Omega (ω)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators and thereby contribute to the regulation of inflammation. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a well-established animal model of autoimmune retinal inflammation. To investigate the potential effects of dietary intake of ω-3 LCPUFAs on uveitis, we examined the anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules in comparison with ω-6 LCPUFAs in a mouse EAU model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing ω-3 LCPUFAs or ω-6 LCPUFAs for 2 weeks before as well as after the induction of EAU by subcutaneous injection of a fragment of human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. Both clinical and histological scores for uveitis were smaller for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs than for those fed ω-6 LCPUFAs. The concentrations of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon-γ and the Th17 cytokine interleukin-17 in intraocular fluid as well as the production of these cytokines by lymph node cells were reduced for mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Furthermore, the amounts of mRNAs for the Th1- and Th17-related transcription factors T-bet and RORγt, respectively, were reduced both in the retina and in lymph node cells of mice fed ω-3 LCPUFAs. Our results thus show that a diet enriched in ω-3 LCPUFAs suppressed uveitis in mice in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell function.
PURPOSE: To describe differences in the clinical characteristics of birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC) patients diagnosed early and later in life. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Age was primarily analyzed and 50 years of age at diagnosis was selected as a cut-off point. RESULTS: A total of 144 patients (288 eyes) were included; 68 with early-onset and 76 with late-onset BSRC. The younger group had a statistically significant higher rate of more severe iritis (p = 0.04); an average number of non-steroidal immunosuppressants and biologic agents (NSIB) (p = 0.04); and a prolonged time to initiation of NSIB (p = 0.01). There were only four patients (3%) who had >0.5+ cells in the anterior chamber. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with early-onset BSRC carried a higher risk for anterior segment inflammation, had a more prolonged delay to initiation of treatment with NSIB, and required a greater number of NSIBs to achieve remission.
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of tocilizumab treatment for refractory ocular inflammatory diseases. METHODS: A retrospective case series of 17 patients (28 eyes) diagnosed with recalcitrant ocular inflammatory diseases including uveitis (10 cases), scleritis (six cases) and orbital pseudotumour (one case), who received tocilizumab between April 2010 and March 2015. All patients were initiated with treatment of 4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg tocilizumab. The primary outcome was absence of inflammation and achievement of steroid sparing at 6 and 9 months. Secondary outcomes were change in visual acuity and major adverse effects of tocilizumab causing discontinuation of the treatment. RESULTS: Mean age at initiation of tocilizumab was 41 ± 16 years. Prior to tocilizumab treatment, all patients underwent unsuccessful conventional immunosuppressive therapy while 94% of patients (16/17) failed treatment with various biological agents. After tocilizumab administration, control of inflammation and steroid sparing were achieved in 63% and 71% of uveitis patients at 6 and 9 months, while 50% of scleritis patients achieved the primary outcome at 6 and 9 months. Mean duration of tocilizumab therapy was 12.6 ± 10.0 (range, 2-35) months. Three of four patients who had a follow-up of at least 18 (range, 18-35) months experienced quiescent inflammation for up to 32 months of tocilizumab use until last visit. Four patients (24%) discontinued tocilizumab due to serious side effects including neutropenia, unacceptable dizziness and nausea, severe angioedema and severe abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: Our series demonstrated moderate efficacy of tocilizumab in recalcitrant uveitis and scleritis. Serious adverse effects were not uncommon.
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) is a bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological systems. The primary pathogenesis is T-cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards melanocyte or melanocyte-associated antigens causing inflammation of the choroidal layer. This phenomenon usually leads to diffuse inflammatory conditions throughout most parts of eye before ocular complications ensue. The diagnosis is achieved mainly by clinical features according to the revised diagnostic criteria of VKH published in 2001, without confirmatory serologic tests as a requirement. However, ancillary tests, especially multimodal imaging, can reliably provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of early cases, atypical presentations, and evaluation of management. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids and early non-steroidal immunosuppressive drug therapy can lessen visually threatening ocular complications and bring about good visual recovery. Close monitoring warrants visual stabilization from disease recurrence and ocular complications. This article review aims not only to update comprehensive knowledge regarding VKH but also to emphasize three major perspectives of VKH: immunogenetics as the major pathogenesis of the disease, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and drug-induced VKH is also provided.
PURPOSE: To report the characteristics of infection and prognostic factors of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) over an 11-year period. METHODS: The clinical records of 41 eyes of 36 patients diagnosed with culture-proven EE at the Rajavithi Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Median age at presentation was 58 years. Liver abscess (19%) and urinary tract infections (19%) were the most common sources of infection. The most common causative agents were gram-negative organisms (48%). The most commonly isolated microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.8%). Worse initial visual acuity and severe intraocular inflammation at first presentation were equally associated with poor visual outcome in the multivariate model (adjusted odds ratio, 20.32; 95% confidence interval [1.12-357.45]; P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous endophthalmitis usually has a poor visual prognosis. Liver abscess and urinary tract infections are common primary sites of infection. Poor initial visual acuity and severe intraocular inflammation at the initial presentation are predictors of poor visual outcome.
PURPOSE: To report the novel application of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody to confirm diagnosis of ocular syphilis from vitreous samples. METHODS: Two distinct case reports emphasizing the importance of confirmatory vitreous treponemal antibody. Multimodal imaging of patients was also applied. RESULTS: We report two distinct cases with positive serum treponemal antibody but opposing vitreous treponemal antibody results. One case with a positive vitreous test responded well to antisyphilitic treatment. By contrast, a case with a negative vitreous result was changed to serpiginous choroiditis, eventually cured by immunomodulatory treatment. CONCLUSION: Intraocular fluid analysis of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody may play an important role in ruling out suspected ocular syphilis in settings without a polymerase chain reaction facility, especially immunocompromised patients who are at risk of multiple infections. Further studies are needed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody test on vitreous samples.
PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors for poor visual outcome in patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy. METHODS: A case-control study of 98 patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy (196 eyes) was evaluated with a follow-up period of at least 12 months. After exclusion of glaucoma, optic atrophy, and macular scar, the remaining eligible patients were categorized into two groups: poor visual outcomes and good visual outcomes. Poor visual outcome was defined as less than -6 mean deviation score on Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA) short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP) test and abnormality (amplitude or implicit time) of 30 Hz flicker electroretinogram at 4-year follow-up and at the most recent visit for separate analysis. Potential factors between both groups were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test and logistic regression model. RESULTS: After the aforementioned exclusion, the remaining 77 patients with an average follow-up period of 52 ± 29 months (335 person-years, 36% with follow-up of more than 5 years) were divided into two groups. Sixteen patients were categorized as having poor visual outcome. Univariate analysis identified significant association of abnormal 30 Hz flicker electroretinogram amplitude (P = 0.004), implicit time (P = 0.002), and SITA SWAP mean deviation at the initial visit (P < 0.001) in the poor visual outcome group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only SITA SWAP mean deviation to be associated with poor visual outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 32.50; 95% confidence interval [3.84-275.32]; P = 0.001) at the initial visit. To verify the model validity, an analysis of 42 patients at 4-year follow-up was performed and the outcome was confirmed (adjusted odds ratio, 8.80; 95% confidence interval [1.58-49.16]; P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Worse SITA SWAP mean deviation at the initial visit is a predictor of poor visual outcome in patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy, and may serve as a proxy marker for delayed effective steroid sparing therapy in patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents. Local ocular therapies are options with promising efficacy. The early recognition of disease and treatment provides reduction of visual morbidity and mortality.
PURPOSE: To describe changes in three-dimensional choroidal volume and thickness with full raster scans of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy. METHODS: This prospective case series collected spectral domain optical coherence tomography images with the enhanced depth imaging technique from eight eyes of eight patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy including four active patients (four eyes) and four quiet patients (four eyes). Fifty scans of each patient were manually segmented before automated built-in calibration software was used. RESULTS: Of all active patients, there were no statistically significant differences in the total choroidal volume and mean central choroidal thickness between the active and inactive phase over 6 months of follow-up. Alterations in choroidal parameters were evident and consistent after amelioration of inflammation, whereas the retinal volume and thickness remained stable. Regarding the eight inactive eyes at 6 months, the mean total choroidal volume and mean central choroidal thickness were significantly less than historical controls (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively). Persistent suprachoroidal hyporeflective space in two patients was noted despite the fact that clinical inflammation completely subsided at 6 months. CONCLUSION: Choroidal volume and thickness changes were consistent with inflammation in patients with birdshot retinochoroidopathy. Patients with inactive birdshot retinochoroidopathy have significant reduction in choroidal volume and thickness than do normal patients.
PURPOSE: To compare diabetic retinopathy (DR) identification and ungradable image rates between nonmydriatic ultrawide field (UWF) imaging and nonmydriatic multifield fundus photography (NMFP) in a large multistate population-based DR teleophthalmology program. DESIGN: Multiple-site, nonrandomized, consecutive, cross-sectional, retrospective, uncontrolled imaging device evaluation. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five thousand fifty-two eyes (17 526 patients) imaged using NMFP and 16 218 eyes (8109 patients) imaged using UWF imaging. METHODS: All patients undergoing Joslin Vision Network (JVN) imaging with either NMFP or UWF imaging from May 1, 2014, through August 30, 2015, within the Indian Health Service-JVN program, which serves American Indian and Alaska Native communities at 97 sites across 25 states, were evaluated. All retinal images were graded using a standardized validated protocol in a centralized reading center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ungradable rate for DR and diabetic macular edema (DME). RESULTS: The ungradable rate per patient for DR and DME was significantly lower with UWF imaging compared with NMFP (DR, 2.8% vs. 26.9% [P < 0.0001]; DME, 3.8% vs. 26.2% [P < 0.0001]). Identification of eyes with either DR or referable DR (moderate nonproliferative DR or DME or worse) was increased using UWF imaging from 11.7% to 24.2% (P < 0.0001) and from 6.2% to 13.6% (P < 0.0001), respectively. In eyes with DR imaged with UWF imaging (n = 3926 eyes of 2402 patients), the presence of predominantly peripheral lesions suggested a more severe level of DR in 7.2% of eyes (9.6% of patients). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, widely distributed DR ocular telehealth program, as compared with NMFP, nonmydriatic UWF imaging reduced the number of ungradable eyes by 81%, increased the identification of DR nearly 2-fold, and identified peripheral lesions suggesting more severe DR in almost 10% of patients, thus demonstrating significant benefits of this imaging method for large DR teleophthalmology programs.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether peripheral diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions identified on ultrawide field (UWF) imaging are associated with increased DR progression. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred eyes of 100 participants previously enrolled in a comparative instrument validation study. METHODS: Baseline mydriatic 7-standard field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) photographs and UWF images were obtained. On UWF images, DR lesions with a greater extent outside versus inside standard ETDRS fields were defined as predominantly peripheral lesions (PPLs). Follow-up ETDRS photographs were obtained 4.2±0.3 years after baseline. Baseline and follow-up DR severity were graded from ETDRS photographs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of 2-step or more progression and progression to proliferative DR (PDR) in eyes with PPLs compared with eyes without PPLs identified on UWF imaging at baseline. RESULTS: In eyes without PDR (n = 109) at baseline, 56 (51%) had at least 1 field with PPLs and 43 (39%) had DR progression. Compared with eyes without PPLs, eyes with PPLs had a 3.2-fold increased risk of 2-step or more DR progression (6 [11%] vs. 19 [34%]; P = 0.005) and a 4.7-fold increased risk for progression to PDR (3 [6%] vs. 14 [25%]; P = 0.005). These findings remained statistically significant after adjusting for gender, diabetes type, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and baseline DR severity. Increasing extent of fields with PPLs increased the risk for 2-step or more DR progression (P = 0.004) and progression to PDR (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Presence and increasing extent of PPLs were associated with increased risk of DR progression over 4 years, independent of baseline DR severity and HbA1c levels. Increasing extent of PPLs substantially increased the risk of DR progression and progression to PDR, especially with less severe DR at baseline. These findings demonstrate that detailed peripheral retinal evaluation provides important information that is necessary to assess completely the risk of DR progression.
Species that are highly reliant on their visual system have a specialized retinal area subserving high-acuity vision, e.g., the fovea in humans. Although of critical importance for our daily activities, little is known about the mechanisms driving the development of retinal high-acuity areas (HAAs). Using the chick as a model, we found a precise and dynamic expression pattern of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) in the HAA anlage, which was regulated by enzymes that degrade retinoic acid (RA). Transient manipulation of RA signaling, or reduction of Fgf8 expression, disrupted several features of HAA patterning, including photoreceptor distribution, ganglion cell density, and organization of interneurons. Notably, patterned expression of RA signaling components was also found in humans, suggesting that RA also plays a role in setting up the human fovea.
PURPOSE: To assess whether the presence of peripheral nonperfusion on ultrawide field (UWF) fluorescein angiography (FA) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and the presence of predominantly peripheral lesions (PPLs). DESIGN: Single-site, cross-sectional, retrospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight eyes of 37 diabetic subjects with or without DR and no history of prior panretinal laser photocoagulation. METHODS: Both 200° UWF images and UWF FA images were acquired at the same visit. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) templates were overlaid digitally based on disc and macula location onto stereographically projected UWF images. Images were evaluated for the presence of PPLs, defined as more than 50% of the graded lesion located outside the ETDRS field in each of the 5 extended fields. The UWF-FA images were evaluated by 2 masked, independent graders for extent of retinal nonperfusion area (NPA) and nonperfusion index (NPI; nonperfused/total gradable area). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of NPA and NPI with DR severity and presence of PPLs. RESULTS: Distribution of DR severity was as follows: no DR, 8.8% eyes; mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 17.6%; moderate NPDR, 32.4%; severe NPDR, 17.6%; proliferative DR (PDR), 19.1%; and high-risk PDR, 4.4%; with PPL present in 61.8%. There was strong intragrader (r = 0.95) and intergrader (r = 0.86) agreement for NPA. Presence of PPLs was associated with increased NPA (191.8 mm(2) vs. 306.1 mm(2); P = 0.0019) and NPI (0.25 vs. 0.43; P = 0.0003). These relationships remained significant after adjusting for DR severity and diabetes duration. In eyes without PDR (n = 52), increasing NPA and NPI was associated with worsening DR (NPA, P = 0.001; NPI, P = 0.0003). NPA and NPI were not associated with clinically significant macular edema (NPA, P = 0.99; NPI, P = 0.67), nor correlated with visual acuity (NPA, r = 0.14, P = 0.23; NPI, r = 0.24, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Following a standardized protocol, the evaluation of UWF FA for NPA and NPI is reproducible. Both parameters are correlated highly with the presence of PPLs and DR severity. Given that the presence and extent of PPLs have been associated with increased risks of DR progression, the clinical identification of PPLs may reflect closely the extent of nonperfusion and ischemia, thus accounting for the increased risk of progression.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate detection of hemorrhage and/or microaneurysm (H/Ma) using ultrawide field (UWF) retinal imaging as compared with standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7-field photographs (ETDRS photos). DESIGN: Single-site comparative study of UWF images and ETDRS photos. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-six eyes of 69 patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild or moderate nonproliferative DR (NPDR). METHODS: Stereoscopic 200° UWF images and stereoscopic 35mm 30° 7-field color photographs were acquired on the same visit. Images were graded for severity and distribution of H/Ma. H/Mas were counted in ETDRS fields 2 to 7 in both ETDRS photos and UWF images. H/Mas in the UWF peripheral fields were also counted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kappa (κ) and weighted κ statistics for agreement. Number of H/Ma within and outside ETDRS fields identified in UWF images and ETDRS photos. RESULTS: Distribution of DR severity by ETDRS photos was 24 (19.0%) no DR, 48 (38.1%) mild NPDR, and 54 (42.9%) moderate NPDR. A total of 748 of 756 fields (98.9%) were gradable for H/Mas on ETDRS photos and UWF images. Simple κ/weighted κ statistics for severity of H/Ma: all fields 0.61/0.69, field 2 0.70/0.77, field 3 0.62/0.73, field 4 0.50/0.62, field 5 0.54/0.65, field 6 0.64/0.70, and field 7 0.58/0.63 with overall exact agreement in 81.3% and within 1 step in 97.9% of fields. A greater proportion of fields was graded a more severe H/Ma level in UWF images than in the corresponding ETDRS photos (UWF: 12.7% vs. ETDRS: 6.5%). Evaluating comparable areas in UWF images and ETDRS photos (fields 2-7), a mean of 42.8 H/Mas were identified using ETDRS photos and 48.8 in UWF images (P = 0.10). An additional mean of 21.3 H/Mas (49.8% increase, P < 0.0001) were identified in the peripheral fields of the UWF images. CONCLUSIONS: There is good to excellent agreement between UWF images and ETDRS photos in determining H/Ma severity, with excellent correlation of H/Ma counts within ETDRS photo fields. UWF peripheral fields identified 49.8% more H/Ma, suggesting a more severe H/Ma in 12.7% of eyes. Given the additional lesions detected in peripheral fields and the known risks associated with H/Ma and peripheral lesions, quantification of H/Ma using UWF images may provide a more accurate representation of DR disease activity and potential greater accuracy in predicting DR progression.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of trained nonphysician retinal imagers to perform diabetic retinopathy (DR) evaluation at the time of ultrawide field retinal (UWF) imaging in a teleophthalmology program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Clinic patients with diabetes received Joslin Vision Network protocol retinal imaging as part of their standard medical care. Retinal imagers evaluated UWF images for referable DR at the time of image capture. Training of the imagers included 4 h of standardized didactic lectures and 12 h of guided image review. Real-time evaluations were compared with standard masked gradings performed at a centralized reading center. RESULTS: A total of 3,978 eyes of 1,989 consecutive patients were imaged and evaluated. By reading center evaluation, 3,769 eyes (94.7%) were gradable for DR, 1,376 (36.5%) had DR, and 580 (15.3%) had referable DR. Compared with the reading center, real-time image evaluation had a sensitivity and specificity for identifying more than minimal DR of 0.95 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) and 0.84 (0.82-0.85), respectively, and 0.99 (0.97-1.00) and 0.76 (0.75-0.78), respectively, for detecting referable DR. Only three patients with referable DR were not identified by imager evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Point-of-care evaluation of UWF images by nonphysician imagers following standardized acquisition and evaluation protocols within an established teleophthalmology program had good sensitivity and specificity for detection of DR and for identification of referable retinal disease. With immediate image evaluation, <0.1% of patients with referable DR would be missed, reading center image grading burden would be reduced by 60%, and patient feedback would be expedited.
IMPORTANCE: Ultrawide field imaging (UWFI) is increasingly being used in teleophthalmology settings. Given the greater area of the retina imaged, we evaluated the ability of UWFI vs nonmydriatic fundus photography (NMFP) to detect nondiabetic retinal findings in a teleophthalmology program. OBSERVATION: We conducted a retrospective single-center comparative cohort study from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2013, imaging 3864 and 3971 consecutive teleophthalmology patients (7728 and 7942 eyes) using NMFP and UWFI, respectively. Standard diabetic retinopathy evaluation and nondiabetic findings were compared between the 2 imaging modalities. In patients without diabetic retinopathy (2243 by NMFP and 2252 by UWFI), the rate of identification of nondiabetic findings by NMFP (451 patients [20.1%]) and UWFI (490 [21.8%]) were comparable (P = .19). Ultrawide field imaging increased the identification of choroidal nevi by 27% (406 eyes [5.3%] by NMFP vs 545 eyes [6.9%] by UWFI; P < .001) and chorioretinal atrophy or scarring by 116% (50 eyes [0.6%] by NMFP vs 101 eyes [1.3%] by UWFI; P < .001). No peripheral retinal findings were identified with NMFP, while UWFI detected 25 retinal tears (0.3%; P < .001), 54 lattice and peripheral degenerations (0.7%; P < .001), and 142 cases of vitreous detachment or floaters (1.8%; P < .001). Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2013, to May 1, 2014. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In eyes without diabetic retinopathy, approximately 20% may have ocular findings identified on retinal imaging, which emphasizes the role of retinal imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 regardless of the severity of retinopathy. In this cohort, UWFI increased the identification of peripheral retinal and vitreous pathologic findings.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristic retinal features of lipemia retinalis when using ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. MAIN POINTS: We report a case series of three subjects with ultrawide field retinal images showing cream discoloration of the fundus, light salmon-coloured posterior retinal vessels and greyish pink peripheral vasculature. On green-only imaging, many of the vessels appear light rather than typically dark. CONCLUSION: Lipemia retinalis is readily apparent on ultrawide field imaging and illustrates the alterations that systemic diseases may induce in the posterior and peripheral retinal vasculature. Ultrawide field imaging highlights the disparate vascular appearance of the posterior pole and retinal periphery in this condition.
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity outcomes and diabetic retinopathy progression after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) versus combined pars plana vitrectomy and phacoemulsification (PPVCE) in patients with diabetes. METHODS: Retrospective review of 222 consecutive diabetic patients undergoing PPV or PPVCE. RESULTS: A total of 251 eyes of 222 patients were evaluated (PPV = 122, PPVCE = 129). Four-year follow-up was 64% (161 eyes). Overall, patients undergoing PPVCE had better preoperative visual acuity (PPVCE = 20/80, PPV = 20/160, P = 0.03). At 4-year follow-up, visual acuity improved (PPV = +22, PPVCE = +11 letters) compared with baseline in both groups. After correcting for baseline differences in visual acuity, no statistically significant difference in final visual acuity was observed (PPVCE = 20/32, PPV = 20/50, P = 0.09). Results did not differ substantially by surgical indication (vitreous hemorrhage, traction retinal detachment, epiretinal membrane, and/or diabetic macular edema). Cataract progression occurred in 64%, and cataract surgery was performed in 39% of phakic eyes undergoing PPV. Rates of diabetic retinopathy progression, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment were not statistically different. Neovascular glaucoma developed in 2 patients (2%) after PPV and 6 patients (8%) after PPVCE (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: In diabetic patients, equivalent visual acuity improvement over 4 years was observed after PPV or PPVCE. Visual outcomes and retinopathy progression rates were not significantly different after either intervention, suggesting that PPVCE may be appropriate when indicated in patients with diabetes.