Emergency and Trauma

Andreoli MT, Andreoli CM. Surgical rehabilitation of the open globe injury patient. Am J Ophthalmol 2012;153(5):856-60.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the long-term surgical course of patients with open globe injury. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with open globe injuries (848 in total) treated surgically at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Data from presentation, initial repair, and follow-up surgery were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 848 injuries, 1415 surgical procedures were performed. The mean follow-up time was 19.7 months, including 6017 visits. On average, patients required 1.7 surgeries and 7.1 follow-up visits. Factors predicting follow-up surgery included more severe ocular trauma score, worse prerepair visual acuity, retinal hemorrhage, anterior vitrectomy at primary repair, pars plana vitrectomy at primary repair, and lensectomy at primary repair. Patients with zone II injury, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, and a history of previous ocular surgery tended to require follow-up surgery less frequently. Patients requiring a second surgery tended to have worse visual acuity at presentation and postrepair. Postoperative visual outcomes were worse for patients who underwent vitreoretinal follow-up surgery, likely because of mechanism of injury. Variables associated with inferior visual outcome were worse prerepair visual acuity, postoperative afferent pupillary defect (APD), old age, scleral laceration, and retinal detachment. CONCLUSION: Open globe injuries require significant surgical follow-up. Patients requiring multiple operations tended to have worse postoperative visual acuity. Patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery had overall worse visual outcomes. While the first year of surveillance appears to be pivotal in the course of an open globe injury, these patients can expect long-term care from comprehensive and subspecialty ophthalmologists.
Dockery DM, Rowe SG, Murphy MA, Krzystolik MG. The Ocular Manifestations and Transmission of COVID-19: Recommendations for Prevention. J Emerg Med 2020;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been linked to ocular signs and symptoms in several case reports. Research has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is spread primarily through close contact via respiratory droplets, but there is the possibility for ocular transmission, with the conjunctiva as a conduit as well as a source of infection. DISCUSSION: Ocular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 include follicular conjunctivitis, and have been repeatedly noted as an initial or subsequent symptom of COVID-19-positive patients. Particularly in patients with ocular manifestations, there is evidence that the virus may present in tears, based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival swab samples via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The virus may therefore be transmittable from the ocular surface to a new host via contact with the ocular mucosa, tears, or subsequent fomites. CONCLUSIONS: All health care professionals should ask patients about ocular symptoms consistent with SARS-CoV-2, and use eye protection such as goggles or face shields as part of the standard personal protective equipment for high-risk patients in addition to wearing of masks by both the patient and provider, and should consider tears to be potentially infectious.
Halawa O, Mitchell W, Zebardast N. Fall-related eye injury among older adults in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify common causes of emergency department-treated eye injury among older adults in the United States (US), and to characterize of fall-related ocular trauma in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a nationally representative database of US emergency department-treated injuries, was used to assemble a cohort of adults 65 years and older with eye injuries between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Demographic information, diagnosis, disposition, injury location and consumer product associated with injury were collected. Narrative descriptions of all injuries were reviewed to identify eye injuries secondary to falls. RESULTS: 4,953 eye injuries among older adults were reported from 2000 to 2019, a stratified probability sample representing approximately 238,162 injuries, with an average annual frequency of 12,000 injuries. Falls accounted for 11.5% of these injuries. Fall-related eye injuries commonly presented from home (66.5%) and were more likely to occur in the winter than eye injuries from other causes (28.1% vs. 18.4%, p<0.01). Risk factors for fall-related eye injury included older age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.10-1.13 per year), female sex (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.1 vs. male), Black race (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5 vs. White) and presentation from a nursing home (OR 12.7, 95% CI 4.9-32.8 vs. other locations). Older adults with fall-related injury were more likely to be hospitalized (OR 22.8, 95% CI 15.3-33.9) and to suffer from a ruptured globe (OR 14.1, 95% CI 6.5-30.6) than those with fall-unrelated injury. CONCLUSIONS: Falls are an important mechanism of ocular trauma in older adults and are associated with worse outcomes compared to eye injuries from other causes.
Kim YJ, Payal AR, Daly MK. Effects of tear gases on the eye. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(4):434-42.Abstract

Chemical agents that target the eyes have been a popular choice for law enforcement during riots and for military training for nearly a century. The most commonly used agents are chloroacetophenone (formerly sold as Mace), o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, and oleoresin capsicum (OC or pepper spray, current ingredient for Mace). Initially, most severe ocular injuries were caused by the explosive force rather than the chemical itself. The development of sprays reduced the mechanical severity of ocular injuries, but resulted in a variety of chemical injuries. The effects on eyes include conjunctival injection, complete corneal epithelial defects, pseudopterygium, corneal neovascularization, persistent conjunctivalization, corneal opacities, and reduced visual acuity. Current management, based on limited human studies, emphasizes decontamination and symptomatic treatment. We review the literature related to clinical and histopathologic effects of tear gas agents on the eye and their management.

Kumar S, Ichhpujani P, Thakur S, Singh RB. Traumatic corneal perforation with exteriorisation of Ahmed glaucoma valve tube. BMJ Case Rep 2018;2018Abstract
We report a rare case of traumatic corneal perforation with Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube. A 5-year-old female child, diagnosed with refractory glaucoma, had undergone AGV implantation, presented with the posterior migration of AGV tube after trauma to the eye. The detailed ocular history, ophthalmic findings, clinical course and surgical management are discussed.
Modjtahedi BS, Fortenbach CR, Lorch AC. Optic Nerve Head Avulsion: Clinical, Radiographic, and Sonographic Correlations. Ophthalmology 2015;122(12):2442.
Shazly TA, Al-Hussaini AK. Pediatric ocular injuries from airsoft toy guns. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2012;49(1):54-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report ocular injuries caused by airsoft guns in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who sustained ocular injuries related to airsoft guns between November 2005 and December 2007. Place of trauma, presenting symptoms and signs, surgical interventions performed, and final visual outcome were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a mean age of 8.8 ± 4.0 years (range: 1.5 to 18 years) were examined; 28 were boys (87.5%). Presenting visual acuity ranged from hand motions to 20/20 and could not be assessed in 2 patients. Hyphema was a common finding that was present in 24 cases, corneal abrasions were present in 10 cases, and raised intraocular pressure was present in 7 cases. Seven patients presented with traumatic cataract, and two had iridodialysis. Immediate surgical intervention was performed in 7 patients and 7 patients were scheduled for elective surgery. The patients presented after an average of 1.9 ± 1.9 days (range: 4 hours to 6 days) after the injury. Average follow-up was 18 days (range: 7 days to 5 months). Final visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in 5 patients, 20/40 or better in 23 patients, and could not be assessed in 2 cases. CONCLUSION: Airsoft guns can cause a variety of serious injuries, sometimes necessitating operative intervention. The long-term morbidity from some of these injuries is significant. Airsoft guns are capable of inflicting serious and permanent ocular damage.
Weiss R, He C, Gise R, Parsikia A, Mbekeani JN. Patterns of Pediatric Firearm-Related Ocular Trauma in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: Gun violence represents a substantial public health issue, and firearm-related injuries rank second among the causes of injury-related deaths in children aged 0 to 17 years in the United States. Ocular trauma from firearm-related injuries can lead to devastating vision loss, but little is known to date about the specific demographics and characteristics of such injuries in children. Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic pattern of pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis used deidentified data from the National Trauma Data Bank, the largest national registry of hospitalized trauma cases in the United States. The firearm-related ocular injuries (n = 1972) of pediatric patients (defined as those younger than 21 years) hospitalized between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014, were analyzed. Statistical analyses were conducted from July 15, 2017, to June 15, 2019. Exposure: Firearm-related ocular trauma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pediatric patients with firearm-related ocular injuries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and external causes of injury codes. Patient demographics (age, sex, and race/ethnicity), type of ocular injury, injury intent, geographic location, length of hospital admission, health insurance status, disposition at discharge, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were collected. Results: A total of 8715 firearm-related ocular injuries were identified. Of these injuries, 1972 (22.6%) occurred in pediatric patients, most of whom were male (1678 [85.1%]) and adolescents (1037 [52.6%]), with a mean (SD) age of 15.2 (5) years. Common locations of injury were home (761 [38.6%]) and street (490 [24.8%]). Mean (SD) hospital length of stay was 7.6 (12) days, ISS was 16 (13.1), and GCS score was 11 (5.1). The most common types of firearm-related ocular injuries were open wound of the eyeball (820 [41.6%]) and ocular adnexa (502 [25.5%]), orbital injuries or fractures (591 [30.0%]), and contusion of the eye or adnexa (417 [21.1%]). Patients aged 0 to 3 years had greater odds of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 4.41; 95% CI, 2.51-7.75; P < .001) and injuries occurring at home (OR, 5.39; 95% CI, 2.81-10.38; P < .001), and those aged 19 to 21 years had greater odds of assault injuries (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.77-2.66; P < .001) and injuries occurring on the street (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.3-1.98; P < .001). Black patients had the greatest odds of having injuries with assault intention (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 3.68-5.59; P < .001), and white patients had the greatest likelihood for self-inflicted injury (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 5.92-9.51; P < .001). Traumatic brain injury resulted mostly from self-inflicted trauma (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 4.16-8.63; P < .001), as did visual pathway injuries (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.95-4.20; P < .001). The inpatient mortality rate was 12.2%. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries from 2008 through 2014 were predominantly sight-threatening and associated with traumatic brain injury. If the possible risk factors, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, and injury intention, can be confirmed for 2015 through 2019, these findings may be useful in developing strategies to prevent pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries.
Yonekawa Y, Hacker HD, Lehman RE, Beal CJ, Veldman PB, Vyas NM, Shah AS, Wu D, Eliott D, Gardiner MF, Kuperwaser MC, Rosa RH, Ramsey JE, Miller JW, Mazzoli RA, Lawrence MG, Arroyo JG. Ocular blast injuries in mass-casualty incidents: the marathon bombing in Boston, Massachusetts, and the fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas. Ophthalmology 2014;121(9):1670-6.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the ocular injuries sustained by survivors of the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing and the April 17, 2013, fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas. DESIGN: Multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective, comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients treated at 12 institutions were included in the study. METHODS: Ocular and systemic trauma data were collected from medical records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Types and severity of ocular and systemic trauma and associations with mechanisms of injury. RESULTS: In the Boston cohort, 164 of 264 casualties were transported to level 1 trauma centers, and 22 (13.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. In the West cohort, 218 of 263 total casualties were transported to participating centers, of which 14 (6.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. Boston had significantly shorter mean distances to treating facilities (1.6 miles vs. 53.6 miles; P = 0.004). Overall, rigid eye shields were more likely not to have been provided than to have been provided on the scene (P<0.001). Isolated upper body and facial wounds were more common in West largely because of shattered windows (75.0% vs. 13.6%; P = 0.001), resulting in more open-globe injuries (42.9% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.008). Patients in Boston sustained more lower extremity injuries because of the ground-level bomb. Overall, 27.8% of consultations were called from emergency rooms, whereas the rest occurred afterward. Challenges in logistics and communications were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular injuries are common and potentially blinding in mass-casualty incidents. Systemic and ocular polytrauma is the rule in terrorism, whereas isolated ocular injuries are more common in other calamities. Key lessons learned included educating the public to stay away from windows during disasters, promoting use of rigid eye shields by first responders, the importance of reliable communications, deepening the ophthalmology call algorithm, the significance of visual incapacitation resulting from loss of spectacles, improving the rate of early detection of ocular injuries in emergency departments, and integrating ophthalmology services into trauma teams as well as maintaining a voice in hospital-wide and community-based disaster planning.
Yonekawa Y, Miller JB, Turalba AV, Eliott D. Traumatic macular hole from intentional basketball overinflation. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2013;44(3):303-5.Abstract
We report a new mechanism of ocular trauma. A basketball was intentionally overinflated until it exploded, resulting in corneal edema, hyphema, iritis, vitreous hemorrhage, commotio retinae, and a macular hole. The macular hole did not close after observation and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid removal, but a repeat vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling resulted in hole closure. Basketball overinflation to the point of explosion is a potentially blinding practice of which the public and manufacturers should be made aware.