PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of retinal redetachment due to proliferative vitreoretinopathy after open-globe trauma in smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: A total of 892 patients comprising 893 open-globe injuries, in whom 255 eyes were diagnosed with a retinal detachment, and 138 underwent surgical repair were analyzed in a retrospective case-control study. Time to redetachment was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and analysis of risk factors was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: Within one year after retinal detachment surgery, 47% (95% CI, 39-56%) of all 138 repaired retinas redetached because of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Being a smoker was associated with a higher rate of detachment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.96, P = 0.01). As shown in previous studies, the presence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy at the time of surgery was also an independent risk factor for failure (adjusted hazard ratio 2.13, P = 0.005). Treatment with vitrectomy-buckle compared favorably to vitrectomy alone (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, P = 0.04). Only 8% of eyes that redetached achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or better, in comparison to 44% of eyes that did not redetach (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is a common complication after the repair of retinal detachment associated with open-globe trauma, and being a smoker is a risk factor for redetachment. Further study is needed to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this correlation.