Cataract

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Kavitha S, Ramulu PY, Venkatesh R, Palaniswamy K, Kader MA, Raman GV, Rajendrababu S, Zebardast N. Resolution of Visual Dysphotopsias after Laser Iridotomy: Six-Month Follow-up. Ophthalmology 2019;126(3):469-471.e1.
Kloek CE, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Chang K, Kuperwaser M, Newman LR, Lane AM, Loewenstein JI. A broadly applicable surgical teaching method: evaluation of a stepwise introduction to cataract surgery. J Surg Educ 2014;71(2):169-75.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Although cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the country, it is a microsurgical procedure that is difficult to learn and to teach. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a new method for introducing postgraduate year (PGY)-3 ophthalmology residents to cataract surgery. SETTING: Hospital-based ophthalmology residency program. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: PGY-3 and PGY-4 residents of the Harvard Medical School Ophthalmology Residency from graduating years 2010 to 2012. RESULTS: In July 2009, a new method of teaching PGY-3 ophthalmology residents cataract surgery was introduced, which was termed "the stepwise introduction to cataract surgery." This curriculum aimed to train residents to perform steps of cataract surgery by deliberately practicing each of the steps of surgery under a structured curriculum with faculty feedback. Assessment methods included surveys administered to the PGY-4 residents who graduated before the implementation of these measures (n = 7), the residents who participated in the first and second years of the new curriculum (n = 16), faculty who teach PGY-4 residents cataract surgery (n = 8), and review of resident Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education surgical logs. Resident survey response rate was 100%. Residents who participated in the new curriculum performed more of each step of cataract surgery in the operating room, spent more time practicing each step of cataract surgery on a cataract surgery simulator during the PGY-3 year, and performed more primary cataract surgeries during the PGY-3 year than those who did not. Faculty survey response rate was 63%. Faculty noted an increase in resident preparedness following implementation of the new curriculum. There was no statistical difference between the precurriculum and postcurriculum groups in the percentage turnover of cataracts for the first 2 cataract surgery rotations of the PGY-4 year of training. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of cataract surgery to PGY-3 residents in an organized, stepwise manner improved resident preparedness for the PGY-4 year of residency. This surgical teaching method can be easily applied to other surgical specialties.
Koo EB, VanderVeen DK, Lambert SR. Global Practice Patterns in the Management of Infantile Cataracts. Eye Contact Lens 2018;44 Suppl 2:S292-S296.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Surveys are an important tool to assess the impact of research on physicians' approach to patient care. This survey was conducted to assess current practice patterns in the management of infantile cataracts in light of the findings of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. METHODS: Pediatric ophthalmologists were emailed a link to the survey using newsletters from American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, World Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and the Pediatric Listserv. The 17-question survey was anonymous and active during July to August 2016. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five respondents (North America, 65%; Asia, 12%; Europe, 9%; and other, 14%) reported operating on pediatric cataracts. Most practice in a university setting (55%). There was a strong consensus that unilateral cataract surgery should be performed between ages 4 to 6 weeks and aphakic contact lenses should be used to optically correct their eyes, particularly in children ≤6 months of age. For bilateral cataracts, there was a trend for surgeons to perform cataract surgery at an older age than unilateral cataract surgery. Surgeons who performed less than 5 versus greater than 20 pediatric cataract surgeries/year were more likely to use aphakic contact lenses in children undergoing cataract surgery more than 6 months of age (62% vs. 35%, P=0.04). Most respondents (73%) indicated that the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study had changed how they manage unilateral congenital cataracts. CONCLUSION: Most pediatric cataract surgeons perform congenital cataract surgery between ages 4 to 6 weeks and use aphakic contact lenses for initial optical correction in infants less than 6 months. Surgeons have equal preference for intraocular lenses and contact lenses in infants more than 6 months of age.
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Liebman DL, McKay KM, Haviland MJ, Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, Kloek CE. Quantifying the educational benefit of additional cataract surgery cases in ophthalmology residency. J Cataract Refract Surg 2020;46(11):1495-1500.Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantify the resident learning curve for cataract surgery using operative time as an indicator of surgical competency, to identify the case threshold at which marginal additional educational benefit became equivocal, and to characterize heterogeneity in residents' pathways to surgical competency. SETTING: Academic medical center. DESIGN: Large-scale retrospective consecutive case series. METHODS: All cataract surgery cases performed by resident physicians as primary surgeon at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2015, were reviewed. Data were abstracted from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs and operative time measurements. A linear mixed-methods analysis was conducted to model changes in residents' cataract surgery operative times as a function of sequential case number, with resident identity included as a random effect in the model to normalize between-resident variability. RESULTS: A total of 2096 cases were analyzed. A marked progressive decrease in operative time was noted for resident cases 1 to 39 (mean change -0.17 minutes per additional case, 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.12; P < .001). A modest, steady reduction in operative time was subsequently noted for case numbers 40 to 149 (mean change -0.05 minutes per additional case, 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.04; P < .001). No statistically significant improvement was found in operative times beyond the 150th case. CONCLUSIONS: Residents derived educational benefit from performing a greater number of cataract procedures than current minimum requirements. However, cases far in excess of this threshold might have diminishing educational return in residency. Educational resources currently used for these cases might be more appropriately devoted to other training priorities.
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Ma KK, Luo ZK. Novel Method to Determine Target Refraction in Cataract Surgery for Patients Dependent on Therapeutic Scleral Lenses. Eye Contact Lens 2021;47(6):352-355.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a novel approach to determine the refractive target for patients undergoing cataract surgery who are dependent on therapeutic scleral lenses, to avoid the need for postoperative scleral lens replacement. METHODS: Retrospective single-surgeon case series. The target refraction for intraocular lens selection was determined by considering the effective scleral lens system power. This was calculated by adding the known scleral lens spherical power to the difference between the scleral lens base curve and the average keratometry value. RESULTS: Six eyes from three patients with moderate myopia or emmetropia with ocular graft versus host disease dependent on therapeutic scleral lenses underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens selection based on this method. All six eyes had corrected visual acuities of 20/30 or better while wearing their previous scleral lenses at the postoperative week 1 visit. All six eyes resumed full-time scleral lens use 1 week after phacoemulsification and did not require scleral lens replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Using this method, patients requiring therapeutic scleral lenses can quickly experience optimal vision, comfort, and ocular surface protection 1 week after cataract surgery. These patients can continue to use their existing scleral lenses and avoid the costs and burdens associated with lens replacement.
Mansouri B, Stacy RC, Kruger J, Cestari DM. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract. Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28(5-6):321-6.Abstract
Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.
Marmamula S, Barrenakala NR, Challa R, Kumbham TR, Modepalli SB, Yellapragada R, Bhakki M, Reddy JC, Friedman DS, Khanna RC. Visual outcomes after cataract surgery among the elderly residents in the 'homes for the aged' in South India: the Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in Elderly Study. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(8):1087-1093.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIM: To report visual outcomes and factors associated with good visual outcomes after cataract surgery among the elderly residents in 'homes for the aged' in Hyderabad, India. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥60 years were recruited from 41 'homes for the aged'. All participants had a detailed eye examinations including visual acuity (VA) assessment , refraction, slit-lamp examination and fundus imaging by trained professionals. A detailed history of cataract surgery was recorded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with good visual outcomes after cataract surgery which was defined as presenting VA of 6/18 or better in the operated eye. Visual impairment (VI) is defined as presenting VA worse than 6/18 in the operated eye. RESULTS: 1215 eyes of 703 individuals had cataract surgery. The mean age of these participants was 77.5 years (SD: 8.2 years; range: 60-108 years), 66.8% were women, 29.9% reported diabetes and 61% reported hypertension. 406/1215 (33.4%; 95% CI 30.8 to 36.1) eyes had VI after cataract surgery. Posterior capsular opacification (31.8%; n=129) was the leading cause of VI followed by uncorrected refractive error (24.1%; n=98). The prevalence of good outcomes was 66.6% (95% CI 63.8 to 69.2). On applying multivariable analysis, younger age, self-reported hypertension, independent mobility, surgery in a non-government (as opposed to private) hospital and undergoing paid surgery were associated with good outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the eyes of elderly individuals living in homes for the aged that had previously undergone cataract surgery had VI. Regular eye examinations with the provision of laser capsulotomy and appropriate refractive correction can substantially improve their vision.
Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, Eton EA, Koulisis N, Kloek CE, Kloek CE, Kloek CE. Healthcare disparities contribute to missed follow-up visits after cataract surgery in the USA: results from the perioperative care for intraocular lens study. BMJ Open 2021;11(3):e038565.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to missed cataract surgery follow-up visits, with an emphasis on socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent cataract extraction by phacoemulsification at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between 1 January and 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Second eye cases, remote and international patients, patients with foreign insurance and combined cataract cases were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 1931 cases were reviewed and 1089 cases, corresponding to 3267 scheduled postoperative visits, were included. Of these visits, 157 (4.8%) were missed. Three (0.3%) postoperative day 1, 40 (3.7%) postoperative week 1 and 114 (10.5%) postoperative month 1 visits were missed. Age<30 years (adjusted OR (aOR)=8.2, 95% CI 1.9 to 35.2) and ≥90 years (aOR=5.7, 95% CI 2.0 to 15.6) compared with patients aged 70-79 years, estimated travel time of >2 hours (aOR=3.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.4), smokers (aOR=2.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.8) and complications identified up to the postoperative visit (aOR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1) predicted a higher rate of missed visits. Ocular comorbidities (aOR=0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) and previous visit best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/50-20/80 (aOR=0.4, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.7) and 20/90-20/200 (aOR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9), compared with BCVA at the previous visit of 20/40 or better, predicted a lower rate of missed visits. Gender, race/ethnicity, language, education, income, insurance, alcohol use and season of the year were not associated with missed visits. CONCLUSIONS: Medical factors and demographic characteristics, including patient age and distance from the hospital, are associated with missed follow-up visits in cataract surgery. Additional studies are needed to identify disparities in cataract postoperative care that are population-specific. This information can contribute to the implementation of policies and interventions for addressing them.
Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Greenstein SH, Lorch AC, Vasan RA, Kloek CE. Optimization of cataract surgery follow-up: A standard set of questions can predict unexpected management changes at postoperative week one. PLoS One 2019;14(9):e0221243.Abstract
PURPOSE: There is limited evidence to inform the optimal follow-up schedule after cataract surgery. This study aims to determine whether a standardized question set can predict unexpected management changes (UMCs) at the postoperative week one (POW1) timepoint. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fifty-four consecutive phacoemulsification cases having attended an examination between postoperative days 5-14. A set of 7 'Yes' or 'No' questions were administered to all participants by a technician at the POW1 visit. Patient answers along with perioperative patient information were recorded and analyzed. Outcomes were the incidence of UMCs at POW1. RESULTS: The incidence of UMCs was zero in uneventful cataract cases with unremarkable history and normal postoperative day one exam if no positive answers were given with the question set demonstrating 100% sensitivity (p<0.0001). A test version with 5 questions was equally sensitive in detecting UMCs at POW1 after cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: In routine cataract cases with no positive answers to the current set of clinical questions, a POW1 visit is unlikely to result in a management change. This result offers the opportunity for eye care providers to risk-stratify patients who have had cataract surgery and individualize follow-up.
Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, McKay MK, Eton EA, Koulisis N, Lorch AC, Kloek CE, Kloek CE. Outcomes in resident-performed cataract surgeries with iris challenges: Results from the Perioperative Care for Intraocular Lens study. J Cataract Refract Surg 2018;44(12):1469-1477.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the outcomes of resident-performed cataract surgeries with iris challenges and to compare these outcomes with similar surgeries performed by attending surgeons. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: All cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, performed by comprehensive ophthalmologists between January 1 and December 31, 2014, were reviewed. Cases with preoperative or intraoperative miosis, iris prolapse, and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome, were included for analysis. Visual outcomes and the rate of perioperative adverse events were compared between resident and attending surgeon cases. Factors predicting adverse events were also assessed. RESULTS: In total, 1931 eye cases of 1434 patients were reviewed, and 65 resident cases and 168 attending surgeon cases were included. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution corrected distance visual acuity was better in the resident group 1 month after surgery (0.051 ± 0.10 [SD] versus 0.132 ± 0.30, P = .03); however, the difference was eliminated when controlling for macular disease. The mean operative time was 43.8 ± 26.5 minutes and 30.9 ± 12.6 minutes for cases performed by resident surgeons and attending surgeons, respectively (P  .0001). Residents utilized supplemental pharmacologic dilation or retraction more frequently than attending surgeons (98% versus 87% of cases, P = .008). The overall rate of adverse events was no different between residents and attending surgeons (P = 0.16). Dense nuclear sclerosis predicted adverse events in cataract cases with iris challenges (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.94; P = .001). CONCLUSION: Although requiring longer operative times and more surgical manipulation, residents who performed cataract surgeries with iris challenges achieved outcomes comparable to those performed by attending surgeons, and residents should be given the opportunity to operate on these eyes.
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Nanji KC, Roberto SA, Morley MG, Bayes J. Preventing Adverse Events in Cataract Surgery: Recommendations From a Massachusetts Expert Panel. Anesth Analg 2018;126(5):1537-1547.Abstract
Massachusetts health care facilities reported a series of cataract surgery-related adverse events (AEs) to the state in recent years, including 5 globe perforations during eye blocks performed by 1 anesthesiologist in a single day. The Betsy Lehman Center for Patient Safety, a nonregulatory Massachusetts state agency, responded by convening an expert panel of frontline providers, patient safety experts, and patients to recommend strategies for mitigating patient harm during cataract surgery. The purpose of this article is to identify contributing factors to the cataract surgery AEs reported in Massachusetts and present the panel's recommended strategies to prevent them. Data from state-mandated serious reportable event reports were supplemented by online surveys of Massachusetts cataract surgery providers and semistructured interviews with key stakeholders and frontline staff. The panel identified 2 principal categories of contributing factors to the state's cataract surgery-related AEs: systems failures and choice of anesthesia technique. Systems failures included inadequate safety protocols (48.7% of contributing factors), communication challenges (18.4%), insufficient provider training (17.1%), and lack of standardization (15.8%). Choice of anesthesia technique involved the increased relative risk of needle-based eye blocks. The panel's surveys of Massachusetts cataract surgery providers show wide variation in anesthesia practices. While 45.5% of surgeons and 69.6% of facilities reported increased use of topical anesthesia compared to 10 years earlier, needle-based blocks were still used in 47.0% of cataract surgeries performed by surgeon respondents and 40.9% of those performed at respondent facilities. Using a modified Delphi approach, the panel recommended several strategies to prevent AEs during cataract surgery, including performing a distinct time-out with at least 2 care-team members before block administration; implementing standardized, facility-wide safety protocols, including a uniform site-marking policy; strengthening the credentialing and orientation of new, contracted and locum tenens anesthesia staff; ensuring adequate and documented training in block administration for any provider who is new to a facility, including at least 10 supervised blocks before practicing independently; using the least invasive form of anesthesia appropriate to the patient; and finally, adjusting anesthesia practices, including preferred techniques, as evidence-based best practices evolve. Future research should focus on evaluating the impact of these recommendations on patient outcomes.
Nihalani BR, VanderVeen DK. Benchmarks for outcome indicators in pediatric cataract surgery. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(3):417-421.Abstract

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to establish benchmarks for outcome indicators that may help ascertain the quality of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Patients and methodsA retrospective chart review of patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation, by multiple surgeons in a tertiary-care center, from November 2005 to February 2016 was conducted. Patients with ocular comorbidities that would affect the outcomes were excluded. The outcome measures chosen were as follows: (1) final best corrected Snellen visual acuity (BCVA) in patients who had bilateral cataract surgery analyzed at the last clinic visit; (2) prediction error (PE)=expected refraction-actual refraction. Mean PE and mean absolute PE were assessed 1 month postoperatively, irrespective of age or laterality.ResultsMean age at surgery was 8.3±4.6 years and mean follow-up duration was 3.7±2.7 years. The results of outcome measures were as follows: (1) BCVA was 20/40 or better in 96% (n=124 eyes, mean patient age: 8.3±4.6 years). Remaining five eyes had amblyopia with two eyes having BCVA worse than 20/100 that did not respond to amblyopia treatment. (2) Mean PE was 0.3±1.1 D and mean absolute PE was 0.9±0.7 D. PE was within ±0.5 D in 43.0%, ±1.0 D in 66%, and ±2.0 D in 95% (n=235 eyes).ConclusionGood visual acuity after cataract surgery should be expected for children with bilateral cataracts, setting a high benchmark similar to that recommended in adult cataract surgery. Prediction error is greater in pediatric eyes than in adult eyes, setting a lower benchmark. This study establishes benchmark for outcome indicators in pediatric patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation.

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Olson RJ, Braga-Mele R, Chen SH, Miller KM, Pineda R, Tweeten JP, Musch DC. Cataract in the Adult Eye Preferred Practice Pattern®. Ophthalmology 2017;124(2):P1-P119.
Orts-Vila P, Amparo F, Rodríguez-Prats JL, Tañá-Rivero P. Alport Syndrome and Femtosecond Laser-assisted Cataract Surgery. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2020;15(2):264-269.Abstract
We report the surgical management of a patient with bilateral anterior lenticonus due to Alport syndrome using femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and the Optiwave Refractive Analysis (ORA) system. A 38-year-old man with Alport syndrome presented to our department with visual loss due to anterior lenticonus in both eyes. Adjustments during bilateral FLACS were performed with the software's calipers to manually delineate the anterior capsulotomy. Multifocal toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) were selected and placed in the posterior chamber with the aid of intraoperative aberrometry. The intended postoperative positioning parameters for the IOL as well as the planned visual acuity and refraction were achieved. The implementation of FLACS and intraoperative wavefront aberrometry is a safe and useful surgical approach for the management of cataract in challenging cases such as patients with anterior lenticonus due to Alport syndrome.
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Payal AR, Sola-Del Valle D, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Cakiner-Egilmez T, Chomsky AS, Vollman DE, Baze EF, Lawrence M, Daly MK. American Society of Anesthesiologists classification in cataract surgery: Results from the Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project. J Cataract Refract Surg 2016;42(7):972-82.Abstract

PURPOSE: To explore the association of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification with cataract surgery outcomes. SETTING: Five Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, United States. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS: The study analyzed the outcomes of cataract surgery cases. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), unanticipated events, and vision-related quality of life (VRQL) were assessed using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), comparing ASA classes I through IV. For some analyses, ASA classes I and II were designated as Group A and ASA classes III and IV were designated Group B. RESULTS: Of the 4923 cases, 875 (17.8%) were in Group A, 4032 (81.9%) were in Group B, and 16 (0.3%) had missing data. The mean CDVA and mean composite NEI-VFQ score improved after cataract surgery in both groups (P < .0001); however, Group A had a better mean postoperative CDVA and postoperative VFQ composite scores than Group B (P < .0001, both outcomes). A higher ASA class was associated with an increased risk for 2 unanticipated events; that is, clinically significant macular edema (CSME) (Group A: 4 [0.47%] versus Group B: 50 [1.28%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-13.05; P = 0.04) and readmission to the hospital within 30 days (2 [0.23%] versus 56 [1.41%]; OR, 8.26; 95% CI, 1.71-148.62; P = .004) CONCLUSIONS: Among United States veterans, the ASA classification could be an important predictor of VRQL and visual outcomes. In this cohort, it was associated with an increased risk for 2 serious unanticipated events-CSME and readmission to the hospital-both costly, unwanted outcomes. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Dr. Vollman is a consultant to Forsight Vision5. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Perry LPJ. The evaluation of patients with traumatic cataracts by ultrasound technologies. Semin Ophthalmol 2012;27(5-6):121-4.Abstract
Surgery for traumatic cataracts is a potentially complex procedure. Clinically, traumatic cataracts may be difficult to thoroughly assess due to the presence of other significant ocular damage including corneal scars, posterior synechiae, and vitreous hemorrhage. Frequently, surgery involves surprises regarding the integrity of the posterior capsule and zonular structure. Careful ophthalmic imaging using ultrasound technologies may result in finer pre-operative detail regarding lens support structures, and may therefore give the surgeon the advantage when planning surgery. Imaging techniques most applicable to pre-operative evaluation include B scan ultrasound, 20MHz ultrasound, and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Important modifications to technique that can be made depending on the integrity of lens support structures include adjustment of wound location, adjustment in the technique for cataract removal, and possible use of a capsular tension ring.
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Roberto SA, Bayes J, Karner PE, Morley MG, Nanji KC. Patient Harm in Cataract Surgery: A Series of Adverse Events in Massachusetts. Anesth Analg 2018;126(5):1548-1550.Abstract
Massachusetts state agencies received reports of 37 adverse events (AEs) involving cataract surgery from 2011 to 2015. Fifteen were anesthesia related, including 5 wrong eye blocks, 3 cases of hemodynamic instability, 2 retrobulbar hematoma/hemorrhages, and 5 globe perforations resulting in permanent loss of vision. While Massachusetts' reported AEs likely underrepresent the true number of AEs that occur during cataract surgery, they do offer useful signal data to indicate the types of patient harm occurring during these procedures.
Roohipoor R, Yaseri M, Teymourpour A, Kloek C, Miller JB, Loewenstein JI. Early Performance on an Eye Surgery Simulator Predicts Subsequent Resident Surgical Performance. J Surg Educ 2017;Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine early performance on an eye surgery simulator and its relationship to subsequent live surgical performance in a single large residency program. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we compared performance of 30 first-year ophthalmology residents on an eye surgery simulator to their surgical skills as third-year residents. Variables collected from the eye surgery simulator included scores on the following modules of the simulator (Eyesi, VRmagic, Mannheim, Germany): antitremor training level 1, bimanual training level 1, capsulorhexis level 1 (configured), forceps training level 1, and navigation training level 1. Subsequent surgical performance was assessed using the total number of phacoemulsification cataract surgery cases for each resident, as well as the number performed as surgeon during residency and scores on global rating assessment of skills in intraocular surgery (GRASIS) scales during the third year of residency. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the simulator performance and subsequent surgical performance variables. We also compared variables in a small group of residents who needed extra help in learning cataract surgery to the other residents in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationships between Eyesi scores early in residency and surgical performance measures in the final year of residency. RESULTS: A total of 30 residents had Eyesi data from their first year of residency and had already graduated so that all subsequent surgical performance data were available. There was a significant correlation between capsulorhexis task score on the simulator and total surgeries (r = 0.745, p = 0.008). There was a significant correlation between antitremor training level 1 (r = 0.554, p = 0.040), and forceps training level 1 (r = 0.622, p = 0.023) with primary surgery numbers. There was a significant correlation between forceps training level 1 (r = 0.811, p = 0.002), and navigation training level 1 (r = 0.692, p =0.013) with total GRASIS score. There was a significant inverse correlation between total GRASIS score and residents in need of extra help (r = -0.358, p =0.003). CONCLUSION: Module scores on an eye surgery simulator early in residency may predict a resident׳s future performance in the operating room. These scores may allow early identification of residents in need of supplemental training in cataract surgery.

Rosenblatt TR, Vail D, Ludwig CA, Al-Moujahed A, Pasricha MV, Ji MH, Callaway NF, Moshfeghi DM. Fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision. Can J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Vision changes can precipitate falls in the elderly resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that pseudophakic monovision and ensuing anisometropia and aniseikonia impact elderly fall risk. This study assessed fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision, pseudophakic single vision distance (classic cataract surgery), and cataracts with no surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective single-institution cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Patients with bilateral cataracts diagnosed at 60 years of age or older who underwent bilateral cataract surgery (monovision or single vision distance) or did not undergo any cataract surgery (n = 13 385). Patients with unilateral surgery or a fall prior to cataract diagnosis were excluded. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Stanford Research Repository. Time-to-fall analysis was performed across all 3 groups. Primary outcome was hazard ratio (HR) for fall after second eye cataract surgery or after bilateral cataract diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 13 385 patients (241 pseudophakic monovision, 2809 pseudophakic single vision, 10 335 no surgery), 850 fell after cataract diagnosis. Pseudophakic monovision was not associated with fall risk after controlling for age, sex, and myopia. Pseudophakic single-vision patients had a decreased time to fall compared with no-surgery patients (log rank, p < 0.001). Older age at cataract diagnosis (HR =1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.06, p < 0.001) or at time of surgery (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, p < 0.001) increased fall risk, as did female sex (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51, p = 0.002) and preexisting myopia (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.71, p = 0.046) among nonsurgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudophakic monovision did not impact fall risk, but pseudophakic single vision may increase falls compared with patients without cataract surgery.
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Sanguansak T, Morley KE, Morley MG, Thinkhamrop K, Thuanman J, Agarwal I. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study. J Med Internet Res 2017;19(12):e413.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Social media offers a new way to provide education, reminders, and support for patients with a variety of health conditions. Most of these interventions use one-way, provider-patient communication. Incorporating social media tools to improve postoperative (postop) education and follow-up care has only been used in limited situations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of two-way social media messaging to deliver reminders and educational information about postop care to cataract patients. METHODS: A total of 98 patients undergoing their first eye cataract surgery were divided into two groups: a no message group receiving usual pre- and postop care and a message group receiving usual care plus messages in a mobile social media format with standardized content and timing. Each patient in the message group received nine messages about hand and face hygiene, medication and postop visit adherence, and links to patient education videos about postop care. Patients could respond to messages as desired. Main outcome measures included medication adherence, postop visit adherence, clinical outcomes, and patients' subjective assessments of two-way messaging. The number, types, content, and timing of responses by patients to messages were recorded. RESULTS: Medication adherence was better in the message group at postop day 7, with high adherence in 47 patients (96%, 47/49) versus 36 patients (73%, 36/49) in the no message group (P=.004), but no statistically significant differences in medication adherence between the groups were noted at preop and postop day 30. Visit adherence was higher at postop day 30 in the message group (100%, 49/49) versus the no message group (88%, 43/49; P=.03) but was 100% (49/49) in both groups at postop day 1 and 7. Final visual outcomes were similar between groups. A total of 441 standardized messages were sent to the message group. Out of 270 responses generated, 188 (70%) were simple acknowledgments or "thank you," and 82 (30%) responses were questions that were divided into three general categories: administrative, postop care, and clinical issues. Out of the 82 question responses, 31 (11%) were about administrative issues, 28 (10%) about postop care, and 23 (9%) about clinical symptoms. All the messages about symptoms were triaged by nurses or ophthalmologists and only required reassurance or information. Patients expressed satisfaction with messaging. CONCLUSIONS: Two-way social media messaging to deliver postop information to cataract patients is feasible and improves early medication compliance. Further design improvements can streamline work flow to optimize efficiency and patient satisfaction.

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