PURPOSE: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), thought to be a unilateral disease, results in loss of corneal sensation, leading to neurotrophic keratopathy. This study aimed to analyze bilateral corneal nerve changes in patients with HZO by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and their correlation with corneal sensation as a measure of nerve function.
DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, controlled, single-center study.
PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven eyes with the diagnosis of HZO and their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes were studied and compared with normal controls (n = 15).
METHODS: In vivo confocal microscopy (Confoscan 4; Nidek Technologies, Gamagori, Japan) and corneal esthesiometry (Cochet-Bonnet; Luneau Ophthalmologie, Chartres, France) of the central cornea were performed bilaterally in all patients and controls. Patients were grouped into normal (>5.5 cm), mild (>2.5-5.5 cm), and severe (<2.5 cm) loss of sensation.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in corneal nerve density, total nerve number, main nerve trunks, branching, and tortuosity were evaluated after IVCM and were correlated to corneal sensation, disease duration, and number of recurrences.
RESULTS: Eyes with herpes zoster ophthalmicus had a significant (P<0.001) decrease in total nerve length (595.8±358.1 vs. 2258.4±989.0 μm/frame), total number of nerves (5.4±2.8 vs. 13.1±3.8), number of main nerve trunks (2.3±1.1 vs. 4.7±1.2), and number of nerve branches (3.2±2.3 vs. 8.4±3.7) as compared with controls. In the contralateral clinically unaffected eyes, total nerve length (1053.1±441.4 μm/frame), total number of nerves (8.3±2.9), and main nerve trunks (3.1±1.0) also were decreased significantly as compared with controls (P<0.01). Reduced nerve density, total nerve count, main trunks, and tortuosity was correlated significantly with corneal sensation across all subgroups (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with unilateral HZO demonstrated a profound and significant bilateral loss of the corneal nerve plexus as compared with controls, demonstrating bilateral changes in a clinically unilateral disease. Loss of corneal sensation strongly correlated with subbasal nerve plexus alterations as shown by IVCM.
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
PURPOSE: Clinical studies have indicated that the long-term use of topical antiglaucoma drugs, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), may lead to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). We hypothesize that these adverse effects involve a direct influence on human MG epithelial cells (HMGECs). The purpose our present investigation was to test our hypothesis and determine whether exposure to dorzolamide, a CAI, impacts the proliferation, intracellular signaling and differentiation of HMGECs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We cultured immortalized (i) HMGECs with vehicle or various concentrations of dorzolamide for 6 days. Cells were enumerated with a hemocytometer, and examined for their morphology, Akt signaling activity, accumulation of neutral lipids, phospholipids and lysosomes, and the expression of protein biomarkers for lipogenesis regulation, lysosomes and autophagosomes. RESULTS: Our results show that a high, 500 µg/ml concentration of dorzolamide causes a significant decrease in Akt signaling and the proliferation of iHMGECs. However, the high dose of dorzolamide also promotes the differentiation of iHMGECs. This response features increases in the number of lysosomes, the accumulation of phospholipids, and the expression of the light chain 3A biomarker for autophagosomes. In contrast, the therapeutic amount (50 µg/ml) of dorzolamide has no impact on the proliferative or differentiative abilities of iHMGECs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that the CAI dorzolamide does exert a direct influence on the proliferation and differentiation of iHMGECs. However, this effect is elicited only by a high, and not a therapeutic, amount of dorzolamide. AKT: phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B; BPE: bovine pituitary extract; CAD: cationic amphiphilic drug; DED: dry eye disease; DMEM/F12: 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12; EGF: epidermal growth factor; FBS: fetal bovine serum; iHMGECs: immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells; KSFM: keratinocyte serum-free medium; LAMP-1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LC3A: light chain 3A; MGD: meibomian gland dysfunction; SREBP-1: sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1.
Specific factors from the corneal epithelium underlying the stimulation of stromal fibrosis and myofibroblast formation in corneal wound healing have not been fully elucidated. Given that exosomes are known to transfer bioactive molecules among cells and play crucial roles in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer, we hypothesized that corneal epithelial cell-derived exosomes may gain access to the underlying stromal fibroblasts upon disruption of the epithelial basement membrane and that they induce signaling events essential for corneal wound healing. In the present study, exosome-like vesicles were observed between corneal epithelial cells and the stroma during wound healing after corneal epithelial debridement. These vesicles were also found in the stroma following anterior stromal keratectomy, in which surgical removal of the epithelium, basement membrane, and anterior stroma was performed. Exosomes secreted by mouse corneal epithelial cells were found to fuse to keratocytes in vitro and to induce myofibroblast transformation. In addition, epithelial cell-derived exosomes induced endothelial cell proliferation and ex vivo aortic ring sprouting. Our results indicate that epithelial cell-derived exosomes mediate communication between corneal epithelial cells and corneal keratocytes as well as vascular endothelial cells. These findings demonstrate that epithelial-derived exosomes may be involved in corneal wound healing and neovascularization, and thus, may serve as targets for potential therapeutic interventions.
Purpose: Radiation therapy results in severe chronic keratopathy and dry eye disease. We developed a novel mouse model for radiation keratopathy to allow future mechanistic studies. Methods: Six to 8-week-old BALB/c mice underwent sublethal irradiation to the head only from a Cesium-137 irradiator, 2 × 550 rad, 3-hours apart. Irradiated mice were clinically evaluated by corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) at 1, 2, and 3 months, after which corneas were excised and immunofluorescence histochemistry performed with anti-CD45, anti-MHC class II, and anti-β-tubulin antibodies. Results: The survival rate after irradiation was 100%. Mice demonstrated significant CFS and hair loss around the eyes. Corneal nerve density decreased in the central and peripheral corneas (P < 0.01) at 2 and 3 months, respectively. CD45+ immune cell densities increased in the central and peripheral corneas (P < 0.005, P < 0.001) at 2 and 3 months, respectively. MHC class II, a sign of antigen presenting cell activation, significantly increased after irradiation in the central and peripheral corneas at 2 and 3 months (P = 0.02). A strong inverse correlation was noted between decreased corneal nerves and increase in CD45+ cells in the central cornea at 2 (P = 0.04, r = -0.89) and 3 months (P = 0.03, r = -0.91) after irradiation. Conclusions: We present a model of radiation keratopathy and demonstrate significant nerve loss and increase in immune cell influx and activation within months. This model will enable future investigations to understand the effects of radiation therapy on the eye, and to study mechanisms of neuro-immune crosstalk in the cornea.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that normally play a critical role in stimulating T-cell-dependent immune responses. However, tolerogenic DCs (CD11cMHC-IICD80CD86) induce immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs: CD4CD25Foxp3). Although tolerogenic DCs are used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent transplantation rejection, the mechanisms by which they regulate alloimmunity are poorly understood. Here, we review our previous studies aiming to elucidate the mechanisms involved in immune rejection of corneal allografts using a corneal transplant model. We found that donor-derived tolerogenic DCs significantly prolonged corneal allograft survival by suppressing indirect allosensitization. We also reported the precise distribution of intraepithelial corneal DCs, termed Langerhans cells (LCs: CD11cLangerinMHC-II) in the cornea, which we maintain play a critical role in regulating corneal immunity. By confocal microscopy, we constructed 3-dimensional images of corneal LCs, which demonstrated that their cell bodies are present in the basal cell layer of the corneal epithelium. Furthermore, LC dendrites extend toward the ocular surface, but do not connect to epithelial tight junctions, indicating that they cannot directly interact with ocular surface antigens. We confirm the potential of DC therapy for corneal graft rejection and report the function of intraepithelial DCs (LCs) in the normal cornea.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and transscleral-sutured intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (IOL-suture) in complex eyes. METHODS: In this prospective, consecutive interventional case series, patients who underwent PKP combined with PPV and IOL implantation from July 2014 to March 2018 at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital were enrolled. The postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (converted to logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution [logMAR] units), intraocular pressure (IOP, mmHg), endothelial cell density (ECD, cells/mm), graft survival, complications, astigmatism, and spherical equivalent (dioptres [D]) were evaluated. RESULTS: This study included 11 eyes of 11 patients (three females and eight males; mean age, 61.8 ± 13.9 years) with an injury (n = 6) or bullous keratopathy (n = 5). The BCVA significantly improved from 1.50 ± 0.66 logMAR preoperatively to 0.78 ± 0.59 logMAR (p < 0.001) postoperatively. The baseline ECD significantly decreased from 2396 ± 238 cells/mm preoperatively to 1132 ± 323 cells/mm (p < 0.001) postoperatively. Despite two rejection episodes, graft survival rates were 100%. The mean follow-up period was 38.0 ± 20.5 months. Two patients required combined glaucoma surgery, and three patients underwent subsequent glaucoma surgery. Postoperative astigmatism and spherical equivalent were 3.9 ± 3.2 D and 0.29 ± 2.18 D, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of PKP, PPV, and IOL-suture implantation could be a safe and effective approach for eyes requiring anterior segment surgery; however, these eyes are associated with a higher incidence of glaucoma surgery.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if histamine receptors interact with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells. Methods: Goblet cells from rat conjunctiva were grown in organ culture. First-passage goblet cells were used in all experiments. Phosphorylated (active) and total EGFR, AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 were measured by Western blot analysis. Cells were preincubated with the EGFR antagonist AG1478 for 30 minutes or small interfering RNA specific to the EGFR for 3 days prior to stimulation with histamine or agonists specific for histamine receptor subtypes for 2 hours. Goblet cell secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Goblet cells were incubated for 1 hour with the calcium indicator molecule fura-2/AM, and intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) was determined. Data were collected in real time and presented as the actual [Ca2+]i with time and as the change in peak [Ca2+]i. Results: Histamine increased the phosphorylation of the EGFR. Mucin secretion and increase in [Ca2+]i stimulated by histamine, and agonists specific for each histamine receptor subtype were blocked by inhibition of the EGFR. Increase in [Ca2+]i stimulated by histamine and specific agonists for each histamine receptor was also inhibited by TAPI-1, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. The histamine-stimulated increase in activation of AKT, but not ERK1/2, was blocked by AG1478. Conclusions: In conjunctival goblet cells, histamine, using all four receptor subtypes, transactivates the EGFR via an MMP. This in turn phosphorylates AKT to increase [Ca2+]i and stimulate mucin secretion.
Purpose: We fabricated and investigated polymeric scaffolds that can substitute for the conjunctival extracellular matrix to provide a substrate for autologous expansion of human conjunctival goblet cells in culture. Methods: We fabricated two hydrogels and two silk films: (1) recombinant human collagen (RHC) hydrogel, (2) recombinant human collagen 2-methacryloylxyethyl phosphorylcholine (RHC-MPC) hydrogel, (3) arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) modified silk, and (4) poly-D-lysine (PDL) coated silk, and four electrospun scaffolds: (1) collagen, (2) poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), (3) poly(caprolactone) (PCL), and (4) poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Coverslips and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were used for comparison. Human conjunctival explants were cultured on scaffolds for 9 to 15 days. Cell viability, outgrowth area, and the percentage of cells expressing markers for stratified squamous epithelial cells (cytokeratin 4) and goblet cells (cytokeratin 7) were determined. Results: Most of cells grown on all scaffolds were viable except for PCL in which only 3.6 ± 2.2% of the cells were viable. No cells attached to PVA scaffold. The outgrowth was greatest on PDL-silk and PET. Outgrowth was smallest on PCL. All cells were CK7-positive on RHC-MPC while 84.7 ± 6.9% of cells expressed CK7 on PDL-silk. For PCL, 87.10 ± 3.17% of cells were CK7-positive compared to PET where 67.10 ± 12.08% of cells were CK7-positive cells. Conclusions: Biopolymer substrates in the form of hydrogels and silk films provided for better adherence, proliferation, and differentiation than the electrospun scaffolds and could be used for conjunctival goblet cell expansion for eventual transplantation once undifferentiated and stratified squamous cells are included. Useful polymer scaffold design characteristics have emerged from this study.
BACKGROUND: To investigate and contrast the prevalence of dry eye symptoms in construction workers and office workers using the OSDI questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using the OSDI questionnaire to evaluate dry eye symptoms and associated risk factors. Sampled size calculation with a power of 80% and a 95% degree of confidence suggested the inclusion of 298 participants. RESULTS: We studied 304 subjects (149 construction workers and 155 office workers). More than half (55%) of the participants presented dry eye symptoms (OSDI > 12). The average OSDI score was 21.30 ± 22.20 points, being lower in the group of construction workers (12.45 ± 17.50) than in-office workers (28.51 ± 22.99) (p < 0.001). Considering participants who had moderate and severe symptoms (23 to 100 points in OSDI), office workers presented dry eye symptoms 4.15 times more frequently than construction workers (OR 4.15, 95% CI 2.52, 6.85). Women presented statistical evidence of higher OSDI scores than men (32.47 ± 23.72 vs. 14.87 ± 18.48, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: construction workers have four times less risk of presenting dry eye symptoms than people working in the average office space. This highlights the pernicious effects on the ocular surface of the office environment, which poses a significant risk for the development or worsening of dry eye symptoms.
The ocular surface including the cornea and conjunctiva and its overlying tear film are the first tissues of the eye to interact with the external environment. The tear film is complex containing multiple layers secreted by different glands and tissues. Each layer contains specific molecules and proteins that not only maintain the health of the cells on the ocular surface by providing nourishment and removal of waste products but also protect these cells from environment. A major protective mechanism that the corneal and conjunctival cells have developed is secretion of the innermost layer of the tear film, the mucous layer. Both the cornea and conjunctiva express membrane spanning mucins, whereas the conjunctiva also produces soluble mucins. The mucins present in the tear film serve to maintain the hydration of the ocular surface and to provide lubrication and anti-adhesive properties between the cells of the ocular surface and conjunctiva during the blink. A third function is to contribute to the epithelial barrier to prevent pathogens from binding to the ocular surface. This review will focus on the different types of mucins produced by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Also included in this review will be a presentation of the structure of mucins, regulation of mucin production, role of mucins in ocular surface diseases, and the differences in mucin production by the ocular surface, airways and gastrointestinal tract.
PURPOSE: Purinergic receptors play a key role in the function of the lacrimal gland (LG) as P1 purinergic receptors A1, A2A, and A2B, P2X1-7 receptors, and many of the P2Y receptors are expressed. METHODS: This review examines the current knowledge of purinergic receptors in the LG as well as the signaling pathways activated by these receptors. RESULTS: These receptors are expressed on the acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells. Considerable crosstalk exists between the pathways activated by P2X7 receptors with those activated by M3 muscarinic or α1D adrenergic receptors. The mechanism of the crosstalk between P2X7 and M3 muscarinic receptors differs from that of the crosstalk between P2X7 and α1D adrenergic receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding purinergic receptors and how they modulate protein secretion could play a key role in normal and pathological responses of the LG.
The purpose of this study was to identify the signaling pathways that epidermal growth factor (EGF) uses to stimulate mucin secretion from cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells and to compare the pathways used by EGF with those used by the known secretagogue muscarinic, cholinergic agonists. To this end, goblet cells from rat conjunctiva were grown in culture using RPMI media. For immunofluorescence experiments, antibodies against EGF receptor (EGFR) and ERK 2 as well as muscarinic receptors (M(1)AchR, M(2)AchR, and M(3)AchR) were used, and the cells viewed by fluorescence microscopy. Intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured using fura 2/AM. Glycoconjugate secretion was determined after cultured goblet cells were preincubated with inhibitors, and then stimulated with EGF or the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch). Goblet cell secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay with UEA-I or ELISA for MUC5AC. In cultured goblet cells EGF stimulated an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. EGF-stimulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was blocked by inhibitors of the EGF receptor and removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Inhibitors against the EGFR and ERK 1/2 blocked EGF-stimulated mucin secretion. In addition, cultured goblet cells expressed M(1)AchR, M(2)AchR, and M(3)AchRs. Cch-stimulated increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was blocked by inhibitors for the M(1)AchRs, matrix metalloproteinases, and EGF receptors. Inhibitors against the EGF receptor and ERK 1/2 also blocked Cch-stimulated mucin secretion. We conclude that in conjunctival goblet cells, EGF itself increases [Ca(2+)](i) and activates ERK 1/2 to stimulate mucin secretion. EGF-stimulated secretion is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+). This mechanism of action is similar to cholinergic agonists that use muscarinic receptors to transactivate the EGF receptor, increase [Ca(2+)](i), and activate ERK 1/2 leading to an increase in mucin secretion.
Conjunctival goblet cells synthesize and secrete mucins which play an important role in protecting the ocular surface. Pro-resolution mediators, such as lipoxin A4 (LXA4), are produced during inflammation returning the tissue to homeostasis and are also produced in non-inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA4 on cultured human conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion and increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) and on histamine-stimulated responses. LXA4 increased mucin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i, and activated ERK1/2 in human goblet cells. Addition of LXA4 before resolvin D1 (RvD1) decreased RvD1 responses though RvD1 did not block LXA4 responses. LXA4 inhibited histamine-stimulated increases in mucin secretion, [Ca(2+)]i, and ERK1/2 activation through activation of β-adrenergic receptor kinase 1. We conclude that conjunctival goblet cells respond to LXA4 through the ALX/FPR2 receptor to maintain homeostasis of the ocular surface and regulate histamine responses and could provide a new therapeutic approach for allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye diseases.
PURPOSE: To establish normal noninvasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT) values in the Chinese population and investigate age-related changes in NI-BUT using a newly developed Keratograph. METHODS: Forty normal volunteers with a mean age of 32.8 ± 16.7 years were recruited for this study. Clinical and demographic data, including age, gender, fluorescein tear film breakup time (FBUT), and Schirmer I test values were collected from the subjects. Noninvasive tear film breakup time was measured using a new method based on a corneal topographer equipped with a modified scan software. The correlations between the NI-BUT, age, and gender were determined. RESULTS: In total, a significant difference between the NI-BUT and the FBUT was found (4.9 ± 2.4 seconds vs. 9.0 ± 3.0 seconds; p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference in the NI-BUT was observed between the male and female subjects (5.5 ± 2.0 seconds vs. 4.5 ± 2.5 seconds; p = 0.137). In addition, no significant correlation was detected between the NI-BUT and age (0.143, p = 0.321). CONCLUSIONS: The NI-BUT values found in this study are much lower than those of previous reports. Our results show no significant differences in tear film stability with age. The tear physiology of the Chinese population may not be the same as in Western populations.
PURPOSE: Each year, over 8,000 corneal transplantation surgeries are performed in China. Unlike developed countries, which have established standard requirements for operative experience for corneal specialists, little information exists on surgical training for keratoplasty in China. The aim of this study was to assess the keratoplasty experience of Chinese corneal specialists and to characterize their surgical patterns. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one corneal specialists in 16 provinces (65 cities) in China were invited to complete an anonymous survey at the 2014 Chinese Corneal Society annual meeting, which consisted of questions with single or multiple-choice answers. Demographics, the number and type of keratoplasties performed, and the perceived limiting factors for performing keratoplasties were analyzed. RESULTS: An overwhelming 89% response rate was achieved. Of the 108 respondents, 76% worked in tertiary centers, and only 23% held a medical doctorate degree. Furthermore, 69% of the participants had received corneal fellowship training of less than one year. Only 71% were capable of keratoplasties. Among those doing keratoplasty, 68% performed less than 50 keratoplasties each year. Of the same group of keratoplasty surgeons, 88% of corneal specialists capable of keratoplasties had performed penetrating keratoplasties, 87% had performed lamellar keratoplasties, 12% had performed deep anterior lamellar keratoplasties, and 5% had performed Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasties. When questioned on the reasons for the low number of keratoplasties performed in China, the respondents deemed the following factors most important: lack of surgical training (71%), a shortage of donor supply (52%), and a lack of curricula (42%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that corneal transplantation capabilities are significantly associated with responders' education levels and training time. CONCLUSION: Keratoplasty surgery experience is suboptimal for Chinese corneal specialists. Penetrating and lamellar keratoplasties are the preferred surgical patterns. Our findings raise concerns about the adequacy of keratoplasty training in China.
PURPOSE: To present in vivo anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of infants with Peters' anomaly obtained during presurgical examination under general anaesthesia, and to evaluate the impact of OCT features on surgical decision making. METHODS: This is a single-centre, consecutive, observational case series including 44 eyes of 27 infants with Peters' anomaly (5-18 months) undergoing keratoplasty. Medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical features and OCT findings, along with their impact on surgical decision-making were analysed. RESULTS: Of 27 patients, 10 had unilateral and 17 had bilateral disease. Two patients with mild disease (three eyes) had a posterior corneal defect with leukoma (2/27, 7.4%). Twenty patients (32 eyes) with iridocorneal adhesions were classified as having moderate Peters' anomaly (20/27, 74.1%) and five patients (nine eyes) with lenticulocorneal adhesions were classified as having severe Peters' anomaly (5/27, 18.5%). The range of angle closure, anterior chamber depth and maximum iridocorneal adhesion length (all p<0.001) were significantly different among groups, indicating that they might serve as novel OCT parameters for assessing the severity of Peters' anomaly. The surgical approach in seven patients (21.2%) was altered in response to intraoperative OCT findings, which provided information regarding the anatomical structure of the anterior chamber not provided by the surgical microscope. The use of OCT prevented unnecessary cataract surgeries in five patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that information gained from OCT under anaesthesia allows surgeons to classify type and severity of Peters' anomaly and supports surgical decision making.
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) using the Corvis ST Tonometer (CST), ocular response analyzer (ORA), and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in eyes undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), as well as to analyze the relationship between the corneal biomechanical parameters of the CST and the ORA. METHODS: Fifty participants who had undergone LASIK to treat myopia in the previous 3 months were enrolled. Postoperative IOP measurements of these participants were obtained using the CST, ORA (corneal-compensated IOP [IOPcc], Goldmann-correlated IOP [IOPg]), and GAT. Device agreement was calculated by Bland-Altman analysis. The metrics of corneal biomechanical properties were recorded using the ORA and the CST. Corneal biomechanical parameters were compared. RESULTS: The Bland-Altman analysis revealed a significant bias between CST and GAT, between CST and IOPcc, and between CST and IOPg of 3.4, 1.0, and 3.8, mm Hg, respectively, with 95% limits of agreement of -0.7 to 7.5 mm Hg, -2.1 to 4.2 mm Hg, and -0.4 to 8.0 mm Hg. The ORA-derived IOP measurements, CST-derived IOP, and GAT IOP values showed good correlation with each other. The CST IOP and IOPcc were higher than the GAT IOP (all p < 0.05), whereas IOPg did not differ from the GAT IOP readings. Ocular response analyzer-derived corneal biomechanical parameters (corneal hysteresis and the corneal resistance factor) showed significant correlations with CST-derived parameters, including the maximum deformation amplitude at the corneal apex and the time from start until the first applanation. CONCLUSIONS: The CST offers an alternative method for measuring postoperative IOP in LASIK patients, and it appears to obtain higher IOP values than other tonometry techniques. The technique may facilitate the investigation of corneal biomechanical property changes in LASIK-treated eyes.
OBJECTIVES: To compare sociodemographics and vision-related quality of life (QoL) of individuals with or without dry eye disease (DED); and to explore the impact of DED symptom severity on visual function, activity limitations and work productivity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional web-based survey. SETTING: General UK population. PARTICIPANTS: Adults ≥18 years with (N=1002) or without (N=1003) self-reported DED recruited through email and screened. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All participants completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), with six additional questions (items A3-A8), and the EuroQol 5 dimensions 5 levels. DED participants also completed Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life questionnaire, 5-item Dry Eye Questionnaire and the Standardised Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness questionnaire along with the Ocular Comfort Index, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment and the Eye Dryness Score (EDS), a Visual Analogue Scale. RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in participants with versus without DED (mean age, 55.2 vs 55.0 years; 61.8% vs 61.0% women, respectively) based on recruitment targets. Scores were derived from NEI VFQ-25 using the new 28-item revised VFQ (VFQ-28R) scoring. Mean (SD) VFQ-28R scores were lower in participants with versus without DED, indicating worse functioning (activity limitations, 73.3 (12.3) vs 84.4 (12.3); socioemotional functioning, 75.3 (21.5) vs 90.3 (16.2); total score, 71.6 (12.8) vs 83.6 (12.6)). Higher percentages of problems/inability to do activities were observed among those with versus without DED. The impact of DED on visual function was worse for participants with more severe DED symptoms, as assessed by EDS. In addition, a higher EDS was associated with worse symptoms on common DED scales and a worse impact on work productivity. CONCLUSIONS: DED symptoms were associated with negative effects on visual function, activities and work productivity, whereas worse DED symptoms had a greater impact on vision-related QoL and work productivity.
The cornea is the shield to the foreign world and thus, a primary site for peripheral infections. However, transparency and vision are incompatible with inflammation and scarring that may result from infections. Thus, the cornea is required to perform a delicate balance between fighting infections and preserving vision. To date, little is known about the specific role of antigen-presenting cells in viral keratitis. In this study, utilizing an established murine model of primary acute herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 keratitis, we demonstrate that primary HSV keratitis results in increased conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages within 24 hours after infection. Local depletion of cDCs in CD11c-DTR mice by subconjuntival diphtheria toxin injections, led to increased viral proliferation, and influx of inflammatory cells, resulting in increased scarring and clinical keratitis. In addition, while HSV infection resulted in significant corneal nerve destruction, local depletion of cDCs resulted in a much more severe loss of corneal nerves. Further, local cDC depletion resulted in decreased corneal nerve infection, and subsequently decreased and delayed systemic viral transmission in the trigeminal ganglion and draining lymph node, resulting in decreased mortality of mice. In contrast, sham depletion or depletion of macrophages through local injection of clodronate liposomes had neither a significant impact on the cornea, nor an effect on systemic viral transmission. In conclusion, we demonstrate that corneal cDCs may play a primary role in local corneal defense during viral keratitis and preserve vision, at the cost of inducing systemic viral dissemination, leading to increased mortality.