Bhattacharya S, García-Posadas L, Hodges RR, Makarenkova HP, Masli S, Dartt DA. Alteration in nerves and neurotransmitter stimulation of lacrimal gland secretion in the TSP-1 mouse model of aqueous deficiency dry eye. Mucosal Immunol 2018;11(4):1138-1148.Abstract
The purpose of this study is to determine neural, vascular, protein secretion, and cellular signaling changes with disease progression in lacrimal glands of the thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mouse model of dry eye compared to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Neural innervation was reduced in TSP-1 lacrimal glands compared to WT controls, whereas the number of blood vessels was increased. Intracellular Ca stores and the amount of lysosomes, mitochondria, and secretory granules, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, were reduced in TSP-1 compared to WT acini at 12 weeks of age. Ex vivo high KCl-evoked secretion was decreased in TSP-1 compared to WT lacrimal gland tissue pieces. The α-adrenergic agonist-stimulated response was increased in TSP-1 at 4 and 24 weeks but decreased at 12 weeks, and the ATP and MeSATP-stimulated peak [Ca] responses were decreased at 24 weeks. These changes were observed prior to the appearance of mononuclear infiltrates. We conclude that in the lacrimal gland the absence of TSP-1: injures peripheral nerves; blocks efferent nerve activation; decreases protein secretion; and alters intracellular Ca stores. Through these effects the absence of TSP-1 leads to disruption of ocular surface homeostasis and development of dry eye.
Bingham CM, Sivak-Callcott JA, Gurka MJ, Nguyen J, Hogg JP, Feldon SE, Fay A, Seah L-L, Strianese D, Durairaj VD, Uddin J, Devoto MH, Harris M, Saunders J, Osaki TH, Looi A, Teo L, Davies BW, Elefante A, Shen S, Realini T, Fischer W, Kazim M. Axial Globe Position Measurement: A Prospective Multicenter Study by the International Thyroid Eye Disease Society. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(2):106-12.Abstract

PURPOSE: Identify a reproducible measure of axial globe position (AGP) for multicenter studies on patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). METHODS: This is a prospective, international, multicenter, observational study in which 3 types of AGP evaluation were examined: radiologic, clinical, and photographic. In this study, CT was the modality to which all other methods were compared. CT AGP was measured from an orthogonal line between the anterior lateral orbital rims to the cornea. All CT measurements were made at a single institution by 3 individual clinicians. Clinical evaluation was performed with exophthalmometry. Three clinicians from each clinical site assessed AGP with 3 different exophthalmometers and horizontal palpebral width using a ruler. Each physician made 3 separate measurements with each type of exophthalmometer not in succession. All photographic measurements were made at a single institution. AGP was measured from lateral photographs in which a standard marker was placed at the anterior lateral orbital rim. Horizontal and vertical palpebral fissure were measured from frontal photographs. Three trained readers measured 3 separate times not in succession. Exophthalmometry and photography method validity was assessed by agreement with CT (mean differences calculation, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs], Bland-Altman figures). Correlation between palpebral fissure and CT AGP was assessed with Pearson correlation. Intraclinician and interclinician reliability was evaluated using ICCs. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients from 7 centers participated. CT mean AGP was 21.37 mm (15.96-28.90 mm) right and 21.22 mm (15.87-28.70 mm) left (ICC 0.996 and 0.995). Exophthalmometry AGP fell between 18 mm and 25 mm. Intraclinician agreement across exophthalmometers was ideal (ICC 0.948-0.983). Agreement between clinicians was greater than 0.85 for all upright exophthalmometry measurements. Photographic mean AGP was 20.47 mm (10.92-30.88 mm) right and 20.30 mm (8.61-28.72 mm) left. Intrareader and interreader agreement was ideal (ICC 0.991-0.989). All exophthalmometers' mean differences from CT ranged between -0.06 mm (±1.36 mm) and 0.54 mm (±1.61 mm); 95% confidence interval fell within 1 mm. Magnitude of AGP did not affect exophthalmometry validity. Oculus best estimated CT AGP but differences from other exophthalmometers were not clinically meaningful in upright measurements. Photographic AGP (right ICC = 0.575, left ICC = 0.355) and palpebral fissure do not agree with CT. CONCLUSIONS: Upright clinical exophthalmometry accurately estimates CT AGP in TED. AGP measurement was reliably reproduced by the same clinician and between clinicians at multiple institutions using the protocol in this study. These findings allow reliable measurement of AGP that will be of considerable value in future outcome studies.

Birnbaum FA, Hamrah P, Jacobs DS, Song BJ. Acquired Corneal Neuropathy and Photoallodynia Associated With Malposition of an Ex-PRESS Shunt. J Glaucoma 2017;26(1):e19-e21.Abstract

PURPOSE: Corneal neuropathy is a recently described disease process that is not well understood and is likely underdiagnosed as a result. This is the first reported case of an acquired corneal neuropathy associated with malposition of an Ex-PRESS shunt. METHODS: A single case report. RESULTS: We report the case of a 50-year-old man with a history of multiple procedures for glaucoma who subsequently developed photoallodynia and corneal neuropathy in association with malposition of an Ex-PRESS shunt in the peripheral cornea. Laser confocal microscopy (HRT3/RCM) of the cornea showed the presence of neuromas, decreased nerve density, and a significant increase of dendritiform immune cells consistent with our diagnosis. Initial treatment with steroid pulse therapy did not result in decreased inflammation or symptomatic improvement leading to surgical explantation of the shunt. One month after surgery, there was noticeable improvement in the patient's pain and photoallodynia (approximately 40%) as well as the abnormalities seen on confocal microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that poor Ex-PRESS shunt positioning can act as a nidus for corneal inflammation, resulting in corneal neuropathy and lowering of the nociception threshold.

Birsner AE, Benny O, D'Amato RJ. The corneal micropocket assay: a model of angiogenesis in the mouse eye. J Vis Exp 2014;(90)Abstract

The mouse corneal micropocket assay is a robust and quantitative in vivo assay for evaluating angiogenesis. By using standardized slow-release pellets containing specific growth factors that trigger blood vessel growth throughout the naturally avascular cornea, angiogenesis can be measured and quantified. In this assay the angiogenic response is generated over the course of several days, depending on the type and dose of growth factor used. The induction of neovascularization is commonly triggered by either basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). By combining these growth factors with sucralfate and hydron (poly-HEMA (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate))) and casting the mixture into pellets, they can be surgically implanted in the mouse eye. These uniform pellets slowly-release the growth factors over five or six days (bFGF or VEGF respectively) enabling sufficient angiogenic response required for vessel area quantification using a slit lamp. This assay can be used for different applications, including the evaluation of angiogenic modulator drugs or treatments as well as comparison between different genetic backgrounds affecting angiogenesis. A skilled investigator after practicing this assay can implant a pellet in less than 5 min per eye.

Bispo PJM, Haas W, Gilmore MS. Biofilms in infections of the eye. Pathogens 2015;4(1):111-36.Abstract

The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell-cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority.

Bleier BS, Castelnuovo P, Battaglia P, Turri-Zanoni M, Dallan I, Metson R, Sedaghat AR, Stefko TS, Gardner PA, Snyderman CH, Nogueira JF, Ramakrishnan VR, Muscatello L, Lenzi R, Freitag S. Endoscopic endonasal orbital cavernous hemangioma resection: global experience in techniques and outcomes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015;Abstract

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic orbital surgery represents the next frontier in endonasal surgery. The current literature is largely composed of small, heterogeneous, case series with little consensus regarding optimal techniques. The purpose of this study was to combine the experience of multiple international centers to create a composite of the global experience on the endoscopic management of a single type of tumor, the orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of techniques for endoscopic OCH resection from 6 centers on 3 continents. Only primary data from strictly endoscopic resection of OCHs were included. Responses were analyzed to qualitatively identify points of both consensus and variability among the different groups. RESULTS: Data for a total of 23 patients, 10 (43.5%) male and 13 (56.5%) female were collected. The majority of lesions were intraconal (60.9%). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) surgical time was 150.7 ± 75.0 minutes with a mean blood loss of 82.7 ± 49.6 mL. Binarial approaches (26.1%) were used exclusively in the setting of intraconal lesions, which were associated with a higher rate of incomplete resection (31.3%), postoperative diplopia (25.0%), and the need for reconstruction (37.5%) than extraconal lesions. Orthotropia and symmetric orbital appearance were achieved in 60.9% and 78.3% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Extraconal lesions were managed similarly; however, greater variability was evident for intraconal lesions. These included the laterality and number of hands in the approach, methods of medial rectus retraction, and the need for reconstruction. The increased technical complexity and disparity of techniques in addressing intraconal OCHs suggests that continued research into the optimal management of this subclass of lesions is of significant priority.

Bleier BS, Healy DY, Chhabra N, Freitag S. Compartmental endoscopic surgical anatomy of the medial intraconal orbital space. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2014;4(7):587-91.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Surgical management of intraconal pathology represents the next frontier in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Despite this, the medial intraconal space remains a relatively unexplored region, secondary to its variable and technically demanding anatomy. The purpose of this study is to define the neurovascular structures in this region and introduce a compartmentalized approach to enhance surgical planning. METHODS: This study was an institutional review board (IRB)-exempt endoscopic anatomic study in 10 cadaveric orbits. After dissection of the medial intraconal space, the pattern and trajectory of the oculomotor nerve and ophthalmic arterial arborizations were analyzed. The position of all vessels as well as the length of the oculomotor trunk and branches relative to the sphenoid face were calculated. RESULTS: A mean of 1.5 arterial branches were identified (n = 15; range, 1-4) at a mean of 8.8 mm from the sphenoid face (range, 4-15 mm). The majority of the arteries (n = 7) inserted adjacent to the midline of medial rectus. The oculomotor nerve inserted at the level of the sphenoid face and arborized with a large proximal trunk 5.5 ± 1.1 mm in length and multiple branches extending 13.2 ± 2.7 mm from the sphenoid face. The most anterior nerve and vascular pedicle were identified at 17.0 and 15.0 mm from the sphenoid face, respectively. CONCLUSION: The neurovascular supply to the medial rectus muscle describes a varied but predictable pattern. This data allows the compartmentalization of the medial intraconal space into 3 zones relative to the neurovascular supply. These zones inform the complexity of the dissection and provide a guideline for safe medial rectus retraction relative to the fixed landmark of the sphenoid face.

Boonsopon S, Maghsoudlou A, Kombo NE, Foster SC. A therapeutic trial of valganciclovir in patients with uveitis and positive Epstein-Barr virus early antigen D IgG titers. Eur J Ophthalmol 2015;26(1):30-5.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a therapeutic trial of valganciclovir in patients with uveitis with positive Epstein-Barr virus early antigen D immunoglobulin G titers (EBV EA-D). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 14 patients at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution who had uveitis with positive EBV EA-D but negative studies for all other causes of uveitis and were treated with valganciclovir 450 mg twice a day or valganciclovir 900 mg twice a day between January 2010 and August 2014. RESULTS: Nine of 14 patients, who had presumed EBV reactivation with associated intraocular inflammation, were successfully treated with valganciclovir: 3 of these were treated with valganciclovir 450 mg twice a day and 6 were treated with valganciclovir 900 mg twice a day. Five of 14 patients failed to respond to valganciclovir with persistent inflammation after at least 2 weeks of valganciclovir therapy, and were subsequently treated with immunomodulatory therapy to control inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Uveitis can be caused by EBV infection/reactivation. A therapeutic trial with valganciclovir 450 mg twice a day for 1 month in patients with uveitis with positive EBV EA antibody may be beneficial.

Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Jeng-Miller KW, Koulisis N, Moustafa GA, Chang KK, Chen SH, Gardiner MF, Greenstein SH, Luo Z, Chen TC, Loewenstein JI, Miller JW, Haviland MJ, Kloek CE. A Comprehensive Surgical Curriculum Reduced Intra-operative Complication Rates of Resident-performed Cataract Surgeries. J Surg Educ 2018;Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a comprehensive cataract surgery curriculum on the incidence of intraoperative complications. DESIGN: We retrospectively compared the total number of cataract surgeries that the residents performed in all of the teaching sites, and the incidences of intraoperative complications (anterior capsule tear, posterior capsule rent, vitreous loss, anterior vitrectomy, zonular dialysis, iris trauma, hemorrhage, dropped lens fragment, corneal wound burn, incorrect intraocular lens) for the surgeries performed at Massachusetts Eye & Ear by residents in the pre-intervention group (residents graduating in 2004 and 2005), before the implementation of a surgical curriculum, and the residents in the post-intervention group (residents graduating in 2014 and 2015). SETTING: Ophthalmology residency program at a major academic institution. PARTICIPANTS: Residents graduating in 2004, 2005, 2014, and 2015. RESULTS: We reviewed 4373 charts. 2086 of those surgeries were performed at Massachusetts Eye & Ear. The incidence of posterior capsule rent/vitreous loss/anterior vitrectomy was lower in the post-intervention group (1.4% versus 7.7%, p < 0.0001). Other complications were also lower in the post-intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a comprehensive cataract surgery curriculum focusing on pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative interventions, with an emphasis on patient outcomes resulted in a decrease in the rate of intraoperative complications.
Borkar DS, Homayounfar G, Tham VM, Ray KJ, Vinoya AC, Uchida A, Acharya NR. Association Between Thyroid Disease and Uveitis: Results From the Pacific Ocular Inflammation Study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(6):594-599.Abstract
Importance: Common pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for immune dysregulation in both thyroid disease and uveitis. Studies investigating a possible association are limited. Objective: To determine the association between thyroid disease and uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, population-based case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007, among 217 061 members of the Kaiser Permanente Hawaii health system during the study period. A clinical diagnosis of uveitis was determined through a query of the electronic medical record followed by individual medical record review for confirmation by a uveitis specialist. Thyroid disease was determined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, coding. Two control groups were chosen at a 4:1 ratio for comparison with patients with uveitis. A logistic regression analysis was performed with uveitis as the main outcome variable and thyroid disease as the main predictor variable, while adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, and history of autoimmune disease. Data analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: A diagnosis of thyroid disease among patients with uveitis and respective controls. Results: Of the 224 patients with uveitis (127 women and 97 men; mean [SD] age, 54.1 [17.8] years) identified during the study period, 29 (12.9%) had a diagnosis of thyroid disease, compared with 62 of 896 patients (6.9%) in the control group (P = .01) and 78 of 896 patients (8.7%) in the ophthalmology clinic control group (P = .06). Using the general Kaiser Permanente Hawaii population control group, patients who had thyroid disease had a 1.7-fold (95% CI, 1.03-2.80; P = .04) higher odds of having uveitis compared with patients who did not have thyroid disease when controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, and autoimmune disease. A similar association was found using the ophthalmology clinic control group (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9; P = .02) while adjusting for these factors. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that a history of thyroid disease has a weak to moderate association with uveitis. Similar autoimmune mechanisms could explain the pathogenesis of both conditions. If future studies corroborate these findings, they may have further clinical implications in the laboratory workup of uveitis.
Borkar DS, Veldman P, Colby KA. Treatment of Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy by Descemet Stripping Without Endothelial Keratoplasty. Cornea 2016;35(10):1267-73.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of deliberate removal of the central Descemet membrane on endothelial function and morphology in patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED) and cataract undergoing phacoemulsification. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, patients with FED and visually significant cataract underwent phacoemulsification in an academic cornea practice in Boston, MA. Four millimeters of the central Descemet membrane was stripped and removed after intraocular lens insertion. Vision, corneal pachymetry, and confocal imaging of the endothelial anatomy were performed before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Patients were classified as fast responders, responders, slow responders, and nonresponders on the basis of postoperative time to resolution of corneal edema with visible central endothelial mosaic. RESULTS: Eleven patients (13 eyes) aged 51 to 91 years were included in the study. No eyes had countable central endothelial cells by confocal imaging before surgery. Preoperative visual acuity ranged from 20/25 to 20/400. All corneas showed stromal and microcystic edema in the area of Descemet stripping at days 1 and 7 after surgery. Four eyes demonstrated resolution of corneal edema with visible central endothelial cell mosaic (range: 410-864 cells/mm) by postoperative month 1 with visual acuity ranging between 20/25 and 20/40. Four additional eyes demonstrated a similar response by postoperative month 3 and an additional 2 eyes had resolution of corneal edema with an intact central endothelial mosaic at postoperative month 6 or later. Cell counts (range: 428-864 cells/mm) were maintained in all 10 responders at the last follow-up visit (range: postoperative months 6-24). Final vision ranged from 20/15 to 20/20 in these 10 eyes with the exception of 2 eyes with retinal pathology. Three eyes required endothelial keratoplasty. CONCLUSIONS: Repopulation of the central corneal endothelium with corneal deturgescence can occur after deliberate central Descemet stripping in patients with FED who underwent cataract removal. This may offer a novel treatment for patients with FED that could reduce the need for endothelial transplantation. Further studies are needed to delineate the optimal patient population for Descemet stripping because not all patients will respond to this intervention.

Bothun ED, Lynn MJ, Christiansen SP, Kruger SJ, VanderVeen DK, Neely DE, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Strabismus surgery outcomes in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) at age 5 years. J AAPOS 2016;20(6):501-505.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report strabismus surgery frequency and outcomes after monocular infantile cataract surgery with or without IOL implantation. METHODS: The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) is a randomized, multicenter clinical trial comparing treatment of aphakia with a primary IOL or contact lens in 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract. This report is a secondary outcome analysis of ocular motor data from IATS patients who underwent strabismus surgery prior to age 5 years. RESULTS: Strabismus surgery was performed in 45 (39%) patients (contact lens group [CL], 37%; IOL group, 42% [P = 0.70]). The indications for strabismus surgery were esotropia (62%), exotropia (33%), and hypertropia (4%). Infants who underwent cataract surgery at a younger age were less likely to undergo strabismus surgery (28-48 days, 12/50 [24%]; 49-210 days, 33/64 [52%]; P = 0.0037). Of the 42 patients who underwent strabismus surgery, 14 (33%) had a postoperative distance alignment within 8(Δ) of orthotropia at age 5 years. The 5-year visual acuity of children with strabismus was the same whether or not strabismus surgery had been performed (1.10 logMAR with surgery vs 1.00 without [P = 0.71]). CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, cataract surgery performed in the first 6 weeks of life was associated with a reduced frequency of strabismus surgery. Strabismus surgery outcomes in this population are guarded. Surgical improvement of strabismus does not appear to influence long-term visual acuity.

Bouffard MA, Nathavitharana RR, Yassa DS, Torun N. Re-Treatment With Ethambutol After Toxic Optic Neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol 2017;37(1):40-42.Abstract

There are no data in the literature regarding the safety of re-treatment with ethambutol for recurrent mycobacterial infection after prior ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy. We describe a patient who developed optic neuropathy attributed to ethambutol, recovered fully after drug withdrawal, and tolerated a 14-month long re-treatment 10 years later without developing recurrent optic neuropathy.

Bouffard MA, Prasad S. Advances in Neuro-Ophthalmic Imaging. Semin Neurol 2017;37(5):566-579.
Bouffard MA, Cornblath WT, Rizzo JF, Lee MS, De Lott LB, Eggenberger ER, Torun N. Transient Monocular Vision Loss on Awakening: A Benign Amaurotic Phenomenon. J Neuroophthalmol 2017;37(2):122-125.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Transient monocular vision loss (TMVL) is an alarming symptom owing to potentially serious etiologies such as thromboembolism or giant cell arteritis. Our objective is to describe the phenomenon of TMVL present on awakening, which may represent a distinct and benign entity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational case series of 29 patients who experienced TMVL on awakening. Patients who described monocular dimming or blackout of vision were included, and those with blurred vision, concurrent eye pain, and binocular vision loss were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the study population. RESULTS: Of the 29 patients we studied, 90% (n = 26) were female and 48% had crowded discs (cup-to-disc ratio ≤0.2). The mean age was 45.4 years, although women were significantly younger than men (mean ages 43.4 and 62.7 years, respectively, P = 0.017). Brain magnetic resonance imaging and vascular imaging (magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or carotid Doppler) were performed in 69% and 55% of cases, respectively, and were uniformly negative. In 14 patients for whom clear follow-up data could be obtained, no medically or visually significant sequelae of this syndrome were found, and 50% experienced resolution of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation was uniformly negative when patients described waking with isolated vision loss in 1 eye with subsequent resolution, usually in less than 15 minutes. The natural history seems benign with symptoms frequently remitting spontaneously. This visual phenomenon may represent an autoregulatory failure resulting in a supply/demand mismatch during low-light conditions.
Bouffard MA, Cestari DM. Diplopia after Cataract Extraction. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-6.Abstract
Diplopia after cataract extraction is an unexpected outcome for the patient and often a source of confusion for the physician, owing to its relative infrequency. This article reviews the pertinent literature on the subject. Mechanisms include anesthetic myotoxicity, surgical trauma, optical aberrations, cortical disorders in patients with congenital strabismus, and the unmasking of previously unnoticed ocular misalignment. As the population continues to age and cataract extraction is performed in increasing volume, familiarity with this uncommon but important outcome may help to clarify and effectively treat post-cataract-extraction diplopia.
Bouffard MA, Torun N. The Mystery of the Locking Eye. JAMA Neurol 2017;74(5):601-602.
Bouffard MA, Caplan LR, Torun N. Divergence Palsy due to Divalproex and Oxcarbazepine. Clin Neuropharmacol 2017;Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This case series is the first to describe divergence palsy as an adverse effect of antiepileptic drug use. Diplopia is a common adverse effect of antiepileptic drugs, but no explanatory motility deficit has ever been reported. METHODS: We present 2 patients, 1 on oxcarbazepine and 1 on divalproex, each with a normal examination result between spells and divergency palsy when symptomatic. RESULTS: Discontinuation of the antiepileptic medication led to resolution of the episodes in both cases. Rechallenge with the offending agent after washout in one patient resulted in recurrence of diplopia and divergence palsy, both resolving after subsequent withdrawal of the antiepileptic. CONCLUSIONS: Antiepileptic drugs may cause divergence palsy.

Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR, Taylor HR. Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2017;5(9):e888-e897.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). FINDINGS: Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9-65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17-0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34-4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5-350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88-4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1-1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9-997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9-57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9-65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (-36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3-270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5-359·1) in 2015. INTERPRETATION: There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. FUNDING: Brien Holden Vision Institute.
Bourne RRA, Jonas JB, Bron AM, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Friedman DS, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Peto T, Saadine J, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Varma R, Wong TY, Resnikoff S. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;102(5):575-585.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0.26% (0.10-0.46) to 0.15% (0.06-0.26) and from 1.74% (0.76-2.94) to 1.27% (0.55-2.17), respectively. In 2015, the number of individuals affected by blindness, MSVI and mild vision impairment ranged from 70 000, 630 000 and 610 000, respectively, in Australasia to 980 000, 7.46 million and 7.25 million, respectively, in North America and 1.16 million, 9.61 million and 9.47 million, respectively, in Western Europe. In 2015, cataract was the most common cause for blindness, followed by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, uncorrected refractive error, diabetic retinopathy and cornea-related disorders, with declining burden from cataract and AMD over time. Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of MSVI. CONCLUSIONS: While continuing to advance control of cataract and AMD as the leading causes of blindness remains a high priority, overcoming barriers to uptake of refractive error services would address approximately half of the MSVI burden. New data on burden of presbyopia identify this entity as an important public health problem in this population. Additional research on better treatments, better implementation with existing tools and ongoing surveillance of the problem is needed.