Gaze-contingent displays have been widely used in vision research and virtual reality applications. Due to data transmission, image processing, and display preparation, the time delay between the eye tracker and the monitor update may lead to a misalignment between the eye position and the image manipulation during eye movements. We propose a method to reduce the misalignment using a Taylor series to predict the saccadic eye movement. The proposed method was evaluated using two large datasets including 219,335 human saccades (collected with an EyeLink 1000 system, 95% range from 1° to 32°) and 21,844 monkey saccades (collected with a scleral search coil, 95% range from 1° to 9°). When assuming a 10-ms time delay, the prediction of saccade movements using the proposed method could reduce the misalignment greater than the state-of-the-art methods. The average error was about 0.93° for human saccades and 0.26° for monkey saccades. Our results suggest that this proposed saccade prediction method will create more accurate gaze-contingent displays.
BACKGROUND: Whether habitual coffee consumption interacts with the genetic predisposition to obesity in relation to body mass index (BMI) and obesity is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the interactions between genetic predisposition and habitual coffee consumption in relation to BMI and obesity risk in 5116 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), in 9841 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and in 5648 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The genetic risk score was calculated based on 77 BMI-associated loci. Coffee consumption was examined prospectively in relation to BMI. RESULTS: The genetic association with BMI was attenuated among participants with higher consumption of coffee than among those with lower consumption in the HPFS (P interaction = 0.023) and NHS (P interaction = 0.039); similar results were replicated in the WHI (P interaction = 0.044). In the combined data of all cohorts, differences in BMI per increment of 10-risk allele were 1.38 (standard error (SE), 0.28), 1.02 (SE, 0.10), and 0.95 (SE, 0.12) kg/m(2) for coffee consumption of < 1, 1-3 and > 3 cup(s)/day, respectively (P interaction < 0.001). Such interaction was partly due to slightly higher BMI with higher coffee consumption among participants at lower genetic risk and slightly lower BMI with higher coffee consumption among those at higher genetic risk. Each increment of 10-risk allele was associated with 78% (95% confidence interval (CI), 59-99%), 48% (95% CI, 36-62%), and 43% (95% CI, 28-59%) increased risk for obesity across these subgroups of coffee consumption (P interaction = 0.008). From another perspective, differences in BMI per increment of 1 cup/day coffee consumption were 0.02 (SE, 0.09), -0.02 (SE, 0.04), and -0.14 (SE, 0.04) kg/m(2) across tertiles of the genetic risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Higher coffee consumption might attenuate the genetic associations with BMI and obesity risk, and individuals with greater genetic predisposition to obesity appeared to have lower BMI associated with higher coffee consumption.
The characterization of genes responsible for glaucoma is the critical first step toward the development of gene-based diagnostic and screening tests, which could identify individuals at risk for disease before irreversible optic nerve damage occurs. Early-onset forms of glaucoma affecting children and young adults are typically inherited as Mendelian autosomal dominant or recessive traits whereas glaucoma affecting older adults has complex inheritance. In this report, we present a comprehensive overview of the genes and genomic regions contributing to inherited glaucoma.
We report an unusual case of acute large-angle left exotropia associated with blunt orbital trauma in a healthy 8-year-old boy. Examination revealed a large-angle left exotropia with limitation in adduction of the left eye. Microhyphema and commotio retinae of the left eye were also present. High-resolution orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated perimuscular and intramuscular edema mostly involving the left medial rectus muscle but also involving the left lateral rectus muscle. The extraocular muscle insertions were intact. Complete resolution of the strabismus and adduction limitation occurred within 24 hours of starting systemic steroid therapy. This case highlights the utility of high-resolution imaging to assess for injury to the extraocular muscles. If disinsertion, transection, or rupture of the muscle is not present on imaging, resolution may occur with systemic steroid therapy and surgical intervention is not needed.
We report a case of myeloid sarcoma with multifocal skeletal involvement, including the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. A 23-month-old boy presented with left-sided proptosis and fevers, and was found to have an infiltrative mass involving the left sphenoid bone on orbital imaging. Full body imaging further demonstrated multiple bony lesions in the pelvis, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, bilateral femura, and left humerus, and biopsies of the humerus were consistent with myeloid sarcoma. The patient was started on a standard chemotherapy regimen and is responding well. Myeloid sarcoma presenting with proptosis due to sphenoid bone involvement with simultaneous multifocal skeletal involvement is very uncommon and highlights the importance of biopsy for establishing a definitive diagnosis.
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is characterized by delayed retinal vascular development, which promotes hypoxia-induced pathologic vessels. In severe cases FEVR may lead to retinal detachment and visual impairment. Genetic studies linked FEVR with mutations in Wnt signaling ligand or receptors, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene. Here, we investigated ocular pathologies in a Lrp5 knockout (Lrp5(-/-)) mouse model of FEVR and explored whether treatment with a pharmacologic Wnt activator lithium could bypass the genetic defects, thereby protecting against eye pathologies. Lrp5(-/-) mice displayed significantly delayed retinal vascular development, absence of deep layer retinal vessels, leading to increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and subsequent pathologic glomeruloid vessels, as well as decreased inner retinal visual function. Lithium treatment in Lrp5(-/-) mice significantly restored the delayed development of retinal vasculature and the intralaminar capillary networks, suppressed formation of pathologic glomeruloid structures, and promoted hyaloid vessel regression. Moreover, lithium treatment partially rescued inner-retinal visual function and increased retinal thickness. These protective effects of lithium were largely mediated through restoration of canonical Wnt signaling in Lrp5(-/-) retina. Lithium treatment also substantially increased vascular tubular formation in LRP5-deficient endothelial cells. These findings suggest that pharmacologic activation of Wnt signaling may help treat ocular pathologies in FEVR and potentially other defective Wnt signaling-related diseases.
PURPOSE: To develop a visual field (VF) feature model to predict the reversal of glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) results to within normal limits (WNL) after 2 consecutive outside normal limits (ONL) results. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Visual fields of 44 503 eyes from 26 130 participants. METHODS: Eyes with 3 or more consecutive reliable VFs measured with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard 24-2) were included. Eyes with ONL GHT results for the 2 baseline VFs were selected. We extracted 3 categories of VF features from the baseline tests: (1) VF global indices (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation), (2) mismatch between baseline VFs, and (3) VF loss patterns (archetypes). Logistic regression was applied to predict the GHT results reversal. Cross-validation was applied to evaluate the model on testing data by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We ascertained clinical glaucoma status on a patient subset (n = 97) to determine the usefulness of our model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictive models for GHT results reversal using VF features. RESULTS: For the 16 604 eyes with 2 initial ONL results, the prevalence of a subsequent WNL result increased from 0.1% for MD < -12 dB to 13.8% for MD ≥-3 dB. Compared with models with VF global indices, the AUC of predictive models increased from 0.669 (MD ≥-3 dB) and 0.697 (-6 dB ≤ MD < -3 dB) to 0.770 and 0.820, respectively, by adding VF mismatch features and computationally derived VF archetypes (P < 0.001 for both). The GHT results reversal was associated with a large mismatch between baseline VFs. Moreover, the GHT results reversal was associated more with VF archetypes of nonglaucomatous loss, severe widespread loss, and lens rim artifacts. For a subset of 97 eyes, using our model to predict absence of glaucoma based on clinical evidence after 2 ONL results yielded significantly better prediction accuracy (87.7%; P < 0.001) than predicting GHT results reversal (68.8%) with a prescribed specificity 67.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Using VF features may predict the GHT results reversal to WNL after 2 consecutive ONL results.
Choristomatous lacrimal gland tissue has been detected in many different sites of the ocular adnexa, but has never before been convincingly described in the submucosa of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old woman with epiphora had a biopsy of the sac wall preformed during a dacryocystorhinostomy that contained such a lacrimal choristoma. Zymogen granules were found in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells with the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. No mucus-producing cells, as found in normal sac submucosal glands, were detected using the Alcian blue, mucicarmine, and Gomori methenamine silver histochemical stains. Gross cystic fluid protein-15 positivity was demonstrated immunohistochemically. The clinical implications of this choristoma are explored.
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) regulate critical events during development. In complex tissues, such as the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), networks likely provide the complex regulatory interactions needed to direct the specification of the many CNS cell types. Here, we dissect a GRN that regulates a binary fate decision between two siblings in the murine retina, the rod photoreceptor and bipolar interneuron. The GRN centers on Blimp1, one of the transcription factors (TFs) that regulates the rod versus bipolar cell fate decision. We identified a cis-regulatory module (CRM), B108, that mimics Blimp1 expression. Deletion of genomic B108 by CRISPR/Cas9 in vivo using electroporation abolished the function of Blimp1. Otx2 and RORβ were found to regulate Blimp1 expression via B108, and Blimp1 and Otx2 were shown to form a negative feedback loop that regulates the level of Otx2, which regulates the production of the correct ratio of rods and bipolar cells.
Management of neoangiogenesis remains a high-value therapeutic goal. A recently uncovered association between the DNA damage repair pathway and pathological angiogenesis could open previously unexplored possibilities for intervention. An attractive and novel target is the Eyes absent (EYA) tyrosine phosphatase, which plays a critical role in the repair versus apoptosis decision after DNA damage. This study examines the role of EYA in the postnatal development of the retinal vasculature and under conditions of ischemia-reperfusion encountered in proliferative retinopathies. We find that the ability of the EYA proteins to promote endothelial cell (EC) migration contributes to a delay in postnatal development of the retinal vasculature when Eya3 is deleted specifically in ECs. By using genetic and chemical biology tools, we show that EYA contributes to pathological angiogenesis in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Both in vivo and in vitro, loss of EYA tyrosine phosphatase activity leads to defective assembly of γ-H2AX foci and thus to DNA damage repair in ECs under oxidative stress. These data reveal the potential utility of EYA tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors as therapeutic agents in inhibiting pathological neovascularization with a range of clinical applications.
PURPOSE: To compare choroidal vascular density (CVD) and volume (CVV) in diabetic eyes and controls, using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Setting: Multicenter. PATIENT POPULATION: Total of 143 diabetic eyes-27 with no diabetic retinopathy (DR), 47 with nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 51 with NPDR and diabetic macular edema (DME), and 18 with proliferative DR (PDR)-and 64 age-matched nondiabetic control eyes. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Complete ophthalmologic examination and SS-OCT imaging. En face SS-OCT images of the choroidal vasculature were binarized. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CVD, calculated as the percent area occupied by choroidal vessels in the central macular region (6-mm-diameter circle centered on the fovea), and throughout the posterior pole (12 × 9 mm). The central macular CVV was calculated by multiplying the average CVD by macular area and choroidal thickness (obtained with SS-OCT automated software). Multilevel mixed linear models were performed for analyses. RESULTS: Compared to controls (0.31 ± 0.07), central macular CVD was significantly decreased by 9% in eyes with NPDR + DME (0.28 ± 0.06; ß = -0.03, P = .02) and by 15% in PDR (0.26 ± 0.05; ß = -0.04, P = .01). The central macular CVV was significantly decreased by 19% in eyes with PDR (0.020 ± 0.005 mm3, ß = -0.01, P = .01) compared to controls (0.025 ± 0.01 mm3). CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal vascular density and volume are significantly reduced in more advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy. New imaging modalities should allow further exploration of the contributions of choroidal vessel disease to diabetic eye disease pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment response.
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are used extensively as a gene delivery vehicle for retinal gene therapy, yet its ability to target the anterior segment of the eye, critical to unlocking therapeutic opportunities, is less characterized. Previously, self-complimentary (sc) AAV was shown to be necessary for transduction of the cornea and trabecular meshwork (TM), limiting the size of the gene transfer cassette, likely due to a block in second strand synthesis thought to be required for functional transduction. Here, we evaluated several AAV capsids in a single stranded (ss) genome conformation for their ability to overcome the need for scAAV for targeting corneal endothelium and TM. AAV2, 8, and a recently synthetically developed AAV called Anc80L65 were evaluated in vitro and in vivo by intracameral injection in mice. Results show that although scAAV2 demonstrated superior infectivity in vitro including Human Trabecular meshwork (HTM) immortalized cell lines; Anc80L65 transduced following a single intracameral injection efficiently all components of the mouse anterior segment, including the TM, corneal stroma, and endothelial cells. These results suggest that Anc80L65 is able to overcome the requirement for scAAV genomes to enable TM and corneal targeting, expanding the potential experimental and therapeutic use of AAV gene transfer in the anterior segment of the eye.
OBJECTIVE: The deficiency of very low-density lipoprotein receptor resulted in Wnt signaling activation and neovascularization in the retina. The present study sought to determine whether the very low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain (VLN) is responsible for the inhibition of Wnt signaling in ocular tissues. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A plasmid expressing the soluble VLN was encapsulated with poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) to form VLN nanoparticles (VLN-NP). Nanoparticles containing a plasmid expressing the low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain nanoparticle were used as negative control. MTT, modified Boyden chamber, and Matrigel (™) assays were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of VLN-NP on Wnt3a-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Vldlr(-/-) mice, oxygen-induced retinopathy, and alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization models were used to evaluate the effect of VLN-NP on ocular neovascularization. Wnt reporter mice (BAT-gal), Western blotting, and luciferase assay were used to evaluate Wnt pathway activity. Our results showed that VLN-NP specifically inhibited Wnt3a-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Intravitreal injection of VLN-NP inhibited abnormal neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-), oxygen-induced retinopathy, and alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization models, compared with low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain nanoparticle. VLN-NP significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, the accumulation of β-catenin, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that the soluble VLN is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway and has antiangiogenic activities. Nanoparticle-mediated expression of VLN may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach to treat pathological ocular angiogenesis and potentially other vascular diseases affected by Wnt signaling.
A 17-year-old girl presented with unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis as well as bilateral funduscopic findings and outer retinal dysfunction suggestive of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities, visual field loss, and electroretinographic changes were supportive of bilateral AZOOR. MRI was consistent with the diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), which is defined as a central nervous system demyelinating event that may herald the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). While AZOOR previously has been linked to MS and demyelinating white matter lesions in the brain, our case seems unique due to concurrent development of AZOOR and retrobulbar optic neuritis as a CIS.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the visual and anatomical outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis (Kpro) type 1 reimplantation. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of multicentre prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 303 eyes that underwent Kpro implantation between January 2003 and July 2008 by 1 of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centres, 13 eyes of 13 patients who underwent reimplantation of Boston Kpro type 1 were compared with 13 eyes of 13 diagnosis-matched patients who underwent initial implantation. METHODS: Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and analyzed. Main outcome measures were Kpro retention and logMAR visual acuity. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 17.1 ± 17.6 months, the retention of both initial and repeat Kpro implantation was 92.3% (12/13 in both groups), and 62% of initial implantation and 58% of repeat implantation eyes achieved visual acuity better than 20/200. Vision worse than 20/200 was often due to glaucoma or posterior segment pathology. Best-recorded logMAR visual acuity was significantly improved postoperatively in both groups (p < 0.001), and there was no statistically significant difference in final logMAR visual acuity between the 2 groups (p = 0.89). Sterile keratolysis (n = 4) and fungal infection (n = 5) were the most common causes of initial Kpro failure in the repeat Kpro group. The single failure in the repeat Kpro implantation group was due to fungal keratitis, and in the control group it was related to Kpro extrusion. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat Kpro implantation is a viable option after failed initial Kpro, with visual and anatomical outcomes comparable to those of initial procedures.
Purpose: Optic nerve head astrocytes, a subtype of white-matter astrocytes, become reactive early in the course of glaucoma. It was shown recently that in the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma optic nerve astrocytes extend new longitudinal processes into the axon bundles before ganglion cell loss becomes apparent. The present study aims at testing whether this behavior of astrocytes is typical of early glaucomatous damage. Methods: Mice expressing green fluorescent protein in individual astrocytes were used to evaluate the early response of astrocytes in the glial lamina of the optic nerve head after increasing the IOP using the microbead occlusion method. Tissue sections from the glial lamina were imaged consecutively by confocal and electron microscopy. Results: Confocal and electron microscope images show that astrocytes close to the myelination transition zone in the hypertensive nerve heads extend new processes that follow the longitudinal axis of the optic nerve and invade axon bundles in the nerve head. Ultrastructurally, the longitudinal processes were largely devoid of subcellular organelles except for degenerating mitochondria. Conclusions: The longitudinal processes are a common feature of glaucomatous optic nerve astrocytes, whereas they are not observed after traumatic nerve injury. Thus, astrocytes appear to fine-tune their responses to the nature and/or timing of the injury to the neurons that they surround.
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and glaucoma prevalence in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3406 female participants, aged 40 years or older, from the 2005 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, who reported a presence or absence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension completed both the vision and the reproductive health questionnaires and underwent eye examinations. METHODS: Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between OC use and self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension (n = 231 cases), controlling for potential confounders, including age, ethnicity, systemic comorbidities such as hypertension and stroke, ocular diseases such as cataract and diabetic retinopathy, and reproductive health factors, including age at menopause, age at menarche, history of hormone replacement therapy, and gynecological surgical history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome variable was self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, those with ≥3 years of OC use had greater odds (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.07) of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Other factors associated with higher glaucoma or ocular hypertension prevalence included older age, African American race, and later age at menarche. CONCLUSIONS: Oral contraceptive use may be associated with increased risk of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
PURPOSE: To present the case of a patient who developed spontaneous closure of an idiopathic macular hole after four failed attempts at surgical closure. METHODS: This is a retrospective case review of the medical record of a single patient. No statistical analysis was performed. The patient is a 71-year-old white woman with neurofibromatosis Type 1 who presented to the retina clinic of one of the authors. RESULTS: The patient underwent four vitrectomies with long acting gas by two surgeons over the course of 2 years. After each surgery, the hole either did not close or it closed and then reopened within 1 year. Five months after the last surgery (1 year after the hole last reopened), the patient presented with improved vision and spontaneous closure of the macular hole. The hole has remained closed since then. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that spontaneous closure of a macular hole, associated with excellent visual recovery, can occur after multiple surgical failures. We propose that enhanced scar formation due to neurofibromatosis Type 1 was responsible for both the numerous failures following initially successful surgery (centrifugal traction) and for the spontaneous closure (centripetal traction).
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease with many clinical subtypes. Some of its rare forms include pigmentary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. While they all share common features of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve damage and corresponding visual field loss, the exact mechanisms underlying glaucomatous neuron loss are not clear. This has largely hindered the development of a real cure for this disease. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known major risk factor of glaucoma; however, progressive degeneration of RGCs and axons can also be found in patients with a normal IOP, i.e., normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Interestingly, patients who carry the gain-of-function mutation of the pro-inflammatory gene TBK1 - tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor NF-κB activator (TANK) binding kinase 1 - are at increased risk to develop NTG. This finding suggests a causal link between neuroinflammatory processes and glaucoma. Various studies have reported the presence of neuroinflammatory responses by microglia, astrocytes and other blood-born immune cells in the optic nerve head (ONH) at early stages of experimental glaucoma. Inhibition of certain pro-inflammatory pathways, particularly those associated with microglial activation, appears to be neuroprotective. In this review, we will focus on the inflammatory responses, in particular the proposed roles of microglia, in the pathogenesis of glaucoma.
Seminal studies showed that CRISPR-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity in prokaryotes and promising gene-editing tools from bacteria to humans. Yet, reports diverged on whether some CRISPR systems naturally target DNA or RNA. Here, Samai and colleagues unify the studies, showing that a single type III CRISPR-Cas system cleaves both DNA and RNA targets, independently.