR) in children with and without amblyopia and adults using the Grand Seiko autorefractor. DESIGN: Prospective reliability assessment. METHODS: Test-retest of accommodation was obtained while participants viewed 20/150 sized letters at 33 cm using the Grand Seiko autorefractor in children 5 to <11 years with amblyopia (n=24) and without amblyopia (n=36), and adults 18 to <35 years (n=34). Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess repeatability and reliability. The AR between the fellow and amblyopic eyes of children with amblyopia and eye 1 and eye 2 of the visually normal participants was assessed using group comparisons. RESULTS: The 95% LOA of the AR was greatest in the amblyopic eyes (-1.25 diopters [D], 1.62 D) of children with amblyopia. The 95% LOA were similar between the fellow eyes (-0.88 D, 0.74 D) of children with amblyopia and both eyes of the children without amblyopia (eye 1: -0.68 D, 0.71 D; eye 2: -0.59 D, 0.70 D) and the adults (eye 1: 95% LOA = -0.49 D, 0.45 D; eye 2: LOA = -0.66 D, 0.67 D). ICCs revealed the Grand Seiko autorefractor as a reliable instrument for measuring AR. CONCLUSIONS: The Grand Seiko autorefractor was more repeatable and reliable when measuring the AR in children and adults without amblyopia than in the amblyopic eye in children with amblyopia. It is recommended that multiple measures of the AR be obtained in amblyopic eyes to improve the precision of measures.
Chinn RN, Michalak SM, Shoshany TN, Bishop K, Staffa SJ, Hunter DG. Effect of Sequential and Simultaneous Patching Regimens in Unilateral Amblyopia. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;233:48-56.Abstract
PURPOSE: Many clinicians treat unilateral amblyopia with glasses alone and initiate patching when needed; others start glasses and patching simultaneously. In this study, we reviewed the outcomes of the two approaches at our institution. DESIGN: Retrospective nonrandomized clinical trial. METHODS: Setting: Institutional practice. PATIENT POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with amblyopia at Boston Children's Hospital between 2010 and 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Unilateral amblyopia (visual acuity (VA) 20/40 to 20/200 with interocular difference ≥3 lines,) age 3 to 12 years, with a 6-month follow-up visit. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Deprivation amblyopia, prior amblyopia treatment, treatment other than patching, surgery. Patients were categorized as "simultaneous treatment" (concurrent glasses and patching therapy at their first visit) or "sequential treatment" (glasses alone at first visit, followed by patching therapy at second visit.) Observation procedures: Patient demographics, VA, and stereopsis were compared. OUTCOME MEASURES: VA and stereopsis at the last visit on treatment. RESULTS: We identified 98 patients who met inclusion criteria: 36 received simultaneous treatment and 62 sequential treatment. Median amblyopic eye VA improved similarly between the simultaneous (∆0.40; interquartile range [IQR], 0.56-0.30 logMAR) and sequential (∆0.40; IQR, 0.52-0.27 logMAR) groups. Patients without stereopsis at first visit had better stereopsis outcomes with sequential treatment (5.12 [IQR, 4.00-7.51] log stereopsis) compared with simultaneous treatment (8.01 [IQR, 5.65-9.21]) log stereopsis, P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: VA improved approximately 4 lines regardless of treatment type. For children without stereopsis at first presentation, sequential patching yielded better stereopsis outcomes. These findings require further validation and highlight the importance of evaluating stereopsis in future studies.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Yoon MK. Shewanella algae Causing Pediatric Orbital Abscess With Leptomeningitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(4):e101-e104.Abstract
A 13-year-old boy presented with 3 days of left-sided periorbital pain, swelling, mucoid discharge, and fever to 103°F, with onset 1 day after swimming in the ocean. Within 12 hours, he experienced rapid clinical deterioration with formation of a superomedial subperiosteal abscess and an epidural abscess with leptomeningitis despite treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The patient underwent urgent left orbitotomy with abscess drainage and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative cultures grew Shewanella algae and Escherichia coli . The patient showed marked clinical improvement following surgical intervention and tailored antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of orbital abscess with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to infection with Shewanella algae .
Chiou CA, Rajabi F, Fulton AB, Acsadi G, Waitzman DM, Gaier ED. Membrane Frizzled-Related Protein-Related Disease Mimicking Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;
Chirapapaisan C, Muller RT, Sahin A, Cruzat A, Cavalcanti BM, Jamali A, Pavan-Langston D, Hamrah P. Effect of herpes simplex keratitis scar location on bilateral corneal nerve alterations: an in vivo confocal microscopy study. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(3):319-325.Abstract
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced scar location on bilateral corneal nerve alterations using laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: Central and peripheral corneal subbasal nerve density (CSND) were assessed bilaterally in 39 patients with unilateral HSV-induced corneal scars (21 central scars (CS), 18 peripheral scars (PS)) using IVCM. Results were compared between patients and 24 age-matched controls. CSND was correlated to corneal sensation for all locations. RESULTS: Overall patients revealed significant decrease of CSND in the central and peripheral cornea (9.13±0.98 and 6.26±0.53 mm/mm2, p<0.001), compared with controls (22.60±0.77 and 9.88±0.49 mm/mm2). CS group showed a decrease in central (8.09±1.30 mm/mm2) and total peripheral nerves (5.15±0.62 mm/mm2) of the affected eyes, whereas PS group demonstrated a decrease in central (10.34±1.48 mm/mm2) and localised peripheral nerves only in the scar area (4.22±0.77 mm/mm2) (all p<0.001). In contralateral eyes, CSND decreased in the central cornea of the CS group (16.88±1.27, p=0.004), and in the peripheral area, mirroring the scar area in the affected eyes of the PS group (7.20±0.87, p=0.032). Corneal sensation significantly decreased in the whole cornea of the affected, but not in contralateral eyes (p<0.001). A positive correlation between CSND and corneal sensation was found in all locations (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HSV scar demonstrate bilateral CSND decrease as shown by IVCM. CSND and corneal sensation decrease in both central and peripheral cornea in affected eyes, although only in the scar area in PS group. Interestingly, diminishment of CSND was found locally in the contralateral eyes, corresponding and mirroring the scar location in the affected eyes.
Choudhury A, Reyes N, Galor A, Mehra D, Felix E, Moulton EA. Clinical neuroimaging of photophobia in individuals with chronic ocular surface pain. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine neural mechanisms underlying photophobia in individuals with chronic ocular surface pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional case/control analysis METHODS: 16 subjects from the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic underwent comprehensive ocular surface evaluations and were surveyed for ocular surface symptoms. Cases included subjects who reported chronic ocular surface pain symptoms and light sensitivity at least most of the time over one week. Controls included subjects without chronic ocular surface pain who reported no or minimal light sensitivity. All subjects viewed light stimuli during two fMRI scans, one before and one after topical anesthetic instillation, and rated their level of pain intensity to the stimulus at the end of each scan. Areas of brain activation in response to light stimuli presentation were correlated to pain responses and examined post- vs. pre-anesthesia. RESULTS: Cases (n=8) reported higher pain intensity ratings than controls (n=8) in response to light stimuli during fMRI. Case ratings correlated more with light-evoked activation in pain-related areas within the trigeminal brainstem, primary somatosensory cortex (S1), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), and insula than with controls. Topical anesthesia led to varying responses in pain ratings among cases as well as decreased light-evoked activation in S1 and aMCC. CONCLUSIONS: The trigeminal nociceptive system may contribute to photophobia in individuals with chronic ocular surface pain. We demonstrate modulation of cortical structures in this pathway with topically applied anesthetic to the eyes. Further understanding of modulatory interactions that govern ocular surface pain and photophobia is critical for developing effective, precision-based therapies.
Christen WG, Cook NR, Manson JAE, Buring JE, Lee I-M, Bubes V, Friedenberg G, Dushkes R, Smith D, Schaumberg DA, Schaumberg DA. Efficacy of Marine ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation vs Placebo in Reducing Incidence of Dry Eye Disease in Healthy US Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(7):707-714.Abstract
Importance: Results of several small randomized clinical trials have suggested that supplements of marine ω-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in treating signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED). However, randomized clinical trial data to examine whether ω-3 fatty acid supplements can prevent DED are lacking. Objective: To evaluate whether long-term daily supplementation with marine ω-3 fatty acids prevents the development of DED. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prespecified ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), a nationwide randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial of vitamin D and marine ω-3 fatty acids in the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Participants in this ancillary study were 23 523 US adults (men 50 years and older and women 55 years and older) who at study entry were free of a previous diagnosis of DED and were not experiencing severe dry eye symptoms. Participants were enrolled from November 2011 to March 2014, and treatment and follow-up ended on December 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from January 2020 to August 2021. Interventions: Marine ω-3 fatty acids, 1 g per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was incident clinically diagnosed DED confirmed by review of the medical records. The secondary end point was a composite of all confirmed incident clinically diagnosed DED cases plus all incident reports of severe DED symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 23 523 participants included in the analysis was 67.0 (7.0) years, and 11 349 participants (48.3%) were women. The cohort included 4610 participants (20.0%) who self-identified as Black, 16 481 (71.6%) who self-identified as non-Hispanic White, and 1927 (8.4%) of other racial or ethnic groups or who declined to respond, consolidated owing to small numbers, including American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Hispanic or Latino, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. During a median (range) 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years of treatment and follow-up, 472 of 23 523 participants (2.0%) experienced a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of DED. There was no difference in diagnosed DED by randomized ω-3 fatty acid assignment (232 of 11 757 participants [2.0%] with end points in the treated group vs 240 of 11 766 [2.0%] with end points in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81-1.16). Similarly, there was no difference between groups for the secondary end point of diagnosed DED plus incident severe DED symptoms (1044 participants [8.9%] with end points in the treated group vs 1074 [9.1%] with end points in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89-1.06). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, long-term supplementation with 1 g per day of marine ω-3 fatty acids for a median (range) of 5.3 (3.8-6.1) years did not reduce the incidence of diagnosed DED or a combined end point of diagnosed DED or incident severe DED symptoms. These results do not support recommending marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation to reduce the incidence of DED. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880463.
Chwalisz BK, Levy M. The Treatment of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;42(3):292-296.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) is an important etiology of neurologic morbidity and specifically, atypical, and relapsing optic neuritis. This review summarizes acute treatment and long-term prevention approaches in MOGAD. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were manually searched and reviewed. RESULTS: We review the evidence base for acute treatment of MOGAD with corticosteroids and adjunct therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasma exchange. We discuss the utility of prolonged corticosteroid tapering after the acute attack. We then summarize the commonly used disease-modifying treatments for relapsing MOGAD, including chronic low-dose corticosteroids, classic antirheumatic immune suppressants, biologic agents, and IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: While acute MOGAD attacks are usually treated with high-dose IV corticosteroids, longer oral corticosteroid tapers may prevent rapid relapse. Multiple long-term treatment strategies are being employed in recurrent MOGAD, with IVIg is emerging as probably the most effective therapy.
Ciociola EC, Yang S-A, Hall N, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Friedman DS, Boland MV, Elze T, Zebardast N, Zebardast N. Effectiveness of Trabeculectomy and Tube Shunt With Versus Without Concurrent Phacoemulsification: IRIS Registry Longitudinal Analysis. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery performed with concurrent phacoemulsification compared to stand-alone procedures. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in the IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) who underwent trabeculectomy or GDD from 2013 through 2019. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine reoperation rates. Reoperation was defined as any subsequent glaucoma surgery occurring 1 month to 3 years after the initial procedure. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models were used to determine reoperation risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reoperation rate, IOP, visual acuity, reoperation procedure type, postoperative complications, and predictors of surgical failure. RESULTS: A total of 117,697 eyes receiving glaucoma surgery alone and 35,657 eyes receiving surgery with phacoemulsification were included. The cumulative reoperation rate for trabeculectomy alone was 4.9% and 11.5% vs 3.0% and 7.3% for trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. The reoperation rates for GDD alone were 3.8% and 7.8% vs 2.1% and 5.4% for GDD with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. Stand-alone procedures achieved greater IOP reduction by percentage change from baseline (trabeculectomy alone 35.3% vs trabeculectomy with phacoemulsification 23.1%, p<0.001, and GDD alone 36.1% vs GDD with phacoemulsification 29.3%, p<0.001). Visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR (95% CI 0.11 - 0.12) and 0.10 logMAR (0.08 - 0.11) following trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification and declined by 0.15 logMAR (0.14 - 0.15) and 0.12 logMAR (0.11 - 0.12) following stand-alone trabeculectomy and GDD. The overall documented complication rate was 2.9% for GDD and 1.4% for trabeculectomy. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical failure risk. The most common reoperation procedure was GDD. CONCLUSIONS: Reoperation rates within the first three years following trabeculectomy and GDD with and without phacoemulsification were low. Trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification had lower reoperation rates compared to stand-alone procedures. However, stand-alone procedures resulted in greater IOP reduction compared to combined procedures. Postoperative complications were uncommon overall. Patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical success.
Claessens D, Ichhpujani P, Singh RB. MacuFix® versus Amsler grid for metamorphopsia categorization for macular diseases. Int Ophthalmol 2022;42(1):229-238.Abstract
PURPOSE: Macular diseases often lead to metamorphopsia, which is traditionally tested using the Amsler grid. This study evaluates a novel method for assessing metamorphopsia, based on the software AMD-A Metamorphopsia Detector, application MacuFix®. METHODS: In this observational study, the usability of a new smartphone-based testing method to assess metamorphopsia was evaluated in 45 patients experiencing metamorphopsia in at least one eye using the questionnaire "System Usability Score (SUS)." Additionally, the diagnostic adherence of self-monitoring with the Amsler grid was compared to self-monitoring with the novel software MacuFix®. RESULTS: The average score of the SUS questionnaire in this study was 76.7 ± 15.5, corresponding to the "good" score on the grading scale. The average interval between two home administered tests was significantly shorter (6 days) when the application was used as compared to using the Amsler grid (19 days). The odds ratio of the frequency of patients using the application to the patients using the home test was 4. CONCLUSION: MacuFix® application can help in effective home monitoring of macular function as high user satisfaction and increased testing frequency was observed in its use in patients with macular diseases.
Cohen LM, Liou VD, Cunnane ME, Yoon MK. Radiographic analysis of fatty infiltration of the extraocular muscles in thyroid eye disease. Orbit 2022;41(1):53-58.Abstract
PURPOSE: Fatty infiltration of the extraocular muscles has been described radiographically in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED), yet it has not been studied on a large scale nor quantified. Our purpose was to define and characterize this entity in patients with TED. METHODS: An IRB-approved cross-sectional retrospective review of medical records identified patients with a clinical diagnosis of TED and at least one CT of the orbits. A 2:1 age and sex-matched control population consisted of patients without a history nor radiographic evidence of orbital disease or systemic thyroid abnormality. The presence of fatty infiltration in each extraocular rectus muscle was defined using Hounsfield units (HU). Laterality, muscles involved, and pattern of fatty infiltration were also evaluated. Student's t-tests, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare TED and control groups. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 252 patients with TED and 504 age and sex-matched controls. Fatty infiltration was significantly more prevalent in TED patients (36/252, 14.3%) compared to controls (11/504, 2.2%) (p < .001). The mean density of fat infiltration was significantly lower in TED patients (-40.4 HU) than controls (-34.8 HU) (p = .048). In TED patients, the frequency of muscle involvement was inferior rectus (61.8%), lateral rectus (19.7%), superior rectus (11.8%) and medial rectus (6.6%), which was not significantly different than controls (p > .05). Most muscles (88.2%) in the TED group exhibited a heterogeneous pattern of infiltration, which did not differ from controls (p = .34). CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes fatty infiltration of the extraocular muscles in patients with TED.
Cohen EM, Sobrin L, Figueiro Longo MG, Pier DB, Brown DR, Stagner AM. Case 33-2022: An 11-Year-Old Girl with Redness of the Eyes. N Engl J Med 2022;387(17):1598-1607.
Collantes ERA, Delfin MS, Fan BJ, Torregosa JMR, Siguan-Bell C, de Florcruz NVG, Martinez JMD, Masna-Hidalgo BJ, Guzman VPT, Anotado-Flores JF, Levina FD, Hernandez SRC, Collantes AA, Sibulo MC, Rong SS, Wiggs JL. EFEMP1 rare variants cause familial juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma. Hum Mutat 2022;43(2):240-252.Abstract
Juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a severe type of glaucoma with onset before age 40 and dominant inheritance. Using exome sequencing we identified 3 independent families from the Philippines with novel EFEMP1 variants (c.238A>T, p.Asn80Tyr; c.1480T>C, p.Ter494Glnext*29; and c.1429C>T, p.Arg477Cys) co-segregating with disease. Affected variant carriers (N = 34) exhibited severe disease with average age of onset of 16 years and with 76% developing blindness. To investigate functional effects, we transfected COS7 cells with vectors expressing the three novel EFEMP1 variants and showed that all three variants found in JOAG patients caused significant intracellular protein aggregation and retention compared to wild type and also compared to EFEMP1 variants associated with other ocular phenotypes including an early-onset form of macular degeneration, Malattia Leventinese/Doyne's Honeycomb retinal dystrophy. These results suggest that rare EFEMP1 coding variants can cause JOAG through a mechanism involving protein aggregation and retention, and that the extent of intracellular retention correlates with disease phenotype. This is the first report of EFEMP1 variants causing JOAG, expanding the EFEMP1 disease spectrum. Our results suggest that EFEMP1 mutations appear to be a relatively common cause of JOAG in Filipino families, an ethnically diverse population.
Collins ME, Guo X, Mudie LI, Slavin RE, Madden N, Chang D, Owoeye J, Repka MX, Friedman DS. Baseline vision results from the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study. Can J Ophthalmol 2022;57(1):29-35.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We describe the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study, report baseline ocular findings, and explore the feasibility of eye examinations in the school setting. DESIGN: Prospective, school-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Students in second and third grades. METHODS: Baseline eye examinations, including near and distance presenting visual acuity (VA), stereopsis, ocular alignment, dilated retinal examination, and cycloplegic refraction, were performed in 12 Baltimore public schools during the 2014-15 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presenting VA, prevalence of refractive error, and other ocular findings. RESULTS: Among the 1054 eligible students, 321 participated. There were 271 (84.4%) African American and 186 (57.9%) female students; mean age was 7.9 ± 0.8 years. Cycloplegia was achieved in 308. The mean presenting distance and near VA was 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range -0.1 to 1.5) and 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range 0.0-1.6) in the better-seeing eye, respectively. The most common ocular findings were +1.00 diopter (D) or greater hyperopia (34.7%), -0.50 D or greater myopia (29.5%), 1.00 D or greater astigmatism (23.4%), and convergence insufficiency (7.2%). Thirty-seven (11.5%) children needed referral to an eye care provider; 10% of students required glasses full-time. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the majority of second and third grade students in this study have good VA and minimal refractive error, 1 in 9 have an ocular finding necessitating further evaluation. It was feasible to conduct cycloplegic eye examinations in the school setting.
Crowley MA, Garland DL, Sellner H, Banks A, Fan L, Rejtar T, Buchanan N, Delgado O, Xu Y, Jose S, Adams CM, Mogi M, Wang K, Bigelow CE, Poor S, Anderson K, Jaffee BD, Prasanna G, Grosskreutz C, Fernandez-Godino R, Pierce EA, Dryja TP, Liao SM. Complement factor B is critical for sub-RPE deposit accumulation in a model of Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy with features of age-related macular degeneration. Hum Mol Genet 2022;
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D'Amore PA, Essex EH, Furie MB. Not Sure if You Are an Investigative Pathologist? Yes, You Are. Am J Pathol 2022;192(1):2-3.
D'Amore PA, Alcaide P. Macrophage efferocytosis with VEGFC and lymphangiogenesis: rescuing the broken heart. J Clin Invest 2022;132(9)Abstract
Cardiac repair following ischemic injury is indispensable for survival and requires a coordinated cellular response involving the mobilization of immune cells from the secondary lymphoid organs to the site of damage. Efferocytosis, the engulfment of cell debris and dying cells by innate immune cells, along with lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels, are emerging as central to the cardiac healing response. In this issue of the JCI, Glinton et al. used state-of-the-art approaches to demonstrate that efferocytosis induced vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) in myeloid cells and stimulated lymphangiogenesis and cardiac repair. These findings provide impactful mechanistic information that can be leveraged to therapeutically target pathways in cardiac repair and ischemic heart failure.
D'Amore PA, Fliesler SJ, Edwards MM. Gerard ("Jerry") Anthony Lutty, PhD- In Memoriam (1947-2021). Exp Eye Res 2022;216:108949.

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