Glaucoma

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Ratanawongphaibul K, Tsikata E, Zemplenyi M, Lee H, Margeta MA, Ondeck CL, Kim J, Pan BX, Petrakos P, Coleman AL, Yu F, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Earlier Detection of Glaucoma Progression Using High-Density 3D Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Optic Nerve Volume Scans. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare onset times of glaucoma progression among different glaucoma tests: disc photography (DP), visual field (VF) testing, two-dimensional (2D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and three-dimensional (3D) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) neuroretinal rim measurements. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and twenty-four eyes of 124 open angle glaucoma patients METHODS: Over a 5-year period, 124 open angle glaucoma patients had yearly DP, VFs, SD-OCT RNFL thickness scans, and optic nerve volume scans (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), all performed on the same day. From high-density optic nerve volume scans, custom-built software calculated the minimum distance band (MDB) thickness, a 3D neuroretinal rim parameter. Patients were classified as glaucoma progressors or non-glaucoma progressors using event-based analysis. Progression by DP and VF occurred when 3 masked glaucoma specialists unanimously concurred. Progression by RNFL and MDB thickness occurred if there was change greater than test-retest variability. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to analyze time-to-progression data. Kappa coefficients were used to measure agreement of progressing eyes among modalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to glaucoma progression among all 4 modalities RESULTS: Global MDB thickness detected glaucoma progression in the highest percentage of eyes (52.4%) compared to DP (16.1%, P<0.001), and global RNFL thickness (15.3%, P<0.001) respectively. Global MDB thickness detected glaucoma progression earlier than either DP (23 versus 44 months; P<0.001) or global RNFL thickness (23 versus 33 months; P<0.001). Among MDB progressing eyes, 46.2% were simultaneously or later confirmed by other conventional modalities. Agreement of glaucoma progressing eyes for all 4 modalities in paired fashion were slight to fair (k=0.095-0.300). CONCLUSION: High-density 3D SD-OCT neuroretinal rim measurements detected glaucoma progression approximately 1-2 years earlier compared to current clinically available structural tests (i.e. disc photos and 2D RNFL thickness measurements).
Razeghinejad R, Lin MM, Lee D, Katz JL, Myers JS. Pathophysiology and management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension related to trauma. Surv Ophthalmol 2020;65(5):530-547.Abstract
Ocular trauma is a significant cause of blindness worldwide, particularly if associated with glaucoma. Direct damage from blunt or penetrating trauma, bleeding, inflammation, lens-related problems, orbital and brain vascular pathologies related to trauma, and chemical injuries may increase intraocular pressure and lead to traumatic glaucoma. Treatment may be as simple as eliminating the underlying cause in some conditions or management can be challenging, depending on the mechanism of damage. If proper management is not undertaken, visual outcomes can be poor. We discuss a broad spectrum of trauma-related mechanisms of intraocular pressure elevation, as well as their management.
da Ricardo JRS, Medhi J, Pineda R. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratopigmentation for the management of visual disabilities due to peripheral iridectomies. J Glaucoma 2015;24(4):e22-4.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the technique and result of keratopigmentation using a femtosecond laser for the treatment of functional visual disabilities caused by peripheral iridectomies. DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Two eyes of 2 patients underwent femtosecond laser-assisted keratopigmentation (FLAK) for moderate to severe visual dysfunction secondary to peripheral iridectomies. The main outcomes measures of the study were changes in visual-related symptoms, cosmesis, and intraoperative surgical complications. RESULTS: Following FLAK, the visual-related symptoms (ghosting, glare, and monocular diplopia) improved in both cases with significant improvement to total elimination of symptoms. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity, and no significant complications were observed during the follow-up period. The cosmetic appearance was reported as very good. CONCLUSIONS: FLAK is minimally invasive and results in a significant decrease in the subjective glare and photophobia and even in resolution of monocular diplopia. The cosmetic outcome was also favorable. This technique allows surgeons to correct visual disabilities associated with iris defects with a high success rate while avoiding more aggressive intraocular surgery.

Roh M, Zhang Y, Murakami Y, Thanos A, Lee SC, Vavvas DG, Benowitz LI, Miller JW. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e40065.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) caused intraocular pressure (IOP) to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH). Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ocular hypertension (OHT) triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.
Rong SS, Lu SY, Matsushita K, Huang C, Leung CKS, Kawashima R, Usui S, Tam POS, Young AL, Tsujikawa M, Zhang M, Nishida K, Wiggs JL, Tham CC, Pang CP, Chen LJ. Association of the SIX6 locus with primary open angle glaucoma in southern Chinese and Japanese. Exp Eye Res 2019;180:129-136.Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association profiles of the SIX6 locus with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in southern Chinese and Japanese. In this study, we tested single marker and haplotype-based associations of 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the SIX6 locus with POAG in a Hong Kong Chinese cohort (N = 1402). A novel SNP (i.e., rs12436579) and two SNPs (i.e., rs33912345 and rs10483727) from previous genome-wide association studies were further tested in a Chinese cohort from Shantou (N = 888) and a Japanese cohort from Osaka (N = 463). Results from the three cohorts were meta-analysed using a random-effect model. We found rs12436579, which has not been previously reported, was associated with POAG in Hong Kong and Shantou Chinese (P = 4.3 × 10, OR = 0.72, I = 0). Additionally, we replicated the association of one known SNP, rs33912345 (P = 0.0061, OR = 0.69, I = 45%), with POAG in the Chinese cohorts but not in the Japanese cohort (P > 0.6). Another known SNP, rs10483727, was nominally associated with POAG in the two Chinese cohorts (P = 0.017, OR = 0.70, I = 53%). All these three SNPs were significantly associated with POAG when the three cohorts were combined in meta-analysis (P<0.005). Furthermore, two haplotypes, C-C (P = 1.13 × 10, OR = 1.41, I = 0) and A-A (P = 0.045, OR = 0.68, I = 70%), defined by rs33912345-rs12436579 were associated with POAG in Chinese but not in Japanese. In conclusion, this study confirmed the association between two GWAS SNPs in SIX6 (rs33912345 and rs10483727) and POAG. Also, a SNP, rs12436579, not associated with POAG before, was found to be associated with POAG in Chinese. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of this novel SNP in POAG.
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Saboo US, Amparo F, Shikari H, Dana R. Prevalence of ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016;254(5):923-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-to-disc ratio ≥ 0.7 in either eye or asymmetry of ≥ 0.3 between the two eyes. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc changes plus glaucomatous visual field defects in two consecutive reliable visual field tests. The number of cases of ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (15 %) were diagnosed with OHT, eight patients (3.6 %) with suspicion of glaucoma, and one patient (0.4 %) with glaucoma. OHT occurred within 6 months of developing ocular GVHD in 60 % of the cases and within the first year in 76 %. High IOP normalized in 67 % of patients when the dosage of topical or systemic corticosteroids was lowered, and 27 % of patients required anti-glaucoma therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular hypertension is a common complication in patients with ocular GVHD, with a prevalence of 15 %. The rise in intraocular pressure is often transient and resolves with management of corticosteroids in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware that nearly one-third of the patients with OHT might require anti-glaucoma treatment. The prevalences of glaucoma and suspicion of glaucoma were not higher than in the general population.

Saeedi OJ, Elze T, D'Acunto L, Swamy R, Hegde V, Gupta S, Venjara A, Tsai J, Myers JS, Wellik SR, De Moraes CG, Pasquale L, Shen LQ, Boland MV. Reply. Ophthalmology 2019;126(10):e78-e79.
Seto B, Singh MK, Lemire CA, Arroyo JG. Anterior versus posterior endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation: comparison of indications, populations, and outcomes. Int Ophthalmol 2021;41(9):3021-3028.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine how indications, patient characteristics, and outcomes differ between anterior and posterior approaches of endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) in the treatment of glaucoma. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 9 anterior and 20 posterior ECP cases (n = 29). RESULTS: Posterior ECP cases were typically associated with a dramatic increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), whereas the anterior ECP was associated with chronically elevated pressures. The initial IOPs in mm Hg of posterior ECP cases (26.8 non-NVG; 35.2 NVG) were much greater than anterior ECP cases (17.8), and a greater overall reduction in IOP was observed in the posterior versus anterior ECP cases (10.3 posterior non-NVG; 21.3 posterior NVG; 3.6 anterior, P < .001). With procedural success defined as 6-month post-operative IOP falling within normal ranges and a decrease in either IOP or number of prescribed glaucoma medications, the success rate of ECP was 92% for posterior NVG, 89% for anterior and 75% for posterior non-NVG cases (P = .34), similar to the previous literature. Of the four unsuccessful cases, two resulted in a normal IOP but lacked a drop in pressure or reduction in medication burden, one resulted in a 6-point drop in IOP but remained at 23 mm Hg, and one resulted in phthisis bulbi (3%) from an initial pressure above 40 mm Hg. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation is an effective and safe procedure for severe glaucoma cases from both an anterior and posterior approach. Ophthalmologists should consider this procedure as part of their glaucoma treatment arsenal.
Shakarchi AF, Mihailovic A, West SK, Friedman DS, Ramulu PY. Vision Parameters Most Important to Functionality in Glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(14):4556-4563.Abstract
Purpose: To determine the importance of various vision parameters to functionality in glaucoma. Methods: Vision was measured using seven parameters: visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), integrated visual field (IVF), area under the log CS function (AULCSF), color vision, stereoacuity, and VA with noise (ViN). Likelihood ratio testing (LRT) determined if the full set of visual parameters significantly explained variability in 10 functional outcomes. For outcomes where the visual contribution was significant, dominance analysis determined the relative importance of the various visual parameters. Results: The analysis included 151 glaucoma patients. Mean age was 70 ± 6.8 years, and 47% were men. Significant visual contributions (LRT P < 0.05) were noted for glaucoma quality of life (GQL-15), reading speed, driving cessation, daily steps, and base of support while walking, but not for fear of falling, balance, gait velocity, stride velocity, and stride length while walking (LRT P > 0.05). The most important parameter (and percent contribution) to vision-explained variability were AULCSF for daily steps (45%), IVF for base of support (35%), VA for reading speed (34%), CS for GQL-15 (30%), and VA for driving cessation (26%). Conclusions: Measures of visual ability are important for several aspects of quality of life and functionality. The most important vision parameter for functionality differs depending on the domain studied. Reading and driving were explained by VA and IVF sensitivity. On the other hand, GQL-15 and daily steps were more heavily influenced by CS and AULCSF, which are rarely performed clinically.
Shazly TA, Latina MA. Use of processed pericardium graft to plug patulous old sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision for exposure. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2012;43(1):72-5.Abstract
The authors demonstrate a reproducible technique using processed pericardium to seal sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision. The suggested method involves placement of a wedge-shaped processed pericardial graft into the old sclerostomy tract following tube explantation. The graft is trimmed and sutured to the sclera. The tube is reinserted into a new sclerostomy and then sutured in place and covered in the usual fashion. This method allowed relatively easy treatment of three patients with patulous sclerostomy with necrotic edges. A successful tube revision and repositioning of the tube using this technique was performed on three patients with exposed tubes. The intraocular pressure was between 8 and 12 mm Hg from postoperative day 1. The authors suggest the use of pericardium plug to adequately seal the old sclerostomy track during glaucoma shunt revision. The plug allows tube repositioning at a new site without the need to suture the friable sclerostomy edges.
Shazly TA, Latina MA, Dagianis JJ, Chitturi S. Effect of central corneal thickness on the long-term outcome of selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Cornea 2012;31(8):883-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if central corneal thickness (CCT) impacts the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients, who underwent SLT as primary treatment for OHT and POAG, between 2002 and 2005, was performed. Partial correlation analysis was performed to correlate the CCT to the percentage of IOP reduction at 3 to 30 months after SLT. Independent samples t test was performed to compare mean percentage of IOP reduction in eyes with CCT less than 555 μm versus CCT 555 μm or greater. RESULTS: Eighty eyes of 47 patients were identified. The partial correlation coefficient value between the CCT and percentage of IOP reduction after SLT at 3 months was -0.253 (P = 0.025), at 12 months it was -0.22 (P = 0.049), and at 30 months it was 0.301 (P = 0.007). Independent samples t test showed that the mean percentage of IOP reduction in eyes with thinner corneas (CCT < 555 μm) was greater than that in thicker corneas (CCT ≥ 555 μm) at 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, and 30-month post-SLT (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with POAG and OHT, percentage of IOP reduction after SLT was significantly greater in eyes with thinner corneas (CCT < 555 μm). These findings indicate that patients treated with SLT as primary therapy who had thinner corneas demonstrated better IOP control for at least 30 months after SLT.
Shen LQ, Kloek CE, Turalba AV. Assessing the Effect of a Glaucoma Surgical Curriculum in Resident Physicians. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;133(9):1077-80.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Subspecialty surgical training is an important part of resident education. We changed the glaucoma rotation in which postgraduate year 4 residents worked with multiple attending physicians with varying teaching styles to a structured surgical curriculum led by 2 dedicated preceptors, and we evaluated the effect on residents' surgical performance prospectively. OBSERVATIONS: A curriculum consisting of preoperative training, intraoperative teaching, postoperative feedback, and repetition was implemented for postgraduate year 4 residents between July 2, 2012, and June 30, 2014. In a class of 8 residents per year, the mean (SD) glaucoma surgical volume increased from 8.9 (0.8) cases in the prior year to 13.6 (2.5) in 2013 (mean difference, 4.8 cases; 95% CI, 2.4-7.1; P = .001) and 14.8 (4.2) in 2014 (mean difference, 5.9 cases; 95% CI, 2.1-9.6; P = .007). A self-assessment survey showed improvement in suturing (scores for each section range from 1 [worst] to 5 [best]; mean rating, 3.9 in the prior year vs 4.4 in 2013 [P = .04] and 4.5 in 2014 [P = .02]). A validated survey assessing overall surgical competency revealed improvement in handling adverse events (mean rating, 4.1 in the prior year vs 5.0 for both 2013 and 2014; both P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Despite the small sample size and nonrandomized study design, these data suggest that a structured surgical curriculum has advantages in teaching subspecialty surgery and might be considered by other ophthalmology training programs.

Shi Y, Wang H, Yin J, Li M, Zhang X, Xin C, Chen X, Wang N. Microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy versus rigid probe trabeculotomy in childhood glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(9):1257-62.Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy with standard rigid probe trabeculotomy for the treatment of childhood glaucoma. METHODS: The early postoperative (12 months) results of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy (group 1) performed by single surgeon were retrospectively compared with those of rigid probe trabeculotomy (group 2) performed by the same surgeon in patients treated for childhood glaucoma. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg with at least a 30% reduction from preoperative IOP with (qualified success) or without (complete success) the use of anti-glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 43 eyes of 36 patients were included. Mean IOP in group 1 was significantly lower than that in group 2 at 6 months (17.0±5.1 vs 22.5±9.8; p=0.042), 9 months (16.3±5.0 vs 21.6±9.6; p=0.009) and 12 months (14.8±2.5 vs 19.0±7.1; p=0.049) postoperatively. The mean percentage reduction in IOP from preoperative to the last postoperative follow-up was greater in group 1 (47.3±17.7%) than in group 2 (34.2±21.9%) (p=0.036). group 1 demonstrated an 81.0% complete and 86.4% qualified success rate, exceeding the 51.6% complete (p=0.060) and 61.9% qualified (p=0.037) success rate of group 2. There were no long-term complications in either group, but choroidal detachment occurred in one eye in group 2. CONCLUSION: Microcatheter-assisted circumferential trabeculotomy is a more effective treatment and is as safe as traditional trabeculotomy with a rigid probe for primary congenital glaucoma in the early postoperative course. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-OCC-15005789, Results.

Shi Y, Wang H, Yin J, Zhang X, Li M, Xin C, Chen X, Wang N. Outcomes of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy following failed angle surgeries in primary congenital glaucoma. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(1):132-139.Abstract

PurposeTo report surgical outcomes of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy following failed angle surgeries, and compare those with no previous angle surgery, in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG).MethodsThe early postoperative (12 months) results of 42 eyes of 36 patients who underwent microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy by single surgeon for PCG were retrospectively analyzed. Group 1, 20 eyes of 16 patients, had no previous angle surgery. Group 2, 22 eyes of 20 patients, had one or two previous failed angle surgeries. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg with at least a 30% reduction from preoperative IOP with (qualified success) or without (complete success) the use of antiglaucoma medication.ResultsMean IOP decreased from 31.5±7.2 mm Hg on 3 (median, range: 1-5) medications in Group 1 and 34.6±7.3 mm Hg on 3 (median, range: 1-4) medications in Group 2 preoperatively to 15.6±3.1 mm Hg on 0 (median, range: 0-4) medications in Group 1 and 16.0±4.6 mm Hg on 0 (median, range: 0-2) medications in Group 2 postoperatively at 12 months (both P<0.001), respectively. The mean percentage of IOP reduction from preoperative to last postoperative visit was 46.0±20.1% in Group 1 and 45.5±25.0% in Group 2, P=0.947. Qualified and complete successes were comparable between Group 1 and Group 2 (qualified success: 90.0% vs 77.3%, P=0.294; complete success: 78.9% vs 77.3%, P=0.853). Complications were minimal.ConclusionsMicrocatheter-assisted trabeculotomy achieved significant pressure-lowering effects with a reduction in medication use in PCG, and it represents a reasonable choice of initial and repeat surgical treatment for PCG.

Shieh E, Lee R, Que C, Srinivasan V, Guo R, DeLuna R, Pandit S, Simavli H, Seevaratnam R, Tsikata E, de Boer J, Chen TC. Diagnostic Performance of a Novel Three-Dimensional Neuroretinal Rim Parameter for Glaucoma Using High-Density Volume Scans. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;169:168-78.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) neuroretinal rim parameter, the minimum distance band (MDB), using optical coherence tomography (OCT) high-density volume scans for open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Reliability analysis. METHODS: setting: Institutional. STUDY POPULATION: Total of 163 patients (105 glaucoma and 58 healthy subjects). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: One eye of each patient was included. MDB and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness values were determined for 4 quadrants and 4 sectors using a spectral-domain OCT device. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values. RESULTS: The best AUROC values of 3D MDB thickness for glaucoma and early glaucoma were for the overall globe (0.969, 0.952), followed by the inferior quadrant (0.966, 0.949) and inferior-temporal sector (0.966, 0.944), and then followed by the superior-temporal sector (0.964, 0.932) and superior quadrant (0.962, 0.924). All 3D MDB thickness AUROC values were higher than those of 2D RNFL thickness. Pairwise comparisons showed that the diagnostic performance of the 3D MDB parameter was significantly better than 2D RNFL thickness only for the nasal quadrant and inferior-nasal and superior-nasal sectors (P = .023-.049). Combining 3D MDB with 2D RNFL parameters provided significantly better diagnostic performance (AUROC 0.984) than most single MDB parameters and all single RNFL parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2D RNFL thickness parameter, the 3D MDB neuroretinal rim thickness parameter had uniformly equal or better diagnostic performance for glaucoma in all regions and was significantly better in the nasal region.

Shiga Y, Akiyama M, Nishiguchi KM, Sato K, Shimozawa N, Takahashi A, Momozawa Y, Hirata M, Matsuda K, Yamaji T, Iwasaki M, Tsugane S, Oze I, Mikami H, Naito M, Wakai K, Yoshikawa M, Miyake M, Yamashiro K, Kashiwagi K, Iwata T, Mabuchi F, Takamoto M, Ozaki M, Kawase K, Aihara M, Araie M, Yamamoto T, Kiuchi Y, Nakamura M, Ikeda Y, Sonoda K-H, Ishibashi T, Nitta K, Iwase A, Shirato S, Oka Y, Satoh M, Sasaki M, Fuse N, Suzuki Y, Cheng C-Y, Khor CC, Baskaran M, Perera S, Aung T, Vithana EN, Cooke Bailey JN, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Haines JL, Wiggs JL, Burdon KP, Gharahkhani P, Hewitt AW, Mackey DA, Macgregor S, Craig JE, Allingham RR, Hauser M, Ashaye A, Budenz DL, Akafo S, Williams SEI, Kamatani Y, Nakazawa T, Kubo M. Genome-wide association study identifies seven novel susceptibility loci for primary open-angle glaucoma. Hum Mol Genet 2018;27(8):1486-1496.Abstract
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide for which 15 disease-associated loci had been discovered. Among them, only 5 loci have been associated with POAG in Asians. We carried out a genome-wide association study and a replication study that included a total of 7378 POAG cases and 36 385 controls from a Japanese population. After combining the genome-wide association study and the two replication sets, we identified 11 POAG-associated loci, including 4 known (CDKN2B-AS1, ABCA1, SIX6 and AFAP1) and 7 novel loci (FNDC3B, ANKRD55-MAP3K1, LMX1B, LHPP, HMGA2, MEIS2 and LOXL1) at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0×10-8), bringing the total number of POAG-susceptibility loci to 22. The 7 novel variants were subsequently evaluated in a multiethnic population comprising non-Japanese East Asians (1008 cases, 591 controls), Europeans (5008 cases, 35 472 controls) and Africans (2341 cases, 2037 controls). The candidate genes located within the new loci were related to ocular development (LMX1B, HMGA2 and MAP3K1) and glaucoma-related phenotypes (FNDC3B, LMX1B and LOXL1). Pathway analysis suggested epidermal growth factor receptor signaling might be involved in POAG pathogenesis. Genetic correlation analysis revealed the relationships between POAG and systemic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These results improve our understanding of the genetic factors that affect the risk of developing POAG and provide new insight into the genetic architecture of POAG in Asians.
Shoji MK, Cousins CC, Saini C, Silva RNE, Wang M, Brauner SC, Greenstein SH, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ. Paired Optic Nerve Microvasculature and Nailfold Capillary Measurements in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(7):13.Abstract
Purpose: To assess microvascular beds in the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary tissue, and the nailfold in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) versus controls. Methods: Patients with POAG (n = 22) and controls (n = 12) underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography of ophthalmic microvasculature and nailfold video capillaroscopy of the hand. The main outcomes were vessel density (VD) and blood flow of the ONH, the peripapillary and the nailfold microvasculatures. Results: Patients with POAG were younger than controls (63.5 ± 9.4 vs. 69.9 ± 6.5 years, P = 0.03). Deep ONH VD and blood flow were lower in patients with POAG than controls (39.1% ± 3.5% vs. 43.8% ± 5.7%; 37.8% ± 5.3% vs. 46.0% ± 7.8%, respectively, P < 0.02 for both); similar results were observed with peripapillary VD (37.9 ± 2.6%, 43.4 ± 7.6%, respectively, P = 0.03). Nailfold capillary density and blood flow were lower in patients with POAG than controls (8.8 ± 1.0 vs. 9.8 ± 0.9 capillaries/mm; 19.9 ± 9.4 vs. 33.7 ± 9.8 pL/s, respectively; P < 0.009 for both). After adjusting for age and gender, deep ONH VD and blood flow, peripapillary VD, and nailfold capillary blood flow were lower in POAG than controls (β = -0.04, -0.07, -0.05, -13.19, respectively, P ≤ 0.046 for all). Among all participants, there were positive correlations between deep ONH and nailfold capillary blood flow (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.42, P = 0.02), peripapillary and nailfold capillary density (r = 0.43, P = 0.03), and peripapillary and nailfold capillary blood flow (r = 0.49, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with POAG demonstrated morphologic and hemodynamic alterations in both ophthalmic and nailfold microvascular beds compared to controls. Translational Relevance: The concomitant abnormalities in nailfold capillaries and relevant ocular vascular beds in POAG suggest that the microvasculature may be a target for POAG treatment.
Shroff S, Gu SZ, Vardhan S A, Mani I, Aziz K, P N, Datta D, Friedman DS. Screening first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients reveals barriers to participation. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the results of a glaucoma screening campaign targeting first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients in South India. METHODS: 1598 glaucoma patients were contacted via letter or letter and phone call and asked to bring their siblings and children to a glaucoma screening. Participants underwent standardised eye examinations and completed questionnaires that assessed barriers to participation and awareness of glaucoma risk. Two-proportion z-tests were used to compare categorical data. Costs associated with the screening were recorded. RESULTS: 206 probands (12.9%) attended the screening along with 50 siblings and children. Probands were nearly twice as likely to attend if they had been contacted via both letter and phone call rather than letter only. Over half of probands reported that their relatives could not participate because they did not live in the region, and one-fifth reported that their relatives had other commitments. Fifty-eight per cent of the siblings and children who attended did not know that they were at increased risk for glaucoma due to their family history, and 32.0% did not know that the relative who had invited them to the screening had glaucoma. Thirteen siblings and children (26.0% of those who attended) were found to have findings concerning for glaucoma. The average cost per first-degree relative who was screened was INR2422 (£26). CONCLUSION: Participation in this glaucoma screening campaign was poor. The major barrier to participation was distance from the screening site and associated indirect costs. Better strategies for bringing first-degree relatives in for examinations are needed.
Shuldiner SR, Boland MV, Ramulu PY, De Moraes GC, Elze T, Myers J, Pasquale L, Wellik S, Yohannan J. Predicting eyes at risk for rapid glaucoma progression based on an initial visual field test using machine learning. PLoS One 2021;16(4):e0249856.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether machine learning algorithms (MLA) can predict eyes that will undergo rapid glaucoma progression based on an initial visual field (VF) test. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of longitudinal data. SUBJECTS: 175,786 VFs (22,925 initial VFs) from 14,217 patients who completed ≥5 reliable VFs at academic glaucoma centers were included. METHODS: Summary measures and reliability metrics from the initial VF and age were used to train MLA designed to predict the likelihood of rapid progression. Additionally, the neural network model was trained with point-wise threshold data in addition to summary measures, reliability metrics and age. 80% of eyes were used for a training set and 20% were used as a test set. MLA test set performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Performance of models trained on initial VF data alone was compared to performance of models trained on data from the first two VFs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy in predicting future rapid progression defined as MD worsening more than 1 dB/year. RESULTS: 1,968 eyes (8.6%) underwent rapid progression. The support vector machine model (AUC 0.72 [95% CI 0.70-0.75]) most accurately predicted rapid progression when trained on initial VF data. Artificial neural network, random forest, logistic regression and naïve Bayes classifiers produced AUC of 0.72, 0.70, 0.69, 0.68 respectively. Models trained on data from the first two VFs performed no better than top models trained on the initial VF alone. Based on the odds ratio (OR) from logistic regression and variable importance plots from the random forest model, older age (OR: 1.41 per 10 year increment [95% CI: 1.34 to 1.08]) and higher pattern standard deviation (OR: 1.31 per 5-dB increment [95% CI: 1.18 to 1.46]) were the variables in the initial VF most strongly associated with rapid progression. CONCLUSIONS: MLA can be used to predict eyes at risk for rapid progression with modest accuracy based on an initial VF test. Incorporating additional clinical data to the current model may offer opportunities to predict patients most likely to rapidly progress with even greater accuracy.
Sii S, Barton K, Pasquale LR, Yamamoto T, King AJ, Azuara-Blanco A. Reporting Harm in Glaucoma Surgical Trials: Systematic Review and a Consensus-Derived New Classification System. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;194:153-162.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the standards of harm reporting for glaucoma surgical trials and to develop a classification system for reporting surgical complication severity. DESIGN: Systematic review and Delphi consensus method. METHODS: Systematic review of glaucoma surgical trials published from January 2010 until July 2017 with a quality assessment against the CONSORT checklist for harm. A Delphi method was employed to generate consensus grading (interquartile range ≤ 2) among international glaucoma experts (n = 43) on severity of glaucoma surgical complications, and specifically for trabeculectomy and aqueous shunt complications, from 1 (no clinical significance) to 10 (most severe complication). RESULTS: Forty-seven studies were eligible. The items of the CONSORT checklist for harm that were most frequently missing were use of a validated instrument to report severity (0%), withdrawals due to harm, and subgroup analyses, both reported in 3 publications (6.4%). Most glaucoma experts participating in the Delphi process (80%) completed the second round, and consensus was achieved for all but 1 complication. The least severe complications (graded 2) were "transient loss of vision," "early low intraocular pressure," "choroidal detachment anterior to equator," "small layered hyphema < 1 mm," and "increased lens opacity not clinically significant." The most severe complications (graded 10) were "endophthalmitis" and "permanent severe loss of vision (hand movements or worse)." CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma surgical randomized controlled trials report frequency of complications, but their severity is rarely reported. The quality of harm reporting is poor. We propose the use of a newly developed system of classification for assessing the severity of surgical complications based on consensus.

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