Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by visual field defects that ultimately lead to irreversible blindness (Alward, 2000; Anderson et al., 2006). By the year 2020, an estimated 80 million people will have glaucoma, 11 million of which will be bilaterally blind. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only risk factor amenable to treatment. How IOP is regulated and can be modulated remains a topic of active investigation. Available therapies, mostly geared toward lowering IOP, offer incomplete protection, and POAG often goes undetected until irreparable damage has been done, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic approaches, drug targets, and biomarkers (Heijl et al., 2002; Quigley, 2011). In this review, the role of soluble (nitric oxide (NO)-activated) and membrane-bound, natriuretic peptide (NP)-activated guanylate cyclases that generate the secondary signaling molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the regulation of IOP and in the pathophysiology of POAG will be discussed.
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical validity of visual field (VF) archetypal analysis, a previously developed machine learning method for decomposing any Humphrey VF (24-2) into a weighted sum of clinically recognizable VF loss patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For each of 16 previously identified VF loss patterns ("archetypes," denoted AT1 through AT16), we screened 30,995 reliable VFs to select 10-20 representative patients whose VFs had the highest decomposition coefficients for each archetype. VF global indices and patient ocular and demographic features were extracted retrospectively. Based on resemblances between VF archetypes and clinically observed VF patterns, hypotheses were generated for associations between certain VF archetypes and clinical features, such as an association between AT6 (central island, representing severe VF loss) and large cup-to-disk ratio (CDR). Distributions of the selected clinical features were compared between representative eyes of certain archetypes and all other eyes using the two-tailed t-test or Fisher exact test. RESULTS: 243 eyes from 243 patients were included, representative of AT1 through AT16. CDR was more often ≥ 0.7 among eyes representative of AT6 (central island; p = 0.002), AT10 (inferior arcuate defect; p = 0.048), AT14 (superior paracentral defect; p = 0.016), and AT16 (inferior paracentral defect; p = 0.016) than other eyes. CDR was more often < 0.7 among eyes representative of AT1 (no focal defect; p < 0.001) and AT2 (superior defect; p = 0.027), which was also associated with ptosis (p < 0.001). AT12 (temporal hemianopia) was associated with history of stroke (p = 0.022). AT11 (concentric peripheral defect) trended toward association with trial lens correction > 6D (p = 0.069). CONCLUSIONS: Shared clinical features between computationally derived VF archetypes and clinically observed VF patterns support the clinical validity of VF archetypal analysis.
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common subtype and is a complex trait with multigenic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies have previously identified a significant association between POAG and the SIX6 locus (rs10483727, odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, p = 3.87×10(-11)). SIX6 plays a role in ocular development and has been associated with the morphology of the optic nerve. We sequenced the SIX6 coding and regulatory regions in 262 POAG cases and 256 controls and identified six nonsynonymous coding variants, including five rare and one common variant, Asn141His (rs33912345), which was associated significantly with POAG (OR = 1.27, p = 4.2×10(-10)) in the NEIGHBOR/GLAUGEN datasets. These variants were tested in an in vivo Danio rerio (zebrafish) complementation assay to evaluate ocular metrics such as eye size and optic nerve structure. Five variants, found primarily in POAG cases, were hypomorphic or null, while the sixth variant, found only in controls, was benign. One variant in the SIX6 enhancer increased expression of SIX6 and disrupted its regulation. Finally, to our knowledge for the first time, we have identified a clinical feature in POAG patients that appears to be dependent upon SIX6 genotype: patients who are homozygous for the SIX6 risk allele (His141) have a statistically thinner retinal nerve fiber layer than patients homozygous for the SIX6 non-risk allele (Asn141). Our results, in combination with previous SIX6 work, lead us to hypothesize that SIX6 risk variants disrupt the development of the neural retina, leading to a reduced number of retinal ganglion cells, thereby increasing the risk of glaucoma-associated vision loss.
Purpose: To assess the structure-function relationship in glaucoma using Humphrey visual field (HVF) perimetry and a three-dimensional neuroretinal rim parameter derived from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans. Methods: Structure-function correlation was analyzed globally and regionally (four quadrants and four sectors). Structural data included peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and minimum distance band (MDB) neuroretinal rim thickness, defined as the shortest distance between the inner cup surface and the outer retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane complex. Logarithmic regression analyses were performed and Pearson correlation coefficients determined to assess relationship strength. Results: The study consisted of 102 open-angle glaucoma patients and 58 healthy subjects. The Pearson correlation coefficient for global MDB thickness (R = 0.585) was higher than for global RNFL thickness (R = 0.492), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The correlation coefficients for regional MDB thicknesses and corresponding HVF sensitivities were higher than those for regional RNFL thicknesses and HVF in six out of eight regions (P = 0.08 to 0.47). In the remaining two out of eight regions, the correlation coefficients were higher for RNFL thickness than for MDB thickness (P = 0.15 to 0.20). Conclusions: Three-dimensional MDB neuroretinal rim thickness relates to visual function as strongly as the most commonly used SD-OCT parameter for glaucoma, two-dimensional peripapillary RNFL thickness. Translational Relevance: This paper illustrates the potential for 3D OCT algorithms to improve in vivo imaging in glaucoma.
PURPOSE: To provide evidence that corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension has a genetic component. DESIGN: Evidence-based perspective. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies exploring genetic influences on intraocular pressure responses to corticosteroid treatment. RESULTS: Studies demonstrating increased risk of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension among first-degree relatives of affected individuals support a genetic contribution to the disease. Family and personal history of primary open-angle glaucoma also increases the risk of corticosteroid-induced intraocular pressure elevation, suggesting common genetic etiologies. A number of studies have attempted to identify predisposing genetic factors; however, reproducible findings have not yet been reported. The recent availability of large data sets with clinical and genetic data for patients affected by corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma provides new opportunities to study the genetic underpinnings of this important condition. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial evidence suggesting a genetic component to corticosteroid-related ocular hypertension and glaucoma, but specific genetic risk factors have yet to be identified. The current confluence of large genetic data sets and affordable genetic sequencing technologies has great potential for discovering the genes that increase risk for this blinding complication of corticosteroid therapy.
This study assesses the safety and efficacy of microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) with cataract extraction in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). In our sample of 45 NTG patients, mean intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 13.7 to 12.3 mmHg at 2.5 years, and mean medication burden decreased from 2.0 to 1.1 at 1.5 years. For success defined as IOP reduction ≥ 30% from baseline IOP with medication burden reduction from preoperative levels, success probability was 5.4% at 1.5 years. For success defined as medication burden reduction with an IOP reaching goal IOP as determined by the glaucoma specialist, success probabilities were 67.2% at 1.5 years and 29.4% at 2.5 years. At the last follow-up visit, eyes with two MIGS procedures with different mechanisms of action achieved successful medication reduction 68.8% of the time versus 35.7% achieved by a single MIGS procedure (p = 0.052). At their last visit, visual acuity was unchanged or improved in all eyes (100%). MIGS with cataract surgery results in modest reductions in IOP and medication burden in NTG patients, which may lead to lower costs and better therapeutic compliance. A combination of two MIGS procedures with different mechanisms of action may potentially be more effective in reducing medication burden than a single MIGS procedure in NTG patients. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether MIGS for NTG patients may help decrease medication burden while helping achieve goal IOP.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report the safety and efficacy of pars plana glaucoma drainage devices with pars plana vitrectomy using one of the vitrectomy sclerotomy sites for tube placement in patients with refractory glaucoma. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 28 eyes of 28 patients who underwent combined pars plana glaucoma drainage device and pars plana vitrectomy between November 2016 and September 2019 at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medication burden, best corrected visual acuity, and complications. Statistical tests were performed with R and included Kaplan-Meier analyses, Wilcoxon paired signed-rank tests, and Fisher tests. RESULTS: Mean IOP decreased from 22.8 mmHg to 11.8 mmHg at 1.5 years (p = 0.002), and mean medication burden decreased from 4.3 to 2.1 at 1.5 years (p = 0.004). Both IOP and medication burden were significantly lower at all follow-up time points. The probability of achieving 5 < IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with at least 20% IOP reduction from preoperative levels was 86.4% at 1 year and 59.8% at 1.5 years. At their last visit, three eyes (10.7%) achieved complete success with IOP reduction as above without medications, and 14 eyes (50.0%) achieved qualified success with medications. Hypotony was observed in 1 eye (3.6%) prior to 3 months postoperatively and 0 eyes after 3 months. Visual acuity was unchanged or improved in 23 eyes (82.1%) at their last follow-up. Two patients had a visual acuity decrease of > 2 lines. Two eyes required subsequent pars plana vitrectomies for tube obstruction, and one eye had transient hypotony. CONCLUSIONS: The results of pars plana glaucoma drainage device and pars plana vitrectomy using one of the vitrectomy sclerotomy sites for tube placement are promising, resulting in significant IOP and medication-burden reductions through postoperative year 1.5 without additional risk of postoperative complications. Inserting glaucoma drainage devices into an existing vitrectomy sclerotomy site may potentially save surgical time by obviating the need to create another sclerotomy for tube placement and suture one of the vitrectomy ports.
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigate how adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) affects extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular tone in the trabecular meshwork (TM), and examine how deletion of its catalytic α2 subunit affects IOP and aqueous humor clearance in mice. METHODS: Human TM tissue was examined for expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2, genomically distinct isoforms of the AMPK catalytic subunit. Primary cultured human TM cells were treated for 24 hours with the AMPK activator 5-amino-1-β-Dffff-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR), under basal or TGF-β2 stimulatory conditions. Conditioned media (CM) was probed for secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and ECM proteins, and cells were stained for F-actin. Cells underwent adenoviral infection with a dominant negative AMPKα subunit (ad.DN.AMPKα) and were similarly analyzed. Intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness (CCT), and aqueous clearance were measured in AMPKα2-null and wild-type (WT) mice. RESULTS: Both AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are expressed in TM. AICAR activated AMPKα and suppressed the expression of various ECM proteins under basal and TGF-β2 stimulatory conditions. AICAR decreased F-actin staining and increased the phospho-total RhoA ratio (Ser188). Transforming growth factor-β2 transiently dephosphorylated AMPKα. Infection with ad.DN.AMPKα upregulated various ECM proteins, decreased the phospho-total RhoA ratio, and increased F-actin staining. AMPKα2-null mice exhibited 6% higher IOP and decreased aqueous clearance compared with WT mice, without significant differences in CCT or angle morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data identify AMPK as a critical regulator of ECM homeostasis and cytoskeletal arrangement in the TM. Mice that are AMPKα2-null exhibit higher IOPs and decreased aqueous clearance than their WT counterparts.
Glaucoma is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The mechanisms causing glaucomatous neurodegeneration are not fully understood. Here we show, using mice deficient in T and/or B cells and adoptive cell transfer, that transient elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is sufficient to induce T-cell infiltration into the retina. This T-cell infiltration leads to a prolonged phase of retinal ganglion cell degeneration that persists after IOP returns to a normal level. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are identified as target antigens of T-cell responses in glaucomatous mice and human glaucoma patients. Furthermore, retina-infiltrating T cells cross-react with human and bacterial HSPs; mice raised in the absence of commensal microflora do not develop glaucomatous T-cell responses or the associated neurodegeneration. These results provide compelling evidence that glaucomatous neurodegeneration is mediated in part by T cells that are pre-sensitized by exposure to commensal microflora.
OBJECTIVE: To review the current published literature to evaluate the success rates and long-term problems associated with surgery for pediatric glaucoma. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted in May 2012. The search yielded 838 potentially relevant citations, of which 273 were in non-English languages. The titles and abstracts of these articles were reviewed by the authors, and 364 were selected for possible further review. Members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel reviewed the full text of these articles and used the 36 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria for this Ophthalmic Technology Assessment. There were no studies on the topic that provided level I evidence. The assessment included only level II and level III studies. RESULTS: Surgeons treat pediatric glaucoma most commonly with goniotomy, trabeculotomy, trabeculectomy, combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy, tube shunt surgery, cyclodestruction, and deep sclerectomy. Certain surgical options seem better for specific diagnoses, such as primary congenital glaucoma, aphakic glaucoma, and glaucomas associated with other ocular or systemic anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: There are many surgical options for the treatment of the pediatric glaucomas. The relative efficacy of these various procedures for particular diagnoses and clinical situations should be weighed against the specific risks associated with the procedures for individual patients.
Glaucoma is a frequent and devastating long-term complication following ocular trauma, including corneal surgery, open globe injury, chemical burn, and infection. Postevent inflammation and neuroglial remodeling play a key role in subsequent ganglion cell apoptosis and glaucoma. To this end, this study was designed to investigate the amplifying role of monocyte infiltration into the retina. By using three different ocular injury mouse models (corneal suture, penetrating keratoplasty, and globe injury) and monocyte fate mapping techniques, we show that ocular trauma or surgery can cause robust infiltration of bone marrow-derived monocytes into the retina and subsequent neuroinflammation by up-regulation of Tnf, Il1b, and Il6 mRNA within 24 hours. This is accompanied by ganglion cell apoptosis and neurodegeneration. Prompt inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α or IL-1β markedly suppresses monocyte infiltration and ganglion cell loss. Thus, acute ocular injury (surgical or trauma) can lead to rapid neuroretinal inflammation and subsequent ganglion cell loss, the hallmark of glaucoma. Infiltrating monocytes play a central role in this process, likely amplifying the inflammatory cascade, aiding in the activation of retinal microglia. Prompt administration of cytokine inhibitors after ocular injury prevents this infiltration and ameliorates the damage to the retina-suggesting that it may be used prophylactically for neuroprotection against post-traumatic glaucoma.
Shorter axial length observed in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) might be due to altered matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) activity resulting in ECM remodeling during eye growth and development. This study aimed to evaluate common variants in MMP9 for association with PACG. Six tag SNPs of MMP9 were genotyped in a Chinese sample of 1,030 cases, including 572 PACG and 458 primary angle closure (PAC), and 499 controls. None of 6 SNPs were significantly associated with overall PAC/PACG (P > 0.07) or with PAC/PACG subgroups (Pc > 0.18). Meta-analysis of two non-Chinese studies revealed significant association between rs17576 and PACG (ORs = 0.56, P < 0.0001); however, meta-analysis of our dataset with 4 Chinese datasets did not replicate this association (ORs = 1.23, P = 0.29). Prior significant association for rs3918249 in one Caucasian study (OR = 0.63, P = 0.006) was not replicated in meta-analysis of 3 Chinese studies including this study (ORs = 0.91, P = 0.13). Significant heterogeneity between non-Chinese and Chinese datasets precluded overall meta-analysis for rs17576 and rs3918249 (Q = 0.001 and 0.04 respectively). rs17577 was nominally associated with PACG in one Caucasian study (OR = 1.71, P = 0.02), but not in 3 Chinese studies including our study (ORs = 1.20, P = 0.07). Overall meta-analysis revealed nominal association for rs17577 and PAC/PACG (ORs = 1.26, Pc = 0.05). Meta-analysis did not show significant association between the other SNPs and PAC/PACG (P > 0.47). The largest association study to date did not find significant association between MMP9 and PAC/PACG in Chinese; meta-analysis with other Chinese datasets did not produce significant association. In most instances combination with non-Chinese datasets was not possible except for one variant showing nominally significant association. More work is needed to define the role of MMP9 variants in PACG.
The originally published version of this Article contained an error in Figure 4. The bar chart in panel f was inadvertently replaced with a duplicate of the bar chart in panel e. This error has now corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of phacoemulsification on longer-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with medically treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; including normal-tension glaucoma), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG), or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), without prior or concurrent incisional glaucoma surgery. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane database searches, last conducted in December 2014, yielded 541 unique citations. Panel members reviewed titles and abstracts and selected 86 for further review. The panel reviewed these articles and identified 32 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, for which the panel methodologist assigned a level of evidence based on standardized grading adopted by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. One, 15, and 16 studies were rated as providing level I, II, and III evidence, respectively. RESULTS: All follow-up, IOP, and medication data listed are weighted means. In general, the studies reported on patients using few glaucoma medications (1.5-1.9 before surgery among the different diagnoses). For POAG, 9 studies (total, 461 patients; follow-up, 17 months) showed that phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 13% and glaucoma medications by 12%. For PXG, 5 studies (total, 132 patients; follow-up, 34 months) showed phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 20% and glaucoma medications by 35%. For chronic PACG, 12 studies (total, 495 patients; follow-up, 16 months) showed phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 30% and glaucoma medications by 58%. Patients with acute PACG (4 studies; total, 119 patients; follow-up, 24 months) had a 71% reduction from presenting IOP and rarely required long-term glaucoma medications when phacoemulsification was performed soon after medical reduction of IOP. Trabeculectomy after phacoemulsification was uncommon; the median rate reported within 6 to 24 months of follow-up in patients with controlled POAG, PXG, or PACG was 0% and was 7% in patients with uncontrolled chronic PACG. CONCLUSIONS: Phacoemulsification typically results in small, moderate, and marked reductions of IOP and medications for patients with POAG, PXG, and PACG, respectively, and using 1 to 2 medications before surgery. Trabeculectomy within 6 to 24 months after phacoemulsification is rare in such patients. However, reports on its effects in eyes with advanced disease or poor IOP control before surgery are few, particularly for POAG and PXG.
PURPOSE: To review the current published literature on the use of spectral domain (SD) OCT to help detect changes associated with the diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS: Searches of the peer-reviewed literature were conducted on June 11, 2014, November 7, 2016, August 8, 2017, and April 19, 2018, in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and included only articles published since the last glaucoma imaging Ophthalmic Technology Assessment, which included articles up until February 2006. The abstracts of these 708 articles were examined to exclude reviews and non-English articles. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 74 articles were selected, and the panel methodologist (K.N.-M.) assigned ratings to them according to the level of evidence. Two articles were rated level I, 57 articles were rated level II, and the 15 level III articles were excluded. RESULTS: Spectral-domain OCT is capable of detecting damage to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula, and optic nerve in patients with preperimetric and perimetric glaucoma (level I and II evidence). The most commonly studied single parameter was RNFL thickness. Of note, RNFL thickness measurements are not interchangeable between instruments. Various commercially available SD OCT instruments have similar abilities to distinguish patients with known glaucoma from normal subjects. Despite different software protocols, all SD OCT instruments are able to detect the same typical pattern of glaucomatous RNFL loss that affects primarily the inferior, inferior temporal, superior, and superior temporal regions of the optic nerve (level II evidence). Across many SD OCT instruments, macular imaging also can detect a preferential inferior, inferior temporal, and superior temporal thinning in patients with glaucoma compared with controls. Best disc parameters for detecting glaucomatous nerve damage are global rim area, inferior rim area, and vertical cup-to-disc ratio. Studies suggest that newer reference-plane independent optic nerve parameters may have the same or better detection capability when compared with older reference-plane dependent disc parameters (level II evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Structural glaucomatous damage can be detected by SD OCT. Optic nerve, RNFL, and macular parameters can help the clinician distinguish the anatomic changes that are associated with patients with glaucoma when compared with normal subjects.
Glaucoma is a multi-factorial blinding disease in which genetic factors play an important role. Elevated intraocular pressure is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma and currently the only target for glaucoma therapy. Our study helps to better understand underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate intraocular pressure, and identifies a new candidate gene, Cacna2d1, that modulates intraocular pressure and a promising therapeutic, pregabalin, which binds to CACNA2D1 protein and lowers intraocular pressure significantly. Because our study utilizes a genetically diverse population of mice with known sequence variants, we are able to determine that the intraocular pressure-lowering effect of pregabalin is dependent on the Cacna2d1 haplotype. Using human genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, evidence for association of a CACNA2D1 single-nucleotide polymorphism and primary open angle glaucoma is found. Importantly, these results demonstrate that our systems genetics approach represents an efficient method to identify genetic variation that can guide the selection of therapeutic targets.
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical relevance of prelaminar wedge defects (PLWDs) detected by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, PLWDs were defined as triangular-shaped defects at the surface of the optic nerve prelaminar tissue, not adjacent to blood vessels, present on cross-sectional SS-OCT scans. Two observers masked to diagnosis independently reviewed scans to detect PLWDs and lamina cribrosa defects. History of disc hemorrhage, occurring within 2 years prior to imaging, was obtained from chart review. One eye per subject was randomly selected. Two-sided t-tests, analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to explore demographic and clinical features associated with PLWDs. RESULTS: 40 POAG and 23 control eyes were included. PLWDS were found in 27.5% of POAG (n = 11) and 4.3% of controls (n = 1, = .04). Eyes with repeat SS-OCT imaging (7 POAG and 0 controls) had persistent PLWDs. More POAG eyes with PLWDs had a history of disc hemorrhage (45.5%) than POAG eyes without PLWDs (3.4%, = .004). On multivariable analysis, compared to POAG without PLWDs, POAG with PLWDs had increased odds of observed disc hemorrhage (OR = 21.6, 95% CI, 2.2-589.0, = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, visual field mean deviation and maximum intraocular pressure (IOP). POAG with PLWDs had more lamina cribrosa defects (45.5%) than POAG without PLWDs (3.4%, = .01) but did not differ significantly from controls (8.7%, = .07). Compared to all patients without PLWDs, patients with PLWDs had increased odds of having lamina cribrosa defects (OR = 44.8; 95% CI, 6.3-703.6, < .001) after adjusting for age, gender, and maximum IOP. CONCLUSIONS: PLWDs were more frequently found in POAG than control eyes and were associated with a history of disc hemorrhage and lamina cribrosa defects. PLWDs may be a useful imaging biomarker of glaucomatous damage.
OBJECTIVE: To model the global test-retest variability of visual fields (VFs) in glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study PARTICIPANTS: 8,088 VFs of 4,044 eyes from 4,044 participants. METHODS: We selected two reliable VFs (SITA 24-2) per eye measured with the Humphrey Field Analyzer within 30 days of each other. Each VF contained fixation losses (FL) ≤ 33%, false-negative rates (FNR) ≤ 20%, and false-positive rates (FPR) ≤ 20%. Stepwise linear regression was applied to select the model that best predicts the global test-retest variability from three categories of features of the first VF: (1) base parameters (age, mean deviation [MD], pattern standard deviation, glaucoma hemifield test, FPR, FNR, FL); (2) total deviation (TD) at each location; and (3) computationally-derived VF loss patterns (archetypes). The global test-retest variability was defined as root mean square deviation (RMSD) of TD values at all 52 VF locations. Model performance was assessed using adjusted R-squared and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Archetype models to predict the global test-retest variability. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of RMSD was 4.39 ± 2.55 dB. Between the two VF tests, TD values were more strongly correlated in central than in peripheral VF locations (intraclass coefficient range: 0.66-0.89; p < 0.001). Compared with the model using base parameters alone (adjusted R-squared = 0.45), adding TD values improved prediction accuracy of the global variability (adjusted R-squared = 0.53, p < 0.001) and BIC (decreased by 527; a change of > 6 represents strong improvement). Lower TD sensitivity in the outer-most peripheral VF locations was predictive of higher global variability. Adding archetypes to the base model improved model performance with an adjusted R-squared of 0.53 (p < 0.001) and lowering of BIC by 583. Greater variability was associated with concentric peripheral defect, temporal hemianopia, inferotemporal defect, near total loss, superior peripheral defect, and central scotoma (listed in order of decreasing statistical significance), and less normal VF and superior paracentral defect. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of archetype VF loss patterns and TD values based on first VFs improved the prediction of the global test-retest variability than using traditional global VF indices alone.
PURPOSE: To establish whether optic nerve head astrocytes express candidate molecules to sense tissue stretch. METHODS: We used conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, and single-cell reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to assess the expression of various members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family and of the recently characterized mechanosensitive channels Piezo1 and 2 in optic nerve head tissue and in single, isolated astrocytes. RESULTS: Most TRP subfamilies (TRPC, TRPM, TRPV, TRPA, and TRPP) and Piezo1 and 2 were expressed in the optic nerve head of the mouse. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that TRPC1, TRPM7, TRPV2, TRPP2, and Piezo1 are the dominant isoforms in each subfamily. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that many TRP isoforms, TRPC1-2, TRPC6, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM6-7, TRPP1-2, and Piezo1-2, are expressed in astrocytes of the optic nerve head, and that most astrocytes express TRPC1 and TRPP1-2. Comparisons of the TRPP and Piezo expression levels between different tissue regions showed that Piezo2 expression was higher in the optic nerve head and the optic nerve proper than in the brain and the corpus callosum. TRPP2 also showed higher expression in the optic nerve head. CONCLUSIONS: Astrocytes in the optic nerve head express multiple putative mechanosensitive channels, in particular the recently identified channels Piezo1 and 2. The expression of putative mechanosensitive channels in these cells may contribute to their responsiveness to traumatic or glaucomatous injury.