A fully automated and robust method was developed to quantify β-III-tubulin-stained retinal ganglion cells, combining computational recognition of individual cells by CellProfiler and a machine-learning tool to teach phenotypic classification of the retinal ganglion cells by CellProfiler Analyst. In animal models of glaucoma, quantification of immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells is currently performed manually and remains time-consuming. Using this automated method, quantifications of retinal ganglion cell images were accelerated tenfold: 1800 images were counted in 3 h using our automated method, while manual counting of the same images took 72 h. This new method was validated in an established murine model of microbead-induced optic neuropathy. The use of the publicly available software and the method's user-friendly design allows this technique to be easily implemented in any laboratory.
PURPOSE: To quantify the association of visual field (VF) damage on physical activity away-from-home, per away-from-home excursion, and at home. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Among 229 participants with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma, severity of VF damage was defined as average sensitivity within the integrated VF (IVF). Participants wore accelerometers and GPS trackers for seven days to measure physical activity and characterize activity location. Multivariable negative binomial regressions were used to test whether away-from-home activity per day, physical activity per away-from-home excursion, and at home activity per day varied by severity of VF damage. RESULTS: Each 5-dB decrement in IVF sensitivity was associated with a lower amount of away-from-home activities per day [18% less Moderate & Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) minutes/day, 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.97], and physical activities per away-from-home excursion (20% less MVPA minutes/excursion, 95% CI, 0.65, 0.98). Similar findings were noted for other away-from-home activity measures (including active minutes/steps per day, or active minutes/steps per excursion). However, worse IVF sensitivity was not associated with measures of at home activities (MVPA minutes/day, active minutes/day, and steps/day), time spent at or away from home, or excursions/week (p>0.1 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Restriction of physical activity in more severe glaucoma patients results mostly from activity restriction outside home environment. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a safe home environment (where activity is less restricted) and increasing confidence to perform activity, particular high intensity activity, when leaving the home amongst patients with glaucoma.
BACKGROUND: Older adults with visual impairments experience a higher risk of falling, and are more vulnerable to adverse health consequences associated with falls than those with normal vision. This study characterizes longitudinal changes in objectively measured physical activity and fear of falling (FoF) occurring after various types of falls in visually impaired older adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Hospital-based enrollment. PARTICIPANTS: People with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. MEASUREMENTS: Falls were defined as unintentionally coming to rest on the ground or a lower level, and injurious falls were determined though follow-up calls. Study participants were categorized into three groups-fallers with injurious consequences, fallers without injurious consequences, and non-fallers based on fall status in the first year. Physical activity was assessed by waist-bound accelerometer. FoF was evaluated by questionnaire, with Rasch modeling generating FoF scores where higher scores reflected worse FoF. The 3-year longitudinal changes of physical activity and FoF were modeled using mixed-effects models. RESULTS: In linear models fully adjusted for visual field damage and other covariates, physical activity among injurious fallers showed greater annual (per year) declines in daily steps (-425 steps/d, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -793, -57), daily active minutes (-13 min/d, 95% CI = -21, -6), and daily moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes (-3 MVPA minutes/d, 95% CI = -5, 0) over the 3-year period as compared to non-fallers; however, physical activity did not significantly decline among non-injurious fallers. No longitudinal increases in FoF scores were observed in injurious or non-injurious fallers when compared to non-fallers. CONCLUSION: Among visually impaired older adults, injurious falls identified prospectively over 12 months contributed to a significant decline in physical activity over a 3-year period, while minimal changes were observed in FoF.
PURPOSE: To define and quantify patterns of objectively measured daily physical activity by level of visual field (VF) damage in glaucoma patients including: (1) activity fragmentation, a metric of health and physiologic decline, and (2) diurnal patterns of activity, a measure of rest and activity rhythms. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults diagnosed with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. METHODS: Degree of VF damage was defined by the average VF sensitivity within the integrated VF (IVF). Each participant wore a hip accelerometer for 1 week to measure daily minute-by-minute activity for 7 consecutive days. Activity fragmentation was calculated as the reciprocal of the average activity bout duration in minutes, with higher fragmentation indicating more transient, rather than sustained, activity. Multivariate linear regression was used to test for cross-sectional associations between VF damage and activity fragmentation. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between VF damage and accumulation of activity across 6 3-hour intervals from 5 am to 11 pm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Activity fragmentation and amount of activity (steps) over the course of the day. RESULTS: Each 5-dB decrement in IVF sensitivity was associated with 16.3 fewer active minutes/day (P < 0.05) and 2% higher activity fragmentation (P < 0.05), but not with the number of active bouts per day (P = 0.30). In time-of-day analyses, lower IVF sensitivity was associated with fewer steps over the 11 am to 2 pm, 2 pm to 5 pm, and 5 pm to 8 pm periods (106.6, 93.1, and 89.2 fewer steps, respectively; P < 0.05 for all), but not over other periods. The activity midpoint (the time at which half of the daily activity is completed) did not vary across level of VF damage. CONCLUSIONS: At worse levels of VF damage, glaucoma patients demonstrate shorter, more fragmented bouts of physical activity throughout the day and lower activity levels during typical waking hours, reflecting low physiologic functioning. Further work is needed to establish the temporality of this association and whether glaucoma patients with such activity patterns are at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes associated with activity fragmentation.
OBJECTIVE: Fear of falling (FoF) may alter mobility in older adults, especially among those with visual impairment. Using a longitudinal prospective cohort of older glaucoma patients, we investigated whether and how FoF is associated with future falls and physical activity. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Hospital-based single-center recruitment. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. MEASUREMENTS: FoF was measured annually over a 3-year period using the University of Illinois at Chicago FoF Questionnaire, with lower Rasch-analyzed FoF scores (in logit units) indicating less fear. Participants recorded falls prospectively over the 3-year period using monthly mail-in calendars. Daily steps were collected annually over 7 days using an accelerometer. Visual field (VF) sensitivity was derived by combining sensitivities from monocular VF results. Participants completed questionnaires to determine other demographic/health characteristics. Multivariate random effects models evaluated within-participant changes in fall rates and physical activity across study years. RESULTS: At lower FoF levels (FoF≤0), each one-unit worsening in FoF score across study years was associated with 2.73 times higher odds of reporting at least one fall in the next year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55-4.81) but was not associated with average daily steps (P = .44). Similar results were seen when fall rates were normalized by number of steps taken (P = .97). At higher FoF levels (FoF > 0), inter-year changes in FoF scores were not significantly associated with reporting a fall in the following year (P = .78) but were associated with 407 fewer average daily steps per one-unit change in FoF (95% CI = -743 to -71). CONCLUSION: FoF is an important psychological factor associated with mobility in glaucoma patients, although specific aspects of mobility (fall rates vs activity levels) affected vary by the degree of FoF. Our findings suggest that customizing behavioral interventions for older adults based on their levels of FoF may be an important strategy for fall prevention and activity promotion. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1847-1851, 2020.
OBJECTIVES: 1) To elucidate the role of collector channels in the aqueous humor outflow pathway 2) To suggest anatomic and functional methods of imaging collector channels in-vitro and in-vivo and 3) To discuss the role of such imaging modalities in the surgical management of glaucoma. METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted on databases for studies published in English regarding the available methods to determine the role of collecting channels in normal and glaucomatous patients and to assess their patency. RESULTS: Intraocular pressure (IOP) exists as a balance between aqueous humor production and aqueous humor outflow. Collector channels are an essential anatomical constituent of the distal portion of the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway. There are different surgical options for glaucoma management and with the recent advances in Schlemm's canal-based surgeries, collector channel's patency became a key factor in determining the optimum management for the glaucomatous eye. The advent of anatomic imaging methods has improved the ability to visualize collector channel morphology in-vitro, including swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), micro-computed tomography (micro CT), new immunohistochemistry techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The recent advent of real-time assessment of collector channel patency (including evaluation of episcleral venous outflow, observation of episcleral venous fluid wave, and tracer studies utilizing fluorescein, indocyanine green, and trypan blue) has been validated by the aforementioned anatomic imaging modalities. CONCLUSIONS: New modalities of in-vitro and in-vivo studies of collector channels provide promise to aid in the assessment of collector channel patency and individualization of surgical management for glaucoma patients.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes of Ahmed Clear Path (ACP) valveless glaucoma drainage device in childhood glaucoma. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients ≤16 years with childhood glaucoma who had ACP implantation at Boston Children's Hospital from December 2019 to June 2020 with at least 6 months follow-up period. RESULTS: The study included 7 eyes of 5 patients implanted by a single surgeon. The median follow-up was 12 months. The mean IOP was reduced from 36±3.5▒mmHg on a mean of 2.7±0.6 glaucoma medications preoperatively to a mean IOP of 12.4±2.8▒mmHg (P<0.001) on a mean of 0.7±0.8 medications postoperatively at final follow-up (P=0.0009). Complete success was achieved in 4 eyes while qualified success was achieved in 3 eyes. CONCLUSION: The ACP GDD provided good short term IOP control and technical advantages for implantation for pediatric eyes were observed.
PURPOSE: Angle surgery is the gold standard for the management of many types of childhood glaucoma, yet glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) are effective tools for refractory advanced cases or secondary childhood glaucomas. The purpose of this article is to review recently published literature focused on the use of GDDs for pediatric glaucoma, including GDD general principles and surgical outcomes. METHODS: Literature review of various electronic databases was performed. RESULTS: 71 papers were reviewed for outcomes of GDD in childhood glaucomas. Success rates were usually defined by intraocular pressure (IOP) of 5-22 mmHg, with or without medications. Success rates were typically higher for non-valved GDDs but varied by length of follow-up. Non-valved GDDs afford lower and longer-lasting IOP control in pediatric eyes than valved GDD, however, no randomized controlled trials exist in childhood glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Various designs of GDDs are available for management of childhood glaucoma with good short-term success rates; individual patient factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a specific device.
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic capability of 3-dimensional (3D) neuroretinal rim parameters with existing 2-dimensional (2D) neuroretinal and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness rim parameters using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design: Institutional prospective pilot study. STUDY POPULATION: 65 subjects (35 open-angle glaucoma patients, 30 normal patients). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: One eye of each subject was included. SD-OCT was used to obtain 2D RNFL thickness values and 5 neuroretinal rim parameters [ie, 3D minimum distance band (MDB) thickness, 3D Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), 3D rim volume, 2D rim area, and 2D rim thickness]. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: Comparing all 3D with all 2D parameters, 3D rim parameters (MDB, BMO-MRW, rim volume) generally had higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values (range, 0.770 to 0.946) compared with 2D parameters (RNFL thickness, rim area, rim thickness; range, 0.678 to 0.911). For global region analyses, all 3D rim parameters (BMO-MRW, rim volume, MDB) were equal to or better than 2D parameters (RNFL thickness, rim area, rim thickness; P-values from 0.023 to 1.0). Among the three 3D rim parameters (MDB, BMO-MRW, and rim volume), there were no significant differences in diagnostic capability (false discovery rate >0.05 at 95% specificity). CONCLUSIONS: 3D neuroretinal rim parameters (MDB, BMO-MRW, and rim volume) demonstrated better diagnostic capability for primary and secondary open-angle glaucomas compared with 2D neuroretinal parameters (rim area, rim thickness). Compared with 2D RNFL thickness, 3D neuroretinal rim parameters have the same or better diagnostic capability.
Importance: Genetic variants associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are known to influence disease risk. However, the clinical effect of associated variants individually or in aggregate is not known. Genetic risk scores (GRS) examine the cumulative genetic load by combining individual genetic variants into a single measure, which is assumed to have a larger effect and increased power to detect relevant disease-related associations. Objective: To investigate if a GRS that comprised 12 POAG genetic risk variants is associated with age at disease diagnosis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study included individuals with POAG and controls from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) study. A GRS was formulated using 12 variants known to be associated with POAG, and the alleles associated with increasing risk of POAG were aligned in the case-control sets. In case-only analyses, the association of the GRS with age at diagnosis was analyzed as an estimate of disease onset. Results from cohort-specific analyses were combined with meta-analysis. Data collection started in August 2012 for the NEIGHBOR cohort and in July 2008 for the GLAUGEN cohort and were analyzed starting in March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of a 12 single-nucleotide polymorphism POAG GRS with age at diagnosis in individuals with POAG using linear regression. Results: The GLAUGEN study included 976 individuals with POAG and 1140 controls. The NEIGHBOR study included 2132 individuals with POAG and 2290 controls. For individuals with POAG, the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 63.6 (9.8) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 66.0 (13.7) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. For controls, the mean (SD) age at enrollment was 65.5 (9.2) years in the GLAUGEN cohort and 68.9 (11.4) years in the NEIGHBOR cohort. All study participants were European white. The GRS was strongly associated with POAG risk in case-control analysis (odds ratio per 1-point increase in score = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.21-1.27; P = 3.4 × 10-66). In case-only analyses, each higher GRS unit was associated with a 0.36-year earlier age at diagnosis (β = -0.36; 95% CI, -0.56 to -0.16; P = 4.0 × 10-4). Individuals in the top 5% of the GRS had a mean (SD) age at diagnosis of 5.2 (12.8) years earlier than those in the bottom 5% GRS (61.4 [12.7] vs 66.6 [12.9] years; P = 5.0 × 10-4). Conclusions and Relevance: A higher dose of POAG risk alleles was associated with an earlier age at glaucoma diagnosis. On average, individuals with POAG with the highest GRS had 5.2-year earlier age at diagnosis of disease. These results suggest that a GRS that comprised genetic variants associated with POAG could help identify patients with risk of earlier disease onset impacting screening and therapeutic strategies.
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an important risk factor for glaucoma (XFG) worldwide. LOXL1 variants are highly associated with XFS in most populations; however, the high frequency of risk alleles in normal individuals and the reversal of risk alleles in different ethnic populations suggest that other factors contribute to XFS pathogenesis. Clusterin (CLU) is an extracellular matrix chaperone that prevents protein aggregation and is highly expressed in ocular tissues affected by XFS. Studies examining common CLU variants for association with XFS have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CLU variants for association with XFS in two independent datasets from the United States (222 cases and 344 controls) and Israel (92 cases and 102 controls). Seven tag SNPs that captured >95% of alleles at r(2) greater than 0.8 across the CLU genomic region were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Genotypes for an additional SNP, rs2279590, were imputed using phased haplotypes of HapMap reference CEU samples. Of the 8 CLU SNPs selected for the study, none were significantly associated with XFS in either case-control group (age and sex adjusted P > 0.14 and 0.36, respectively, in the US and Israeli datasets), or when they were meta-analyzed together (age and sex adjusted P > 0.13). Haplotype analysis using all 8 SNPs or only the promoter region SNPs also did not show significant associations of CLU with XFS in the combined US and Israeli dataset (P > 0.28). Meta-analysis of the data from this study and previous studies in Caucasian populations (1184 cases and 978 controls) resulted in statistically significant association of rs2279590 with XFS (summary OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33, P = 0.01). Significant association between rs2279590 and XFS was also found in Indian populations (summary OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.96; P = 0.02); however, significant heterogeneity between the Caucasian and Indian populations possibly due to reversal of the risk allele precluded an overall meta-analysis for rs2279590 (Q = 0.001, I(2) = 91%). No significant association was identified for rs3087554 in either Caucasian populations (summary OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.77-1.05, P = 0.17) or Indian populations (summary OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.72-1.10, P = 0.28), or in both populations combined (1705 cases and 3713 controls; summary OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.01, P = 0.08). Significant heterogeneity precluded the addition of the Japanese data to the meta-analysis for rs3087554 (Q = 0.006, I(2) = 87%). Our results suggest that common CLU variants may contribute to modest XFS risk but even larger datasets are required to confirm these findings.
PURPOSE: To report a case of Ahmed glaucoma valve-induced hypotony that was successfully managed with postoperative intraluminal stenting of the aqueous shunt tube.
PATIENT AND METHODS: We describe a 68-year-old man with advanced uveitic glaucoma with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 25 mm Hg in the left eye. The patient initially responded well to an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant, but at 10 weeks postimplantation, the patient underwent cataract surgery and developed persistent hypotony, choroidal folds, and decreased vision.
RESULTS: Before partial occlusion of the aqueous shunt tube, the patient had an IOP of 3 mm Hg and a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/60. Following intraluminal stenting of the aqueous shunt tube with 4-0 polypropylene suture (Prolene; Ethican), IOP rose from 7 to 10 mm Hg, BCVA improved to 20/30, and the choroidal folds resolved; IOP and BCVA remained stable through 1 year of follow-up and no additional surgical or pharmacological interventions were required.
CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous shunt-induced hypotony can be successfully managed with intraluminal stenting and should be considered before tubal ligation or shunt removal.
PURPOSE: To assess whether brimonidine 0.15% alters retinal vascular autoregulation and short-term visual function in normal tension glaucoma patients who demonstrate retinal vascular dysregulation. DESIGN: Nonrandomized clinical trial. METHODS: In this prospective study, 46 normal tension glaucoma patients not previously treated with brimonidine underwent retinal vascular autoregulation testing and visual function assessment using frequency doubling technology perimetry and equivalent noise motion sensitivity testing. We measured blood flow in a major temporal retinal artery with subjects seated and then while reclined for 30 minutes. Patients having a change in retinal blood flow with posture change outside the range previously found in healthy subjects were classified as having retinal vascular dysregulation. They were treated with brimonidine 0.15% for 8 weeks and designated for retesting. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients demonstrated retinal vascular dysregulation at the initial visit. Younger age (P = .050) and diabetes (P = .055) were marginally significant risk factors for retinal vascular dysregulation. After the 8-week course with brimonidine, 14 of the 17 patients who completed the study showed a return of posture-induced retinal blood flow changes to levels consistent with normal retinal vascular autoregulation (P < .0001). We found no significant changes in frequency doubling technology perimetry or in motion detection parameters following treatment with brimondine (P > .09 for all tests performed). CONCLUSIONS: Brimonidine significantly improved impaired retinal vascular autoregulation in normal tension glaucoma patients, but short-term alteration in visual function could not be demonstrated.
PURPOSE: To assess whether dorzolamide 2%-timolol 0.5% (D/T) and/or brimonidine 0.2%-timolol 0.5% (B/T) alters retinal vascular autoregulation (RVA) and seated ocular perfusion pressure (sOPP) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients who demonstrate retinal vascular dysregulation (RVD) on timolol 0.5% alone. METHODS: In this prospective, observer-masked, crossover study, 21 POAG patients with untreated intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg were treated for 6 weeks with timolol 0.5%. Subsequently, we measured inferior temporal retinal artery blood flow in the left eye with subjects seated and then while reclined for 30 min using the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter. Subjects with a change in retinal blood flow in response to posture change outside of the range previously found in healthy subjects were designated as having RVD and randomized to either D/T or B/T for 6 weeks and re-tested. This was followed by treatment with the opposite medication. RESULTS: Seven of the 21 subjects demonstrated RVD in response to posture change following timolol 0.5%. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that lower sOPP was the main determinant of RVD (P=0.033). After treatment with D/T, all 7 converted from RVD to normal RVA status (P=0.001). Four of 6 subjects showed a similar return to normal RVA following B/T (P=0.066). Mid-morning sOPP was 41.1±5.5 mmHg post-timolol, 46.3±6.5 mmHg post-D/T, and 38.6±6.0 mmHg post-B/T (D/T vs. B/T, P=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: D/T significantly improved RVA in POAG patients exhibiting RVD while on timolol 0.5% alone. D/T also increased sOPP compared to B/T. There was no significant difference (P=0.37) between D/T and B/T in improving RVA.
PURPOSE: To test whether increased intereye retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) asymmetry may be indicative of glaucoma. To determine the best statistical methods and intereye RNFL cutoffs for differentiating between normal and glaucoma subjects to better alert clinicians to early glaucomatous damage. METHODS: Sixty-six primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and 40 age-matched normal subjects had both eyes imaged at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary with a commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) machine. Statistical methodologies were used to find cutoffs that achieved the best sensitivities and specificities for differentiating OAG from normal subjects. RESULTS: Intereye RNFL asymmetry for global average, all quadrants, and all sectors was significantly greater in OAG than normal subjects. Intereye RNFL asymmetry for global average showed the greatest statistical difference (P<0.001) between OAG (23.64±14.90 μm) and normal eyes (3.58±3.96 μm), with 6.60 times greater asymmetry in OAG eyes. The inferior quadrant showed the second greatest difference, with 3.91 times greater asymmetry in OAG eyes. Using a statistically determined cutoff of 6.0 μm as abnormal, intereye RNFL asymmetry for global average achieved a sensitivity of 74.24% and specificity of 90% in differentiating between normal and OAG subjects, achieving a better combination of sensitivity and specificity than intereye RNFL asymmetry of any quadrant or sector. CONCLUSIONS: Intereye RNFL asymmetry may be a useful clinical OCT measurement to provide quantitative assessment of early glaucomatous damage. Newly developed algorithms for intereye RNFL asymmetry may improve the ability to detect glaucoma.
PURPOSE: To highlight the effect of ascent to high altitude on intraocular pressure (IOP) in a patient with primary open-angle glaucoma, who had previously undergone trabeculectomy in 1 eye. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 66-year-old mountaineer with primary open-angle glaucoma and previous right trabeculectomy performed self-tonometry using a rebound tonometer (Icare HOME) before and during an expedition in the Himalaya. In the nonoperated eye, there was a statistically significant increase in IOP as the patient ascended to 5000 m over 8 days (R=0.790, P=0.001), consistent with recent literature. IOP increased by 1.73 mm Hg with each 1000 m increase in altitude. In the trabeculectomized eye there was no significant increase in IOP (R=0.219, P=0.172). CONCLUSIONS: Filtration surgery may be protective against IOP fluctuations associated with ascent to high altitude. Self-tonometry complements standard glaucoma care by providing opportunities for IOP monitoring outside office hours and in remote locations.
Importance: Glaucoma-related adverse events constitute serious complications of cataract removal in infancy, yet long-term data on incidence and visual outcome remain lacking. Objective: To identify and characterize incident cases of glaucoma and glaucoma-related adverse events (glaucoma + glaucoma suspect) among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) by the age of 10.5 years and to determine whether these diagnoses are associated with optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) assessment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract who were aged 1 to 6 months at surgery. Data on long-term glaucoma-related status and outcomes were collected when children were 10.5 years old (July 14, 2015, to July 12, 2019) and analyzed from March 30, 2019, to August 6, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized at cataract surgery to either primary intraocular lens (IOL), or aphakia (contact lens [CL]). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created for IATS and applied for surveillance and diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of glaucoma and glaucoma + glaucoma suspect in operated-on eyes up to age 10.5 years, plus intraocular pressure, axial length, RNFL (by optical coherence tomography), and ONH photographs. Results: In Kaplan-Meier analysis, for all study eyes combined (n = 114), risk of glaucoma after cataract removal rose from 9% (95% CI, 5%-16%) at 1 year, to 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) at 5 years, to 22% (95% CI, 16%-31%) at 10 years. The risk of glaucoma plus glaucoma suspect diagnosis after cataract removal rose from 12% (95% CI, 7%-20%) at 1 year, to 31% (95% CI, 24%-41%) at 5 years, to 40% (95% CI, 32%-50%) at 10 years. Risk of glaucoma and glaucoma plus glaucoma suspect diagnosis at 10 years was not significantly different between treatment groups. Eyes with glaucoma (compared with eyes with glaucoma suspect or neither) had longer axial length but relatively preserved RNFL and similar ONH appearance and visual acuity at age 10 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Risk of glaucoma-related adverse events continues to increase with longer follow-up of children following unilateral cataract removal in infancy and is not associated with primary IOL implantation. Development of glaucoma (or glaucoma suspect) after removal of unilateral congenital cataract was not associated with worse visual acuity outcomes at 10 years. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00212134.
BACKGROUND: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is an optic neuropathy with high intraocular pressure (IOP) that manifests within the first few years of a child's life and is not associated with other systemic or ocular abnormalities. PCG results in considerable morbidity even in high-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different surgical techniques for PCG. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2020, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (last searched 23 June 2014); ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing different surgical interventions in children under five years of age with PCG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 trials (13 RCTs and three quasi-RCTs) with 587 eyes in 446 children. Eleven (69%) trials were conducted in Egypt and the Middle East, three in India, and two in the USA. All included trials involved children younger than five years of age, with follow-up ranging from six to 80 months. The interventions compared varied across trials. Three trials (on 68 children) compared combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy (CTT) with trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of these trials suggests there may be little to no evidence of a difference between groups in mean IOP (mean difference (MD) 0.27 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.74 to 1.29; 88 eyes; 2 studies) and surgical success (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 102 eyes; 3 studies) at one year postoperatively. We assessed the certainty of evidence as very low for these outcomes, downgrading for risk of bias (-1) and imprecision (-2). Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome in both groups (no meta-analysis due to considerable heterogeneity; I = 83%). Two trials (on 39 children) compared viscotrabeculotomy to conventional trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of 42 eyes suggests there is no evidence of between groups difference in mean IOP (MD -1.64, 95% CI -5.94 to 2.66) and surgical success (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.78) at six months postoperatively. We assessed the certainty of evidence as very low, downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision due to small sample size. Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome (38% in viscotrabeculotomy and 28% in conventional trabeculotomy), with no evidence of difference difference (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.83). Two trials (on 95 children) compared microcatheter-assisted 360-degree circumferential trabeculotomy to conventional trabeculotomy. Meta-analysis of two trials suggests that mean IOP may be lower in the microcatheter group at six months (MD -2.44, 95% CI -3.69 to -1.19; 100 eyes) and at 12 months (MD -1.77, 95% CI -2.92 to -0.63; 99 eyes); and surgical success was more likely to be achieved in the microcatheter group compared to the conventional trabeculotomy group (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.21; 60 eyes; 1 trial at 6 months; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.97; 99 eyes; 2 trials at 12 months). We assessed the certainty of evidence for these outcomes as moderate due to small sample size. Hyphema was the most common adverse outcome (40% in the microcatheter group and 17% in the conventional trabeculotomy group), with greater likelihood of occurring in the microcatheter group (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.04); the evidence was of moderate certainty due to small sample size (-1). Of the nine remaining trials, no two trials compared the same two surgical interventions: one trial compared CTT versus CTT with sclerectomy; three trials compared various suturing techniques and adjuvant use including mitomycin C, collagen implant in CTT; one trial compared CTT versus Ahmed valve implant in previously failed surgeries; one trial compared CTT with trabeculectomy; one trial compared trabeculotomy to goniotomy; and two trials compared different types of goniotomy. No trials reported quality of life or economic data. Many of the included trials had limitations in study design, implementation, and reporting, therefore the reliability and applicability of the evidence remains unclear. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that there may be little to no evidence of difference between CTT and routine conventional trabeculotomy, or between viscotrabeculotomy and routine conventional trabeculotomy. A 360-degree circumferential trabeculotomy may show greater surgical success than conventional trabeculotomy. Considering the rarity of the disease, future research would benefit from a multicenter, possibly international trial, involving parents of children with PCG and with a follow-up of at least one year.
Amblyopia refers to visual impairment resulting from perturbations in visual experience during visual development, typically secondary to strabismus, uncorrected refractive error, and/or deprivation. Amblyopia has traditionally been considered a cortical disease, but the depth of our understanding of this complex neurodevelopmental condition is limited by our ability to appreciate structural pathophysiology in the visual pathway. Recent advances in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have facilitated numerous studies of the structural changes in the retina and optic nerve, thereby expanding our appreciation for the pathogenesis of this condition. In this review, we summarize findings from studies evaluating retinal, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness changes in patients with amblyopia. Focusing on the largest and most recent studies, we discuss common limitations and confounding variables in these studies. We summarize recent advances in ocular imaging technology and reconcile the findings of early histological reports with those of structural OCT in amblyopia.
A genomic region located on chromosome 9p21 is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma in genome-wide association studies. The genomic region contains the gene for a long noncoding RNA called CDKN2B-AS, two genes that code for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A and 2B (CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) and CDKN2B/p15(INK4B)) and an additional protein (p14(ARF)). We used a transgenic mouse model in which 70 kb of murine chromosome 4, syntenic to human chromosome 9p21, are deleted to study whether this deletion leads to a discernible phenotype in ocular structures implicated in glaucoma. Homozygous mice of this strain were previously reported to show persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography confirmed that finding but showed no abnormalities for heterozygous mice. Optokinetic response, eletroretinogram, and histology indicated that the heterozygous and mutant retinas were normal functionally and morphologically, whereas glial cells were activated in the retina and optic nerve head of mutant eyes. In quantitative PCR, CDKN2B expression was reduced by approximately 50% in the heterozygous mice and by 90% in the homozygous mice, which suggested that the CDKN2B knock down had no deleterious consequences for the retina under normal conditions. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous animals, the homozygous mice are more vulnerable to retinal ganglion cell loss in response to elevated intraocular pressure.