PURPOSE: To describe the long-term surgical course of patients with open globe injury. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with open globe injuries (848 in total) treated surgically at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Data from presentation, initial repair, and follow-up surgery were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 848 injuries, 1415 surgical procedures were performed. The mean follow-up time was 19.7 months, including 6017 visits. On average, patients required 1.7 surgeries and 7.1 follow-up visits. Factors predicting follow-up surgery included more severe ocular trauma score, worse prerepair visual acuity, retinal hemorrhage, anterior vitrectomy at primary repair, pars plana vitrectomy at primary repair, and lensectomy at primary repair. Patients with zone II injury, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, and a history of previous ocular surgery tended to require follow-up surgery less frequently. Patients requiring a second surgery tended to have worse visual acuity at presentation and postrepair. Postoperative visual outcomes were worse for patients who underwent vitreoretinal follow-up surgery, likely because of mechanism of injury. Variables associated with inferior visual outcome were worse prerepair visual acuity, postoperative afferent pupillary defect (APD), old age, scleral laceration, and retinal detachment. CONCLUSION: Open globe injuries require significant surgical follow-up. Patients requiring multiple operations tended to have worse postoperative visual acuity. Patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery had overall worse visual outcomes. While the first year of surveillance appears to be pivotal in the course of an open globe injury, these patients can expect long-term care from comprehensive and subspecialty ophthalmologists.
PURPOSE: Open globe injuries (OGIs) are categorized by zone, with Zone 3 (Z3) comprising wounds >5mm beyond the limbus. Outcomes of Z3 OGIs are highly heterogenous. OGIs with far posterior wounds (pZ3) were hypothesized to have worse visual and anatomic outcomes. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective cohort study PARTICIPANTS: 258 eyes with zone 3 open globe injuries METHODS: A retrospective review of Z3 OGIs treated at a tertiary center over 12 years. Wounds ≥10mm posterior to the limbus were defined as pZ3. Outcomes were compared between pZ3 and anterior Z3 (aZ3) eyes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity on a logMAR scale. Secondary outcomes included anatomic outcomes, development of retinal detachment (RD) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and number of secondary surgeries. RESULTS: A total of 258 Z3 OGI eyes with >30 days follow-up were assessed; 161 (62%) were pZ3. At 3 month follow-up, pZ3 OGIs were more likely to exhibit NLP (pZ3: 38%; aZ3: 17%; p<0.003), lack count fingers vision (pZ3: 72%; aZ3: 43%; p<0.002) and fail to read a letter on the eye chart (pZ3: 83%; aZ3: 64%; p<0.001). The visual acuity distribution at 3 months was significantly worse for pZ3 compared to aZ3 injuries (p<0.004). Similar results were found at final follow-up. Multiple linear regression showed that pZ3 location was independently associated with worse visual acuity (β 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09-0.50, p<0.006) in addition to presenting acuity, age, vitreous hemorrhage, uveal prolapse and afferent pupillary defect. pZ3 injuries were more likely to develop RDs (pZ3: 87%; aZ3: 71%; p<0.01) and PVR (pZ3 66%; aZ3 47%; p<0.03). Patients with pZ3 OGIs were significantly more likely to reach a poor anatomic outcome (phthisis, enucleation, need for keratoprosthesis) compared with aZ3 OGI patients (pZ3: 56%; aZ3: 40%; p<0.03). CONCLUSION: Posterior OGI extension independently portends worse visual and anatomic outcomes. The effect on visual outcome was durable and clinically relevant compared with established predictors of OGI outcomes. Application of these findings improve prognostic precision and will guide future research efforts to optimize surgical decision-making in severe OGI cases.
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been linked to ocular signs and symptoms in several case reports. Research has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is spread primarily through close contact via respiratory droplets, but there is the possibility for ocular transmission, with the conjunctiva as a conduit as well as a source of infection. DISCUSSION: Ocular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 include follicular conjunctivitis, and have been repeatedly noted as an initial or subsequent symptom of COVID-19-positive patients. Particularly in patients with ocular manifestations, there is evidence that the virus may present in tears, based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival swab samples via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The virus may therefore be transmittable from the ocular surface to a new host via contact with the ocular mucosa, tears, or subsequent fomites. CONCLUSIONS: All health care professionals should ask patients about ocular symptoms consistent with SARS-CoV-2, and use eye protection such as goggles or face shields as part of the standard personal protective equipment for high-risk patients in addition to wearing of masks by both the patient and provider, and should consider tears to be potentially infectious.
Genadry KC, Shrock C, O'Shea D, Vatsa R, Shah AS, Gise R, Lipsett SC. Traumatic Hyphema. J Emerg Med 2021;61(6):740-741.
PURPOSE: To identify common causes of emergency department-treated eye injury among older adults in the United States (US), and to characterize of fall-related ocular trauma in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a nationally representative database of US emergency department-treated injuries, was used to assemble a cohort of adults 65 years and older with eye injuries between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Demographic information, diagnosis, disposition, injury location and consumer product associated with injury were collected. Narrative descriptions of all injuries were reviewed to identify eye injuries secondary to falls. RESULTS: 4,953 eye injuries among older adults were reported from 2000 to 2019, a stratified probability sample representing approximately 238,162 injuries, with an average annual frequency of 12,000 injuries. Falls accounted for 11.5% of these injuries. Fall-related eye injuries commonly presented from home (66.5%) and were more likely to occur in the winter than eye injuries from other causes (28.1% vs. 18.4%, p<0.01). Risk factors for fall-related eye injury included older age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.10-1.13 per year), female sex (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.1 vs. male), Black race (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5 vs. White) and presentation from a nursing home (OR 12.7, 95% CI 4.9-32.8 vs. other locations). Older adults with fall-related injury were more likely to be hospitalized (OR 22.8, 95% CI 15.3-33.9) and to suffer from a ruptured globe (OR 14.1, 95% CI 6.5-30.6) than those with fall-unrelated injury. CONCLUSIONS: Falls are an important mechanism of ocular trauma in older adults and are associated with worse outcomes compared to eye injuries from other causes.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a decline in emergency department (ED) presentations for trauma. The purpose of this study is to compare the estimated number and characteristics of eye injuries in 2020, the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, to those in 2011-2019. METHODS: A stratified probability sample of US ED-treated eye injuries was used to calculate the estimated annual number and incidence of these injuries in 2020, the year of the pandemic, and 2011-2019 (prepandemic years). Two-sample t-tests and Pearson χ2 were used to assess differences in demographics and injury characteristics. For multiple comparisons, Bonferroni correction was applied. RESULTS: The estimated number of ED-treated eye injuries per year was 152 957 (95% CI 132 637 to 176 153) in 2020 and 194 142 (95% CI 191 566 to 196 401) in 2011-2019. The annual incidence of ED-treated eye injuries was lower in 2020, at 46 per 100 000 population than in 2011-2019, at 62 per 100 000 per year (p<0.001). In 2020 vs 2011-2019, there was a higher incidence of ruptured globes (0.5 per 100 000 vs 0.3 per 100 000 per year, p<0.001), hyphemas (0.6 per 100 000 vs 0.4 per 100 000 per year, p<0.001), lacerations (1.0 per 100 000 in 2020 vs 0.8 per 100 000 per year, p<0.001) and orbital fractures (0.3 per 100 000 vs 0.03). CONCLUSION: The estimated incidence of eye injuries presenting to the ED was significantly lower in 2020 than in 2011-2019, but there was a higher estimated incidence of severe eye injuries. Changes in living and work environments due to the COVID-19 pandemic were likely associated with the differences in ocular trauma presentations observed in this study.
Chemical agents that target the eyes have been a popular choice for law enforcement during riots and for military training for nearly a century. The most commonly used agents are chloroacetophenone (formerly sold as Mace), o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, and oleoresin capsicum (OC or pepper spray, current ingredient for Mace). Initially, most severe ocular injuries were caused by the explosive force rather than the chemical itself. The development of sprays reduced the mechanical severity of ocular injuries, but resulted in a variety of chemical injuries. The effects on eyes include conjunctival injection, complete corneal epithelial defects, pseudopterygium, corneal neovascularization, persistent conjunctivalization, corneal opacities, and reduced visual acuity. Current management, based on limited human studies, emphasizes decontamination and symptomatic treatment. We review the literature related to clinical and histopathologic effects of tear gas agents on the eye and their management.
We report a rare case of traumatic corneal perforation with Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube. A 5-year-old female child, diagnosed with refractory glaucoma, had undergone AGV implantation, presented with the posterior migration of AGV tube after trauma to the eye. The detailed ocular history, ophthalmic findings, clinical course and surgical management are discussed.
PURPOSE: Convention is to perform open globe injury (OGI) repair within 24 h to minimize risk of endophthalmitis. However, there are limited data assessing how time to operative repair (OR) within 24 h impacts postoperative visual acuity (VA). METHODS: Manual retrospective chart review of 633 eyes at Massachusetts Eye and Ear (MEE) with a diagnosis of OGI between 2012 and 2022. Inclusion criteria were primary repair ≤ 24 h after injury and ≥1 month follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted with postoperative VA as primary outcome. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 489 (77.3%) were male and 496 (78.4%) were white. Demographics of OGI wounds included 320 (50.6%) rupture and 313 (49.4%) laceration; 126 (19.9%) with rAPD, 189 (29.9%) zone 3 injuries, 449 (71.2%) uveal prolapse, and 110 (17.4%) intraocular foreign body. Final postoperative LogMAR VAs consisted of 31% with a VA < 1.7, 9% with a VA of 1.9, 18% with a VA of 2.3, 27% with a VA of 2.7, and 11% with a VA of 3.0. Multivariate analysis showed no significant correlation between time to OR and postoperative VA (p = 0.800) [95%CI: -0.01,0.01]. Older age (p < 0.001) [95%CI: 0.00,0.01], worse presenting VA (p < 0.001) [95%CI: 0.17,0.32], rAPD (p < 0.001) [95%CI: 0.65,1.0], mechanism of rupture (p < 0.001) [95%CI: 0.19,0.54], higher zone of injury (p < 0.001) [95%CI: 0.25,0.45], and uveal prolapse (p = 0.003) [95%CI: 0.09,0.42] were significantly associated with worse final VA. CONCLUSIONS: Time to repair of OGIs within 24 h does not influence final VA. Optimization of surgical and patient factors may contribute more significantly to final VA than prioritizing more rapid time to OR.
PURPOSE: To determine global current practice patterns for the management of open globe injuries and identify areas of variation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: An online survey assessed global management paradigms for open globe injuries from August 2020 to January 2021. Responses were collected from experts at eye trauma centers and emergency departments worldwide who manage ≥1 open globe injury per month. The survey assessed the use/selection of antibiotics and steroids, procedural and imaging decisions, and admission practices for open globe injuries. RESULTS: Responses were received from representatives of 36 of 42 institutions (85.7%), of which 33 (78.6%) had sufficient trauma volume to be included. Included responses were distributed across North America (n=12, 36.4%), Asia (n=12, 36.4%), South America (n=4, 12.1%), Africa (n=3, 9.1%), Europe (n=1, 3.0%), and Australia (n=1, 3.0%). Preoperative systemic antibiotics for open globe injuries were administered by 75.8% (n = 25/33) of institutions, while 30.3% (n = 10/33) administered preoperative topical antibiotics. Intraoperative ophthalmic antibiotics for open globe injuries were used by 54.5% (n = 18/33) of experts. Most institutions also administered postoperative systemic antibiotics (n = 23 [69.7%]) and topical steroids (n = 29 [87.9%]), although specific medication choices diverged. At 19 responding centers (61.3% of the 31 that had trainees), residents participated in surgical repairs. Many institutions discharged patients after repair, but 54.5% (n = 18/33) of locations routinely admitted them for observation. CONCLUSIONS: Preferred management practices for open globe injuries vary widely. To ensure the highest standard of care for all patients, evidence-based international guidelines for the treatment of these injuries are needed.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the top 100 cited papers on ophthalmic trauma. METHODS: A literature search of Ophthalmology journals within the ISI Web of Science database for the most cited papers related to ophthalmic trauma. RESULTS: The most cited articles were published between 1943 and 2013, the greatest number being published in 2000. Ophthalmology (45), Archives of Ophthalmology (17), and the American Journal of Ophthalmology (15) published most of the articles. The institutions with the highest number of publications were Wilmer Eye Institute (10) and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (7). Sixty-seven percent of the articles originated from the USA. The most common type of trauma studied was non-open-globe injuries and the most frequent topic studied were pathological conditions secondary to trauma (34), particularly endophthalmitis (8), and optic neuropathy (6). Articles presenting a standardized classification system for eye injury received the highest average of citations per publication. Types of research most frequently cited were observational clinical studies (62) and epidemiological studies (30); the least frequent were clinical trials (2). CONCLUSION: This bibliographic study provides a historical perspective of the literature and identifies trends within the most highly influential papers on ophthalmic trauma. Many of these articles emerged within the past three decades and came from Ophthalmology journals that remain high impact to this day. Clinical trials have been difficult to conduct and are lacking, reflecting a critical need in ophthalmic trauma research, as most of our understanding of ophthalmic trauma comes from observational and epidemiological studies.
Background:Utilizing telemedicine is one approach to reduce the ever-increasing burden of patients on emergency departments (EDs) and consulting physicians. Utilization of telemedicine services in the ED may also benefit resident education.Materials and Methods:Ten first-year ophthalmology residents were trained to use a Topcon 3D Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)-1 Maestro to capture OCT images and fundus photos in patients presenting to the ED with urgent ophthalmic concerns. Findings were communicated to the supervising ophthalmologist. Retrospective chart review was conducted to obtain patient characteristics and final ophthalmologist diagnosis. Residents rated ease of use, technical reliability, and educational value through a survey.Results:From December 1, 2019, to December 1, 2020, the device was used in 109 patient encounters, capturing 887 images (average 8.1 images per encounter). Patients on whom the device was used were on average 48.5 years old (±17.2, range 17-90) and 59.6% were female. The imaging device was utilized most commonly for evaluating papilledema (n = 21, 18.6%), new-onset visual acuity/visual field defects (n = 12, 10.6%), retinal detachment/tear (n = 8, 7.1%), and ophthalmic trauma workup (n = 8, 7.1%). Eight residents completed the survey and most (n = 7) agreed or strongly agreed that the device helped them diagnose patients more accurately. Technical issues such as machine malfunction, image artifacts, and problems syncing with the electronic health record and computer were noted by survey respondents.Conclusions:The most common use of teleophthalmology in the ED setting was evaluation of papilledema; the majority of residents perceived an educational benefit from this tool. Efforts should be made to address the technical challenges to increase the utility of this device.
PURPOSE: To report ocular injuries caused by airsoft guns in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who sustained ocular injuries related to airsoft guns between November 2005 and December 2007. Place of trauma, presenting symptoms and signs, surgical interventions performed, and final visual outcome were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a mean age of 8.8 ± 4.0 years (range: 1.5 to 18 years) were examined; 28 were boys (87.5%). Presenting visual acuity ranged from hand motions to 20/20 and could not be assessed in 2 patients. Hyphema was a common finding that was present in 24 cases, corneal abrasions were present in 10 cases, and raised intraocular pressure was present in 7 cases. Seven patients presented with traumatic cataract, and two had iridodialysis. Immediate surgical intervention was performed in 7 patients and 7 patients were scheduled for elective surgery. The patients presented after an average of 1.9 ± 1.9 days (range: 4 hours to 6 days) after the injury. Average follow-up was 18 days (range: 7 days to 5 months). Final visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in 5 patients, 20/40 or better in 23 patients, and could not be assessed in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: Airsoft guns can cause a variety of serious injuries, sometimes necessitating operative intervention. The long-term morbidity from some of these injuries is significant. Airsoft guns are capable of inflicting serious and permanent ocular damage.
PURPOSE: To study the epidemiology of inpatient open globe injuries (OGI) in the United States (US). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary diagnosis of OGI in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2015. Sociodemographic characteristics, including age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance, and income were stratified for comparison. Annual prevalence rates were calculated using 2010 US Census data. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests, ANCOVA, and Tukey tests. RESULTS: A total of 6,821 US inpatient hospital discharge records met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The estimated national prevalence of OGI during the 5-year period from 2009 to 2015 was 34,061 (95% confidence interval [CI] 31,445-36,677). The overall annual prevalence rate was 1.58 per 100,000 per year (CI 1.56-1.59). Overall, average annual prevalence rates were highest among patients 85 years or older (7.72, CI 6.95-8.49), on Medicare (3.92, CI 3.84-4.00), males (2.28, CI 2.25-2.30), African Americans (2.38, CI 2.32-2.44), and Native Americans (1.80, CI 1.62-2.00). OGI rates were lowest among Whites (1.21, CI 1.19-1.22), females (0.89, CI 0.87-0.91), those with private insurance (0.84, CI 0.82-0.86), and Asians (0.69, CI 0.64-0.74). Being in the lowest income quartile was a risk factor for OGI (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient OGIs disproportionately affected those over 85, young males, elderly females, patients of African-American descent, on Medicare, and in the lowest income quartile. Additionally, children and young children had lower rates of OGI compared to adolescents. Further studies should delineate causes for socioeconomic differences in OGI rates to guide future public health measures.
Importance: Gun violence represents a substantial public health issue, and firearm-related injuries rank second among the causes of injury-related deaths in children aged 0 to 17 years in the United States. Ocular trauma from firearm-related injuries can lead to devastating vision loss, but little is known to date about the specific demographics and characteristics of such injuries in children. Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic pattern of pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis used deidentified data from the National Trauma Data Bank, the largest national registry of hospitalized trauma cases in the United States. The firearm-related ocular injuries (n = 1972) of pediatric patients (defined as those younger than 21 years) hospitalized between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014, were analyzed. Statistical analyses were conducted from July 15, 2017, to June 15, 2019. Exposure: Firearm-related ocular trauma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pediatric patients with firearm-related ocular injuries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and external causes of injury codes. Patient demographics (age, sex, and race/ethnicity), type of ocular injury, injury intent, geographic location, length of hospital admission, health insurance status, disposition at discharge, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were collected. Results: A total of 8715 firearm-related ocular injuries were identified. Of these injuries, 1972 (22.6%) occurred in pediatric patients, most of whom were male (1678 [85.1%]) and adolescents (1037 [52.6%]), with a mean (SD) age of 15.2 (5) years. Common locations of injury were home (761 [38.6%]) and street (490 [24.8%]). Mean (SD) hospital length of stay was 7.6 (12) days, ISS was 16 (13.1), and GCS score was 11 (5.1). The most common types of firearm-related ocular injuries were open wound of the eyeball (820 [41.6%]) and ocular adnexa (502 [25.5%]), orbital injuries or fractures (591 [30.0%]), and contusion of the eye or adnexa (417 [21.1%]). Patients aged 0 to 3 years had greater odds of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 4.41; 95% CI, 2.51-7.75; P < .001) and injuries occurring at home (OR, 5.39; 95% CI, 2.81-10.38; P < .001), and those aged 19 to 21 years had greater odds of assault injuries (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.77-2.66; P < .001) and injuries occurring on the street (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.3-1.98; P < .001). Black patients had the greatest odds of having injuries with assault intention (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 3.68-5.59; P < .001), and white patients had the greatest likelihood for self-inflicted injury (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 5.92-9.51; P < .001). Traumatic brain injury resulted mostly from self-inflicted trauma (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 4.16-8.63; P < .001), as did visual pathway injuries (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.95-4.20; P < .001). The inpatient mortality rate was 12.2%. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries from 2008 through 2014 were predominantly sight-threatening and associated with traumatic brain injury. If the possible risk factors, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, and injury intention, can be confirmed for 2015 through 2019, these findings may be useful in developing strategies to prevent pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries.
PURPOSE: To report the ocular injuries sustained by survivors of the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing and the April 17, 2013, fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas. DESIGN: Multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective, comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients treated at 12 institutions were included in the study. METHODS: Ocular and systemic trauma data were collected from medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Types and severity of ocular and systemic trauma and associations with mechanisms of injury. RESULTS: In the Boston cohort, 164 of 264 casualties were transported to level 1 trauma centers, and 22 (13.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. In the West cohort, 218 of 263 total casualties were transported to participating centers, of which 14 (6.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. Boston had significantly shorter mean distances to treating facilities (1.6 miles vs. 53.6 miles; P = 0.004). Overall, rigid eye shields were more likely not to have been provided than to have been provided on the scene (P<0.001). Isolated upper body and facial wounds were more common in West largely because of shattered windows (75.0% vs. 13.6%; P = 0.001), resulting in more open-globe injuries (42.9% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.008). Patients in Boston sustained more lower extremity injuries because of the ground-level bomb. Overall, 27.8% of consultations were called from emergency rooms, whereas the rest occurred afterward. Challenges in logistics and communications were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular injuries are common and potentially blinding in mass-casualty incidents. Systemic and ocular polytrauma is the rule in terrorism, whereas isolated ocular injuries are more common in other calamities. Key lessons learned included educating the public to stay away from windows during disasters, promoting use of rigid eye shields by first responders, the importance of reliable communications, deepening the ophthalmology call algorithm, the significance of visual incapacitation resulting from loss of spectacles, improving the rate of early detection of ocular injuries in emergency departments, and integrating ophthalmology services into trauma teams as well as maintaining a voice in hospital-wide and community-based disaster planning.
We report a new mechanism of ocular trauma. A basketball was intentionally overinflated until it exploded, resulting in corneal edema, hyphema, iritis, vitreous hemorrhage, commotio retinae, and a macular hole. The macular hole did not close after observation and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid removal, but a repeat vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling resulted in hole closure. Basketball overinflation to the point of explosion is a potentially blinding practice of which the public and manufacturers should be made aware.