2022

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Elhusseiny AM, Saeed HN. Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy in a Pediatric Population. Cornea 2022;41(6):734-739.Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and topographic features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in children aged 15 years or younger with a long-term follow-up. Retrospective case series. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who were diagnosed with PPCD at Boston Children's Hospital from 1999 to 2020 was performed. Data collected included age at the time of diagnosis, slit lamp findings, cycloplegic refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, specular microscopy, and corneal topography findings whenever available. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of 19 patients were included (11 unilateral and 8 bilateral cases). Ten patients were girls (52.6%). Left eye was affected in 14 eyes. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 8.5 ± 3.3 years, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 years. In unilateral cases, there was a statistically significant difference in the endothelial cell density (P = 0.01), coefficient variation (P = 0.03), and hexagonality (P = 0.01) between the affected and the contralateral unaffected eyes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity at initial presentation was 0.8 ± 0.2 compared with 0.9 ± 0.08 in unaffected eyes (P = 0.04). The mean astigmatism was higher in the affected eye (+1.7 diopters) compared with (+1.00) the unaffected eye (P = 0.07). At initial presentation, 7 of 27 eyes had amblyopia, which resolved, either partially or completely, in 5 eyes after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PPCD can present early in children with astigmatism and anisometropic amblyopia. A careful slit lamp examination for children presenting with anisoastigmatism is necessary to diagnose PPCD. Contrary to adults, presentation is often unilateral. Such patients should be followed up regularly with cycloplegic retinoscopy to prevent and treat refractive amblyopia if present.
Elhusseiny AM, Abbasian J. Topical netarsudil 0.02% as adjunctive therapy in refractory pediatric glaucoma. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of topical netarsudil 0.02% as adjunctive therapy in children with refractory pediatric glaucoma. METHODS: The medical records of patients ≤18 years diagnosed with pediatric glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with topical netarsudil 0.02% from June 2019 to March 2022 were reviewed retrospectively. Data collected included age, sex, ethnicity, etiology of glaucoma, history of previous or subsequent glaucoma surgery, and intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after the addition of topical netarsudil. RESULTS: A total of 21 eyes of 16 patients (11 males) were included. Five patients used topical netarsudil in both eyes. Eight patients were Hispanic. The mean number of glaucoma surgeries and medications before initiating topical netarsudil was 1.8 ± 1.2 and 3.7 ± 0.5, respectively. The mean age prior to starting topical netarsudil was 8.9 ± 4.1 years. The mean follow-up after initiating topical netarsudil was 11.3 ± 8.2 months. The IOP was significantly reduced from 26.3 ± 6.2 mm Hg before topical netarsudil to 19.6 ± 6.02 mm Hg at 1 month in 15 eyes (P < 0.01), 18.2 ± 6.9 mm Hg at 3-months in 20 eyes (P < 0.01), 18.3 ± 7.3 mm Hg at 6 months in 13 eyes (P = 0.01), 17.6 ± 5.07 mm Hg at 9 months in 14 eyes (P = 0.002), and 17.4 ± 3.1 mm Hg at 12 months in 13 eyes (P = 0.002). Nine eyes (43%) underwent additional glaucoma surgery due to long-term failure of topical netarsudil to reduce IOP despite an initial reduction, and one eye had persistent IOP elevation ≥21 mm Hg despite the addition of topical netarsudil. CONCLUSIONS: In our small cohort of patients with refractory pediatric glaucoma, the addition of topical netarsudil reduced IOP, potentially delaying the need for surgery.
Engelhard SB, Haripriya A, Namburar S, Pistilli M, Daniel E, Kempen JH. Dropped Nucleus during Cataract Surgery in South India: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022;29(3):271-278.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of dropped nucleus (DN) during cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a matched case-control study at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Out of 184 consecutive DN cases, 171 were included. The case immediately preceding the DN case by the same surgeon served as matched concurrent control. The proportion of cataract surgeries with DN was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 415,487 consecutive cataract surgeries, incidence risk of DN was 0.044% [95% CI 0.038%, 0.051%], or 0.44 per 1,000 surgeries in 52 months. Significant preoperative risk factors were posterior polar cataract (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 21.73, p = .003); suspected loose zonules (aOR 8.85, p < .001); older age (aOR 1.57, p = .001); and presence of diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.79, p = .03). Associated intraoperative complications included zonular dialysis (OR 34.49, p < .001), vitreous disturbance (OR 193.36, p < .001), and posterior capsule rent (OR 384.39, p < .001). Phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery did not significantly differ in DN incidence. DN most commonly occurred during nucleus removal (35.1%) or during/immediately following hydrodissection (24.0%). Visual outcomes of DN were worse than controls on average, but 51.9% achieved visual acuity 20/40 or better at 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: DN occurred rarely, with low absolute risk even when a strong risk factor was present. Nearly all cases followed posterior capsular rent or zonular dialysis, usually with observed vitreous loss. In spite of increased risk of postoperative complications in the DN group, the majority achieved favorable results.
Eraslan G, Drokhlyansky E, Anand S, Fiskin E, Subramanian A, Slyper M, Wang J, Van Wittenberghe N, Rouhana JM, Waldman J, Ashenberg O, Lek M, Dionne D, Win TS, Cuoco MS, Kuksenko O, Tsankov AM, Branton PA, Marshall JL, Greka A, Getz G, Segrè AV, Aguet F, Rozenblatt-Rosen O, Ardlie KG, Regev A. Single-nucleus cross-tissue molecular reference maps toward understanding disease gene function. Science 2022;376(6594):eabl4290.Abstract
Understanding gene function and regulation in homeostasis and disease requires knowledge of the cellular and tissue contexts in which genes are expressed. Here, we applied four single-nucleus RNA sequencing methods to eight diverse, archived, frozen tissue types from 16 donors and 25 samples, generating a cross-tissue atlas of 209,126 nuclei profiles, which we integrated across tissues, donors, and laboratory methods with a conditional variational autoencoder. Using the resulting cross-tissue atlas, we highlight shared and tissue-specific features of tissue-resident cell populations; identify cell types that might contribute to neuromuscular, metabolic, and immune components of monogenic diseases and the biological processes involved in their pathology; and determine cell types and gene modules that might underlie disease mechanisms for complex traits analyzed by genome-wide association studies.
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Fairbanks AM, S H, NA P. Systemic Treatment Reduces Von-Hippel-Lindau-Associated Retinal Capillary Hemangioblastoma. Ophthalmology 2022;
Fan N-W, Wang S, Ortiz G, Chauhan SK, Chen Y, Dana R. Autoreactive memory Th17 cells are principally derived from T-bet+RORγt+ Th17/1 effectors. J Autoimmun 2022;129:102816.Abstract
Effector Th17 cells, including IFN-γ-IL-17+ (eTh17) and IFN-γ+IL-17+ (eTh17/1) subsets, play critical pathogenic functions in the induction of autoimmunity. As acute inflammation subsides, a small proportion of the effectors survive and convert to memory Th17 cells (mTh17), which sustain chronic inflammation in autoimmune diseases. Herein, we investigated the differential contributions of eTh17 versus eTh17/1 to the memory pool using an experimental model of ocular autoimmune disease. Our results show that adoptive transfer of Tbx21-/- CD4+ T cells or conditional deletion of Tbx21 in Th17 cells leads to diminished eTh17/1 in acute phase and functionally compromised mTh17 in chronic phase. Further, adoptive transfer of disease-specific eTh17/1, but not eTh17, leads to generation of mTh17 and sustained ocular inflammation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that T-bet-dependent eTh17/1 cells generated during the acute inflammation are the principal effector precursors of pathogenic mTh17 cells that sustain the chronicity of autoimmune inflammation.
Farhat W, Yeung V, Kahale F, Parekh M, Cortinas J, Chen L, Ross AE, Ciolino JB. Doxorubicin-Loaded Extracellular Vesicles Enhance Tumor Cell Death in Retinoblastoma. Bioengineering (Basel) 2022;9(11)Abstract
Chemotherapy is often used to treat retinoblastoma; however, this treatment method has severe systemic adverse effects and inadequate therapeutic effectiveness. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important biological information carriers that mediate local and systemic cell-to-cell communication under healthy and pathological settings. These endogenous vesicles have been identified as important drug delivery vehicles for a variety of therapeutic payloads, including doxorubicin (Dox), with significant benefits over traditional techniques. In this work, EVs were employed as natural drug delivery nanoparticles to load Dox for targeted delivery to retinoblastoma human cell lines (Y-79). Two sub-types of EVs were produced from distinct breast cancer cell lines (4T1 and SKBR3) that express a marker that selectively interacts with retinoblastoma cells and were loaded with Dox, utilizing the cells' endogenous loading machinery. In vitro, we observed that delivering Dox with both EVs increased cytotoxicity while dramatically lowering the dosage of the drug. Dox-loaded EVs, on the other hand, inhibited cancer cell growth by activating caspase-3/7. Direct interaction of EV membrane moieties with retinoblastoma cell surface receptors resulted in an effective drug delivery to cancer cells. Our findings emphasize the intriguing potential of EVs as optimum methods for delivering Dox to retinoblastoma.
Farhat W, Yeung V, Ross A, Kahale F, Boychev N, Kuang L, Chen L, Ciolino JB. Advances in biomaterials for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Biomater Sci 2022;10(19):5391-5429.Abstract
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Although traditional chemotherapy has shown some success in retinoblastoma management, there are several shortcomings to this approach, including inadequate pharmacokinetic parameters, multidrug resistance, low therapeutic efficiency, nonspecific targeting, and the need for adjuvant therapy, among others. The revolutionary developments in biomaterials for drug delivery have enabled breakthroughs in cancer management. Today, biomaterials are playing a crucial role in developing more efficacious retinoblastoma treatments. The key goal in the evolution of drug delivery biomaterials for retinoblastoma therapy is to resolve delivery-associated obstacles and lower nonlocal exposure while ameliorating certain adverse effects. In this review, we will first delve into the historical perspective of retinoblastoma with a focus on the classical treatments currently used in clinics to enhance patients' quality of life and survival rate. As we move along, we will discuss biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Various aspects of biomaterials for drug delivery will be dissected, including their features and recent advances. In accordance with the current advances in biomaterials, we will deliver a synopsis on the novel chemotherapeutic drug delivery strategies and evaluate these approaches to gain new insights into retinoblastoma treatment.
Feldman RM, Chuang AZ, Mansberger SL, Tanna AP, Blieden LS, Bell NP, Gross RL, Pasquale LR, Greenfield DS, Liebmann JM, Weinreb RN, Weinreb RN. Outcomes of the Second Aqueous Shunt Implant Versus Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation Treatment Study: A Randomized Comparative Trial. J Glaucoma 2022;31(9):701-709.Abstract
PRCIS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery. Both treatments were reasonable options for eyes with inadequately controlled IOP after a single GDD. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (SGDD) and transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) in eyes with inadequately controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), despite the presence of a preexisting glaucoma drainage device. METHODS: Patients with inadequately controlled IOP, despite the medical therapy and a preexisting glaucoma drainage device, were enrolled at 14 clinical centers and randomly assigned to treatment with a SGDD or CPC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical failure was defined as: (1) IOP ≤5 mm Hg or >18 mm Hg or <20% reduction below baseline on maximum tolerated topical ocular hypotensive therapy, (2) reoperation for glaucoma, or (3) loss of light perception. The primary outcome measure was overall success with or without adjunctive medical therapy. RESULTS: Forty-two eyes of 42 participants were randomized to SGDD (n=22) or CPC (n=20). Mean duration of follow-up was 18.6 (±12.1; range: 1.1-38.6) months. The cumulative success rate was 79% for SGDD and 88% for CPC at 1 year ( P =0.63). Although the study was underpowered, no significant differences in IOP, postoperative number of IOP-lowering medications, or adverse events were observed. The number of additional glaucoma surgeries ( P =0.003), office visits during the first 3 months ( P <0.001), and office visits per month after month 3 ( P <0.001) were greater in the SGDD group. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term overall success rates were high with either SGDD or CPC. However, SGDD was associated with more clinic visits and an increased risk of additional glaucoma surgery.
Feldstein IT, Dyszak GN. Corrigendum to "Road crossing decisions in real and virtual environments: A comparative study on simulator validity" [Accid. Anal. Prevent. 137 (2021) 105356]. Accid Anal Prev 2022;169:106435.
Fenwick EK, Roldan AM, Halawa OA, Meshkin RS, Zebardast N, Popov V, Lis P, Friedman DS, Lamoureux EL. Implementation of an Online Glaucoma-Specific Quality of Life Computerized Adaptive Test System in a US Glaucoma Hospital. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022;11(2):24.Abstract
Purpose: The feasibility of implementing a computerized adaptive test (CAT) system in routine clinical care in ophthalmology has not been assessed. We evaluated the implementation of a glaucoma-specific CAT (GlauCAT) in outpatients at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute. Methods: In this implementation study (July 2020-April 2021), 216 adults (mean ± SD age 64.8 ± 15.3 years; 56.0% women) completed six adaptive GlauCAT quality of life (QOL) tests on an internet-enabled tablet at the clinic. A real-time printable report summarizing domain scores was shared with physicians prior to consultation. The implementation was evaluated using Proctor's outcomes: acceptability (patient satisfaction); appropriateness (independent complete rate [%]); feasibility (acceptance rate [%]; completion time); and fidelity (percentage of patients discussing GlauCAT results with their physician). Physician barriers/facilitators were explored using open-ended questions. Results: Patients' mean ± SD satisfaction score was 3.5 ± 0.5 of 4, with >95% of patients willing to recommend it to others. Of the 216 (89.2%) patients accepting to participate, 173 (80%) completed GlauCAT independently. Patients took 8 minutes and 5 seconds (median) to complete all 6 GlauCAT tests. Almost two-thirds (n = 136/216) of the patients reported discussing their GlauCAT results with their doctor. Physicians described the GlauCAT summary report as helpful and user-friendly, although lack of time and uncertainty about how to action information were reported. Conclusions: Pilot implementation of six GlauCAT QOL tests in glaucoma outpatient clinics was feasible and acceptable. Integration of GlauCAT with electronic medical records (EMRs) and evaluation of long-term implementation outcomes are needed. Translational Relevance: GlauCAT's multiple outcomes and low test-taking burden makes it attractive for measuring glaucoma-specific QOL in routine clinical care.
Fickweiler W, Park H, Park K, Mitzner MG, Chokshi T, Boumenna T, Gautier J, Zaitsu Y, Wu I-H, Cavallerano J, Aiello LP, Sun JK, King GL. Elevated Retinol Binding Protein 3 Concentrations Are Associated With Decreased Vitreous Inflammatory Cytokines, VEGF, and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2022;45(9):2159-2162.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To correlate inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitreous and plasma with vitreous retinol binding protein 3 (RBP3), diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity, and DR worsening in a population with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: RBP3, VEGF, and inflammatory cytokines were measured in plasma and vitreous samples (n = 205) from subjects of the Joslin Medalist Study and Beetham Eye Institute. RESULTS: Higher vitreous RBP3 concentrations were associated with less severe DR (P < 0.0001) and a reduced risk of developing proliferative DR (PDR) (P < 0.0001). Higher RBP3 correlated with increased photoreceptor segment thickness and lower vitreous interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and TNF-β (P < 0.05). PDR was associated with lower vitreous interferon-γ and IL-10 and higher VEGF, IL-6, and IL-15 (P < 0.05), but was not associated with their plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Higher vitreous RBP3 concentrations are associated with less severe DR and slower rates of progression to PDR, supporting its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preventing DR worsening, possibly by lowering retinal VEGF and inflammatory cytokines.
Fjaervoll K, Fjaervoll H, Magno M, Nøland ST, Dartt DA, Vehof J, Utheim TP. Review on the possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying visual display terminal-associated dry eye disease. Acta Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Visual display terminal (VDT) use is a key risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). Visual display terminal (VDT) use reduces the blink rate and increases the number of incomplete blinks. However, the exact mechanisms causing DED development from VDT use have yet to be clearly described. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to conduct a review on pathophysiological mechanisms promoting VDT-associated DED. METHODS: A PubMed search of the literature investigating the relationship between dry eye and VDT was performed, and relevance to pathophysiology of DED was evaluated. FINDINGS: Fifty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Several pathophysiological mechanisms were examined, and multiple hypotheses were extracted from the articles. Visual display terminal (VDT) use causes DED mainly through impaired blinking patterns. Changes in parasympathetic signalling and increased exposure to blue light, which could disrupt ocular homeostasis, were proposed in some studies but lack sufficient scientific support. Together, these changes may lead to a reduced function of the tear film, lacrimal gland, goblet cells and meibomian glands, all contributing to DED development. CONCLUSION: Visual display terminal (VDT) use appears to induce DED through both direct and indirect routes. Decreased blink rates and increased incomplete blinks increase the exposed ocular evaporative area and inhibit lipid distribution from meibomian glands. Although not adequately investigated, changes in parasympathetic signalling may impair lacrimal gland and goblet cell function, promoting tear film instability. More studies are needed to better target and improve the treatment and prevention of VDT-associated DED.
Fjaervoll H, Fjaervoll K, Magno M, Moschowits E, Vehof J, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. The association between visual display terminal use and dry eye: a review. Acta Ophthalmol 2022;100(4):357-375.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tear film and ocular surface. It causes ocular symptoms, reduced quality of life and a considerable economic burden on society. Prolonged use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been suggested as an important risk factor for DED. PURPOSE: This review aims to study the association between DED and VDT use with an emphasis on the prevalence of DED among VDT users and harmful daily duration of VDT use. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted and yielded 57 relevant articles based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies were subclassified according to study design. RESULTS: The far majority of the studies showed an association between VDT use and DED or DED-related signs and symptoms. The prevalence of definite or probable DED in VDT and office workers ranged from 26% to 70%, with as few as 1-2 hr of VDT exposure per day being associated with DED. CONCLUSION: VDT use is strongly associated with DED. VDT-associated DED is prevalent, but the exact prevalence needs to be further elucidated using standardized DED diagnosis criteria. Furthermore, a safe lower limit of daily VDT use has yet to be established. More research is needed on the effect of digitalization and digital transformation, which are particularly high during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Fonseca MI, Nouck-A-Nwal A, Ambrosio L, Altschwager P, Hansen RM, Fulton AB, Akula JD. The relation of the multifocal electroretinographic response to macular layer volume. Doc Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the association of the multifocal electroretinographic (mfERG) response amplitude with the volumes of the inner, postreceptor, and photoreceptor retinal layers in the region stimulated by each mfERG element. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, young adult control subjects were studied. Each of the 103 hexagonal elements of the standard, scaled mfERG were aligned, where possible, with patches of retina imaged using optical coherence tomography. Stimuli falling on the fovea and on the optic nerve head were excluded. Linear mixed-effects modeling was then used to derive estimated coefficients (voltage/volume) for the mfERG response throughout the full 80 ms standard epoch. The resulting predicted response amplitudes originating in each layer were then compared to pharmacologically "dissected" mfERGs obtained from other studies in monkey eyes. RESULTS: Across the duration of the response, the amplitude of the modeled contribution from (1) the inner retina was small-to-modest, (2) the postreceptor retina was larger and contained two prominent peaks, and (3) the photoreceptor response was the largest and most closely paralleled the overall (i.e., intact) response, including late-appearing oscillations. The significance of each layer's contribution was greatest when the absolute amplitude of that layer's response was largest. The contribution of the inner retina was maximally significant in the interval between the prominent troughs and peaks of the intact response. The contributions of the postreceptor and photoreceptor responses were maximally significant at the prominent troughs and peaks of the intact response. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the model were in good overall agreement with previous interpretations of the cellular contributions to the mfERG. There was also fair agreement with pharmacologically dissected monkey mfERG responses. Thus, the estimations of the contributions of the retinal layers to the mfERG so produced appeared plausible.
Fote GM, Geller NR, Efstathiou NE, Hendricks N, Vavvas DG, Reidling JC, Thompson LM, Steffan JS. Isoform-dependent lysosomal degradation and internalization of apolipoprotein E requires autophagy proteins. J Cell Sci 2022;135(2)Abstract
The human apolipoprotein E4 isoform (APOE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), and lysosomal dysfunction has been implicated in AD pathogenesis. We found, by examining cells stably expressing each APOE isoform, that APOE4 increases lysosomal trafficking, accumulates in enlarged lysosomes and late endosomes, alters autophagic flux and the abundance of autophagy proteins and lipid droplets, and alters the proteomic contents of lysosomes following internalization. We investigated APOE-related lysosomal trafficking further in cell culture, and found that APOE from the post-Golgi compartment is degraded through autophagy. We found that this autophagic process requires the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP2 in immortalized neuron-like and hepatic cells, and in mouse brain tissue. Several macroautophagy-associated proteins were also required for autophagic degradation and internalization of APOE in hepatic cells. The dysregulated autophagic flux and lysosomal trafficking of APOE4 that we observed suggest a possible novel mechanism that might contribute to AD pathogenesis. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Franco JJ, Liu KX, Ioakeim-Ioannidou M, Davila JR, Chen YL, Kim IK, Gragoudas ES, Mukai S, MacDonald SM. Low-dose proton radiotherapy for pediatric choroidal hemangioma: A case series. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022;
Freedman SF, Hercinovic A, Wallace DK, Kraker RT, Li Z, Bhatt AR, Boente CS, Crouch ER, Hubbard BG, Rogers DL, Vanderveen D, Yang MB, Cheung NL, Cotter SA, Holmes JM, Holmes JM. Low- and Very Low-Dose Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: Reactivations, Additional Treatments, and 12-Month Outcomes. Ophthalmology 2022;129(10):1120-1128.Abstract
PURPOSE: Low-dose and very low-dose intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) have been reported to be successful in short-term treatment of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), down to an initial dose of 0.004 mg. We now report 12-month outcomes for these infants. DESIGN: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty prematurely born infants with type 1 ROP. METHODS: A cohort of 120 infants with type 1 ROP in at least 1 eye from 2 sequential dose de-escalation studies of low-dose IVB (0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, and 0.031 mg) or very low-dose IVB (0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, and 0.002 mg) to the study eye; the fellow eye (if also type 1) received 1 dose level higher of IVB. After primary success or failure at 4 weeks, clinical management was at investigator discretion, including all additional treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reactivation of severe ROP by 6 months corrected age, additional treatments, retinal and other ocular structural outcomes, and refractive error at 12 months corrected age. RESULTS: Sixty-two of 113 study eyes (55%) and 55 of 98 fellow eyes (56%) received additional treatment. Of the study eyes, 31 (27%) received additional ROP treatment, and 31 (27%) received prophylactic laser therapy for persistent avascular retina. No trend toward a higher risk of additional ROP treatment related to initial IVB doses was found. However, time to reactivation among study eyes was shorter in eyes that received very low-dose IVB (mean, 76.4 days) than in those that received low-dose IVB (mean, 85.7 days). At 12 months, poor retinal outcomes and anterior segment abnormalities both were uncommon (3% and 5%, respectively), optic atrophy was noted in 10%, median refraction was mildly myopic (-0.31 diopter), and strabismus was present in 29% of infants. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal structural outcomes were very good after low- and very low-dose IVB as initial treatment for type 1 ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment. The rate of reactivation of severe ROP was not associated with dose; however, a post hoc data-driven analysis suggested that reactivation was sooner with very low doses.
Friedman DS, Chang DS, Jiang Y, Huang S, Kim JA, Munoz B, Aung T, He M, Foster PJ. Acute Angle-Closure Attacks Are Uncommon in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects after Pharmacologic Mydriasis: The Zhongshan Angle-Closure Prevention Trial. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;5(6):581-586.Abstract
PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide that carries an excessive risk of severe, bilateral visual impairment. A common concern among clinicians is the precipitation of acute angle-closure (AAC) attacks because of mydriasis. We evaluated the risk of AAC after pharmacologic dilation in Chinese individuals classified as having bilateral primary angle-closure suspects (PACSs). DESIGN: Randomized, interventional, controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 889 patients with bilateral PACSs, aged between 50 and 70 years, were identified through community screening in Guangzhou, China, and enrolled in the study. METHODS: In the Zhongshan Angle-Closure Prevention Trial, bilateral PACSs were treated with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as an untreated control. Over 72 months of follow-up, the participants had their pupils pharmacologically dilated 6 times with 5% phenylephrine and 0.5% tropicamide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and risk of post-mydriasis AAC in LPI-treated and untreated, control eyes classified as PACSs. RESULTS: One bilateral AAC attack occurred after mydriasis at the 2-week post-LPI visit. No other AAC events occurred in the LPI-treated eyes. In the untreated eyes, 4 additional attacks occurred: 2 occurred after dilation (1 at 54 months and 1 at 72 months of follow-up) and 2 occurred spontaneously. The risk of post-mydriasis AAC in the untreated eyes was 1 attack in 1587 dilations. The risk of spontaneous AAC in the untreated eyes was 0.44 per 1000 eye-years (95% confidence interval, 0.11-1.77 per 1000 eye-years). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of incident AAC attacks in PACSs was extremely low, even in a higher-risk group that underwent repeated pharmacologic pupillary dilation over 6 years of follow-up. Prophylactic LPI reduced this small but real risk. This trial was registered at ISRCTN.com as ISRCTN45213099.
Fu Z, Nilsson AK, Hellstrom A, Smith LEH. Retinopathy of prematurity: Metabolic risk factors. Elife 2022;11Abstract
At preterm birth, the retina is incompletely vascularized. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is initiated by the postnatal suppression of physiological retinal vascular development that would normally occur in utero. As the neural retina slowly matures, increasing metabolic demand including in the peripheral avascular retina, leads to signals for compensatory but pathological neovascularization. Currently, only late neovascular ROP is treated. ROP could be prevented by promoting normal vascular growth. Early perinatal metabolic dysregulation is a strong but understudied risk factor for ROP and other long-term sequelae of preterm birth. We will discuss the metabolic and oxygen needs of retina, current treatments, and potential interventions to promote normal vessel growth including control of postnatal hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hyperoxia-induced retinal metabolic alterations. Early supplementation of missing nutrients and growth factors and control of supplemental oxygen promotes physiological retinal development. We will discuss the current knowledge gap in retinal metabolism after preterm birth.

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