Glaucoma

L
Lu SY, Rong SS, Wu Z, Huang C, Matsushita K, Ng TK, Leung CKS, Kawashima R, Usui S, Tam POS, Tsujikawa M, Young AL, Zhang M, Wiggs JL, Nishida K, Tham CC, Pang CP, Chen LJ. Association of the CAV1-CAV2 locus with normal-tension glaucoma in Chinese and Japanese. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020;48(5):658-665.Abstract
BACKGROUND: The CAV1-CAV2 locus has been associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and intraocular pressure. However, its association with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) was inconclusive. Therefore, we evaluated this association in Chinese and Japanese. METHODS: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs4236601 and rs1052990) from previous genome-wide association studies of POAG were genotyped in a total of 2220 study subjects: a Hong Kong Chinese cohort of 537 NTG patients and 490 controls, a Shantou Chinese cohort of 102 NTG and 731 controls and an Osaka Japanese cohort of 153 NTG and 207 controls. Subgroup analysis by gender was conducted. Outcomes from different cohorts were combined using meta-analysis. RESULTS: SNP rs4236601 was significantly associated with NTG in the two Chinese cohorts (P = .0019, OR = 4.55, I = 0). In contrast, rs4236601 was monomorphic in the Osaka cohort. The association of rs1052990 was insignificant in a meta-analysis combining Chinese and Japanese cohorts (P = .81, OR = 1.05; I = 64%), and the OR tended towards opposite directions between Chinese (OR = 1.26) and Japanese (OR = 0.69). Gender-specific effects of the SNPs were not statistically significant in the logistic regression or Breslow-day tests of ORs (P > .05), although rs4236601 was significant in males (P = .0068; OR = 10.30) but not in females (P = .14; OR = 2.65) in the meta-analysis of Chinese subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we confirmed the association of rs4236601 at the CAV1-CAV2 locus with NTG in Chinese. SNP rs4236601 is monomorphic, and rs1052990 tends towards a different direction in the Japanese cohort. Further studies are warranted to verify the ethnic difference and gender-specific effects of this locus.
Lye-Barthel M, Sun D, Jakobs TC. Morphology of astrocytes in a glaucomatous optic nerve. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(2):909-17.Abstract
PURPOSE: To establish the morphologic changes of astrocytes in the glial lamina of glaucomatous mice. METHODS: A strain of mice that expresses GFP in individual astrocytes (hGFAPpr-GFP) was crossed into the DBA/2J strain that develops glaucoma. In the resulting strain (D2.hGFAPpr-GFP) we assessed the severity of glaucoma by staining the retina for neurofilaments and counting the neurons of the retinal ganglion cell layer. We observed the morphology of astrocytes in the glial lamina of the optic nerves. RESULTS: D2.hGFAPpr-GFP mice developed glaucoma in an age-dependent manner. Astrocytes in the glial lamina showed morphologic changes that correlated with the severity of glaucoma. The cells showed thickening of processes from 1.3 ± 0.28 μm in nondiseased animals to 1.71 ± 0.46 μm in eyes with moderate glaucoma and 2.1 ± 0.42 μm in those with severe glaucoma. Their spatial coverage, as determined by their convex polygon area, was reduced in eyes with severe glaucoma. The astrocytes in severely glaucomatous optic nerves also showed simplification of their processes. In 6-month-old mice with no obvious signs of degeneration in the retina, we found astrocytes with appendages growing out of primary astrocyte processes into the axon bundles. This localized hypertrophy of processes was never observed in the hGFAPpr-GFP strain. CONCLUSIONS: Confirming results after optic nerve crush, astrocytes in glaucomatous optic nerves had thickened and simplified processes, and reduced spatial coverage. We also found evidence of localized sprouting of new processes in early stages of the disease, before detectable changes in ganglion cell number.
M
Marando CM, Mansouri K, Kahook MY, Seibold LK. Tolerability and Functionality of a Wireless 24-Hour Ocular Telemetry Sensor in African American Glaucoma Patients. J Glaucoma 2019;28(2):119-124.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tolerability and functionality of a wireless ocular telemetry sensor in African American patients with glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study, 20 African American patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) were evaluated at the University of Colorado Eye Center. Before lens placement, patients recorded ocular comfort and underwent a baseline eye exam. Following the exam, patients were fitted with a SENSIMED Triggerfish contact lens sensor and data recording device. Patients were sent home and instructed to record their activities in a journal and return in 24 hours. Repeat exams were performed at various time points in clinic before and after lens removal. RESULTS: All 20 patients retained the lens for the 24-hour study period. The patient reported comfort was excellent, with a nadir of mean recorded comfort of 7.05/10. Significant clinical changes were noted in lid/conjunctival erythema, BCVA, refraction, and pachymetry over the course of lens wear. The majority of these changes were improved or resolved by 1 hour after lens removal. Voltage output was significantly greater nocturnally than diurnally (184.79 mV and 71.48 mV, respectively; P<0.0001). There was no significant change in signal variability or slope over the entire duration of the sleep/wake period based on sleep. CONCLUSIONS: The wireless ocular sensor is well tolerated over a 24-hour period in African American patients with POAG despite transient changes in visual acuity and conjunctival erythema. Clinically usable 24-hour profiles were generated for all patients, with voltage output increasing significantly during periods of sleep.
Margeta MA, Lad EM, Proia AD. CD163+ macrophages infiltrate axon bundles of postmortem optic nerves with glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018;256(12):2449-2456.Abstract
PURPOSE: Prior research in animal models has shown that macrophages and microglia play an important role in pathogenesis of glaucoma, but the phenotype and distribution of macrophages in human glaucomatous tissue have not been sufficiently characterized. METHODS: We analyzed H&E, CD68-, and CD163-immunostained slides from 25 formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy eyes: 12 control eyes and 13 eyes with glaucoma. The diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on a history of glaucoma as reported in the medical record and histological changes characteristic of glaucoma. Glaucoma cases and controls were matched in terms of age, sex, and race. RESULTS: Qualitative analysis of the conventional outflow pathway and the optic nerve revealed that all eyes contained CD163+ cells but a negligible number of CD68+ cells. CD163+ macrophages infiltrated the trabecular meshwork and surrounded Schlemm's canal of normal eyes and eyes with glaucoma, but the pattern was variable and qualitatively similar between groups. In optic nerves of control eyes, CD163+ macrophages were present at low levels and restricted to septa between axon bundles. In glaucomatous optic nerves, the number of CD163+ cells was increased both qualitatively and quantitatively (glaucoma 5.1 ± 0.6 CD163+ cells/mm, control 2.5 ± 0.3 CD163+ cells/mm, p < 0.001), with CD163+ cells infiltrating axon bundles in cases of both mild and severe diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in CD163+ cell number in eyes with mild and severe glaucoma is the first demonstration of macrophage infiltration in glaucomatous human optic nerves. This finding supports a role for macrophages in glaucoma pathogenesis and progression.
Marra KV, Wagley S, Omar A, Kinoshita T, Kovacs KD, Silva P, Kuperwaser MC, Arroyo JG. Case-matched comparison of vitrectomy, peripheral retinal endolaser, and endocyclophotocoagulation versus standard care in neovascular glaucoma. Retina 2015;35(6):1072-83.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combination pars plana vitrectomy, endoscopic peripheral panretinal photocoagulation, and endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) as compared with standard care in patients with neovascular glaucoma. METHODS: This age-matched case-controlled retrospective series of 54 eyes compared the clinical outcomes between a consecutive series of combination pars plana vitrectomy/panretinal photocoagulation/ECP (n = 27) versus the current standard of care (n = 27) for patients with neovascular glaucoma. "Standard" treatments for patients with neovascular glaucoma include panretinal photocoagulation, intravitreal bevacizumab, filtration surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, and Ahmed valve placement. RESULTS: After 1 year, mean intraocular pressure reduced from 40.7 ± 12.40 mmHg preoperatively to 12.3 ± 4.84 mmHg (P < 0.001) in the ECP group and from 34.7 ± 12.38 mmHg to 23.2 ± 12.34 mmHg in the control group (P = 0.002). Compared with controls, the mean drop in intraocular pressure in the ECP group was significantly greater at all postoperative visits. Logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity outcomes were similar in both groups. There were 2 cases (7.4%) of postoperative phthisis bulbi in each group. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic pars plana vitrectomy, panretinal photocoagulation, and ECP seem to control intraocular pressure to a greater extent than standard glaucoma treatments in patients with neovascular glaucoma. In this aged-matched comparative case series, there was no significant difference between the two treatments' effects on visual acuity.

Mayro EL, Wang M, Elze T, Pasquale LR. The impact of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Eye (Lond) 2020;34(1):1-11.Abstract
Deep learning (DL) is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI), which uses multilayer neural networks modelled after the mammalian visual cortex capable of synthesizing images in ways that will transform the field of glaucoma. Autonomous DL algorithms are capable of maximizing information embedded in digital fundus photographs and ocular coherence tomographs to outperform ophthalmologists in disease detection. Other unsupervised algorithms such as principal component analysis (axis learning) and archetypal analysis (corner learning) facilitate visual field interpretation and show great promise to detect functional glaucoma progression and differentiate it from non-glaucomatous changes when compared with conventional software packages. Forecasting tools such as the Kalman filter may revolutionize glaucoma management by accounting for a host of factors to set target intraocular pressure goals that preserve vision. Activation maps generated from DL algorithms that process glaucoma data have the potential to efficiently direct our attention to critical data elements embedded in high throughput data and enhance our understanding of the glaucomatous process. It is hoped that AI will realize more accurate assessment of the copious data encountered in glaucoma management, improving our understanding of the disease, preserving vision, and serving to enhance the deep bonds that patients develop with their treating physicians.
McLaurin E, Cavet ME, Gomes PJ, Ciolino JB. Brimonidine Ophthalmic Solution 0.025% for Reduction of Ocular Redness: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Optom Vis Sci 2018;95(3):264-271.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine has been reported to induce conjunctival blanching in cataract, strabismus, laser refractive, and filtration procedures. Clinicians are often faced with red eyes with no apparent underlying pathology. Low-dose brimonidine reduced ocular redness in such subjects with efficacy maintained over 1 month and negligible rebound redness. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution 0.025% for the treatment of ocular redness. METHODS: In this single-center, double-masked, phase 3 clinical trial, adult subjects with baseline redness of more than 1 unit in both eyes (0- to 4-unit scale) were randomized 2:1 to brimonidine 0.025% or vehicle. A single dose was administered in-office (day 1); thereafter subjects instilled treatment four times a day for 4 weeks, with clinic visits on days 15, 29, and 36 (7 days post-treatment). Efficacy end points included investigator-evaluated redness 5 to 240 minutes post-instillation on day 1 (primary); investigator-evaluated change from baseline 1, 360, and 480 minutes post-instillation on day 1, and 1 and 5 minutes post-instillation on days 15 and 29; total clearance of redness, and subject-assessed redness. Safety/tolerability measures included adverse events, rebound redness, and drop comfort. RESULTS: Sixty subjects were randomized (n = 40 brimonidine, n = 20 vehicle). Investigator-assessed redness was lower with brimonidine versus vehicle over the 5- to 240-minute post-instillation period (mean [SE], 0.62 [0.076] vs. 1.49 [0.108]; P < .0001) and at each time point within that period (P < .0001). At 1, 360, and 480 minutes post-instillation, respectively, the mean differences (95% confidence interval) between treatments were -0.73 (-1.05 to -0.41), -0.57 (-0.84 to -0.29), and -0.39 (-0.67 to -0.10), respectively. No tachyphylaxis was evident with brimonidine on days 15 and 29, and minimal rebound redness was observed following discontinuation. Adverse events were infrequent, and brimonidine was rated as very comfortable. CONCLUSIONS: Brimonidine 0.025% appeared safe and effective for reduction of ocular redness, with an 8-hour duration of action, no evidence of tachyphylaxis, and negligible rebound redness.
Mihailovic A, Varadaraj V, Ramulu PY, Friedman DS. Evaluating Goldmann Applanation Tonometry Intraocular Pressure Measurement Agreement Between Ophthalmic Technicians and Physicians. Am J Ophthalmol 2020;219:170-176.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine IOP measurement disagreement between technicians and physicians and the impact of an educational intervention on the short and long-term disagreement in IOP measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. DESIGN: Prospective study designed to enhance measurement reliability. SETTING: A glaucoma clinic at a university hospital. StudyPopulation: 6 technicians and 2 physicians. INTERVENTION: An educational intervention was implemented for the technicians to improve IOP measurement agreement with physicians. MainOutcomeMeasures: Frequency of IOP measurement disagreement between physicians and technicians, defined as a difference in IOP of >2 or >3 mm Hg and assessed at baseline and immediately and 6 months postintervention. RESULTS: IOP was evaluated for a total of 529 eyes (physician measured mean IOP = 16.4 mm Hg [SD = 5.9]), 30 per technician-physician pair for each data collection period: baseline, immediately postintervention and 6 months postintervention. At baseline, physicians disagreed 17% and 7% of the time when measuring IOP using >2 and >3 mm Hg to define disagreement, respectively, whereas the average disagreement between technicians and physicians was 25% and 13%. Disagreement was greater at IOPs greater than 20 mm Hg. No significant changes were noted in the frequency of disagreement between technicians and physicians immediately or 6 months postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: Two physicians measuring the same patient in the same room disagreed by >2 mm Hg in 17% of patients' eyes, and this amount of disagreement was even higher when comparing physicians to certified technicians. An educational intervention did not improve agreement in IOP measurements between technicians and physicians. This highlights an important limitation of Goldmann tonometry.
Mihlstin M, Juzych MS, Kromrei HT, Hwang FS, Yin J. Resident Compliance With the American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Suspect. J Glaucoma 2016;25(12):963-967.Abstract

PURPOSE: To study resident compliance with the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for primary open-angle glaucoma suspect (POAGS) in a resident ophthalmology clinic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred charts were selected for analysis of adult patients with the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis code for POAGS during their initial visit between November 2, 2010 and May 6, 2014 at the Kresge Eye Institute resident clinic. Electronic medical records of clinic visits for POAGS patients were evaluated for documentation and compliance with 17 elements of AAO PPPs. RESULTS: The overall mean compliance was 73.8% for all charts (n=200), 74.4% for first-year residents (n=53), 74.5% for second-year residents (n=38), and 73.3% for third-year residents (n=109). Documentation rates were high (>90%) for 9 elements, which included most elements of physical examination and history. Documentation of ocular history, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer analysis, and visual field ranged from 40% to 80%. Documentation was lowest for patient education elements which ranged from 0% to 10%. Compliance was not significantly different (P>0.05) between residents or between different resident years for any element. CONCLUSIONS: Residents' compliance was high for most elements of the PPPs for POAGS. We identified elements with poor compliance especially regarding patient education. Adherence to AAO PPPs can be a helpful method of assessing resident performance.

Murphy RM, Bakir B, O'Brien C, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. Drug-induced Bilateral Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma: A Literature Synthesis. J Glaucoma 2016;25(2):e99-e105.Abstract

PURPOSE: We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG). METHODS: Systematic PubMed literature review identified relevant bilateral 2° ACG case reports. We evaluated these reports with both the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to assess the causality of reported drug reactions and a 2° ACG scale scoring system we developed to determine the likelihood that the event represented bilateral 2° ACG. Two independent graders performed these analyses and their scores were averaged for interpretation. The Naranjo scale ranges from -4 to +13 and the drug reaction was considered definite if the score was ≥9, probable if 5 to 8, possible if 1 to 4, and doubtful if ≤0. The 2° ACG score ranges from 0 to 7. We considered a 2° ACG score of ≥4 as evidence of significant likelihood that the drug reaction represented bilateral 2° ACG. RESULTS: No drug had a definite Naranjo score, but the following drug entities had probable Naranjo scores and 2° ACG scores ≥4: acetazolamide, "anorexiant mix," bupropion, cabergoline, "ecstasy," escitalopram, flavoxate, flucloxacillin, hydrochlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, mefenamic acid, methazolamide, oseltamivir, topiramate, topiramate/bactrim, and venlafaxine. Root chemical analysis revealed that sulfur-containing and non-sulfur-containing compounds contributed to bilateral 2° ACG. CONCLUSIONS: Several compound preparations were implicated in drug-induced bilateral 2° ACG. Treating physicians should be aware that some forms of recreational drug use, which the patient may not admit to, could contribute to this vision-threatening side effect.

N
Newman-Casey PA, Talwar N, Nan B, Musch DC, Pasquale LR, Stein JD. The potential association between postmenopausal hormone use and primary open-angle glaucoma. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014;132(3):298-303.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Retinal ganglion cells are known to express estrogen receptors and prior studies have suggested an association between postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use and decreased intraocular pressure, suggesting that PMH use may decrease the risk for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of 3 different classes of PMH affects the risk for POAG. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of claims data from women 50 years or older enrolled in a US managed-care plan for at least 4 years in which enrollees had at least 2 visits to an eye care provider during the period 2001 through 2009. EXPOSURE: Postmenopausal hormone medications containing estrogen only, estrogen + progesterone, and estrogen + androgen, as captured from outpatient pharmacy claims over a 4-year period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing incident POAG. RESULTS: Of 152,163 eligible enrollees, 2925 (1.9%) developed POAG. After adjustment for confounding factors, each additional month of use of PMH containing estrogen only was associated with a 0.4% reduced risk for POAG (HR, 0.996 [95% CI, 0.993-0.999]; P = .02). The risk for POAG did not differ with each additional month of use of estrogen + progesterone (HR, 0.994 [95% CI, 0.987-1.001]; P = .08) or estrogen + androgen (HR, 0.999 [95% CI, 0.988-1.011]; P = .89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Use of PMH preparations containing estrogen may help reduce the risk for POAG. If prospective studies confirm the findings of this analysis, novel treatments for this sight-threatening condition may follow.
Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Wang W, Nwanaji-Enwerem O, Vokonas P, Baccarelli A, Weisskopf M, Herndon LW, Wiggs JL, Park SK, Schwartz J. Association of Long-term Ambient Black Carbon Exposure and Oxidative Stress Allelic Variants With Intraocular Pressure in Older Men. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Importance: Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Environmental air pollution has been suggested as a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure; however, no studies have demonstrated such an association to date. Objective: To investigate the association of long-term ambient black carbon exposure with intraocular pressure in community-dwelling older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based analysis, conducted from October 18, 2017, through March 22, 2018, used data from the all-male, New England-based Normative Aging Study of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. The analysis included 419 older men with a total of 911 follow-up study visits between January 1, 2000, and December 30, 2011. Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry during the study visits. Validated spatiotemporal models were used to generate 1-year black carbon exposure levels at the addresses of the participants. Main Outcomes and Measures: An independently developed genetic score approach was used to calculate allelic risk scores for 3 pathways associated with black carbon toxicity: endothelial function, oxidative stress, and metal processing. The associations among black carbon exposure, allelic risk scores, and intraocular pressure were explored using linear mixed-effects models. Results: All 419 participants were men with a mean (SD) age of 75.3 (6.9) years. The mean (SD) 1-year black carbon exposure was 0.51 (0.18) μg/m3, and the mean (SD) intraocular pressure for the left eye was 14.1 (2.8) mm Hg and for the right eye was 14.1 (3.0) mm Hg. Of the 911 visits, 520 (57.1%) had a high endothelial function allelic risk score, 644 (70.7%) had a high metal-processing allelic risk score, and 623 (68.4%) had a high oxidative stress allelic risk score. In fully adjusted linear mixed-effects models, the association of black carbon with intraocular pressure was greater in individuals with a high oxidative stress allelic score (β = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.003-0.73) compared with individuals with a low score (β = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.86 to 0.15). Conclusions and Relevance: Ambient black carbon exposure may be a risk factor for increased intraocular pressure in individuals susceptible to other biological oxidative stressors. If additional studies confirm these results, monitoring ambient black carbon exposure and physiological oxidative stress may prevent the development and progression of intraocular pressure-related disease.
O
Oh D-J, Kang MH, Ooi YH, Choi KR, Sage HE, Rhee DJ. Overexpression of SPARC in human trabecular meshwork increases intraocular pressure and alters extracellular matrix. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(5):3309-19.Abstract
PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation is largely unknown. SPARC-null mice demonstrate a lower IOP resulting from increased outflow. SPARC is a matricellular protein often associated with fibrosis. We hypothesized that SPARC overexpression would alter IOP by affecting extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and/or turnover in the trabecular meshwork (TM). METHODS: An adenoviral vector containing human SPARC was used to increase SPARC expression in human TM endothelial cells and perfused human anterior segments using multiplicities of infection (MOIs) 25 or 50. Total RNA from TM was used for quantitative PCR, while protein from cell lysates and conditioned media were used for immunoblot analyses and zymography. After completion of perfusion, the anterior segments were fixed, sectioned, and examined by light and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: SPARC overexpression increased the IOP of perfused human anterior segments. Fibronectin and collagens IV and I protein levels were elevated in both TM cell cultures and within the juxtacanalicular (JCT) region of perfused anterior segments. Collagen VI and laminin protein levels were increased in TM cell cultures but not in perfused anterior segments. The protein levels of pro-MMP-9 decreased while the kinetic inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 protein levels, increased at MOI 25. At MOI 50, the protein levels of pro-MMP-1, -3, and -9 also decreased while PAI-1 and TIMP-1 and -3 increased. Only MMP-9 activity was decreased on zymography. mRNA levels of the collagens, fibronectin, and laminin were not affected by SPARC overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC overexpression increases IOP in perfused cadaveric human anterior segments resulting from a qualitative change the JCT ECM. Selective decrease of MMP-9 activity is likely part of the mechanism. SPARC is a regulatory node for IOP.
Ojha P, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. The genetics of intraocular pressure. Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28(5-6):301-5.Abstract
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, yet there is little known about the molecular events that regulate IOP. Genetic and genomic studies have helped identify genes that influence IOP and could lead to the identification of biological pathways that serve as targets for novel pressure-modifying therapies. Genetic linkage studies resulted in the identification of several genes that cause Mendelian (autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive) forms of high-pressure glaucoma, including MYOC. PITX2, FOXC1, and CYP1B1. Classical twin studies suggest that IOP is a heritable trait. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that common genetic variants in the GAS7 and TMCO1 genomic regions are associated with elevated IOP. TMCO1 has also been associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with advanced disease. A further study identifying additional genes contributing to IOP will be necessary to fully define the underlying genetic architecture of IOP.
Ong AY, Ng SM, Vedula SS, Friedman DS. Lens extraction for chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021;3:CD005555.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is characterized by a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) secondary to aqueous outflow obstruction, with relative pupillary block being the most common underlying mechanism. There is increasing evidence that lens extraction may relieve pupillary block and thereby improve IOP control. As such, comparing the effectiveness of lens extraction against other commonly used treatment modalities can help inform the decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of lens extraction compared with other interventions in the treatment of chronic PACG in people without previous acute angle-closure attacks. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, one other database, and two trials registers (December 2019). We also screened the reference lists of included studies and the Science Citation Index database. We had no date or language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing lens extraction with other treatment modalities for chronic PACG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs with 914 eyes. We obtained data for participants meeting our inclusion criteria for these studies (PACG only, no previous acute angle-closure attacks), resulting in 513 eyes included in this review. The participants were recruited from a diverse range of countries. We were unable to conduct meta-analyses due to different follow-up periods and insufficient data. One study compared phacoemulsification with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) as standard care. Participants in the phacoemulsification group were less likely to experience progression of visual field loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13 to 0.91; 216 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and required fewer IOP-lowering medications (mean difference [MD] -0.70, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.51; 263 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared with standard care at 12 months. Moderate certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later (MD -84.93, 95% CI -131.25 to -38.61; 106 eyes). There was little to no difference in health-related quality of life measures (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.24; 254 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and visual acuity (VA) (MD 2.03 ETDRS letter, 95% CI -0.77 to 4.84; 242 eyes) at 12 months, and no observable difference in mean IOP (MD -0.03mmHg, 95% CI -2.34 to 2.32; 257 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared to standard care. Irreversible loss of vision was observed in one participant in the phacoemulsification group, and three participants in standard care at 36 months (moderate-certainty evidence). One study (91 eyes) compared phacoemulsification with phaco-viscogonioplasty (phaco-VGP). Low-certainty evidence suggested that fewer IOP-lowering medications were needed at 12 months with phacoemulsification (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.05). Low-certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification may have improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later compared to phaco-VGP (angle grading MD -0.60, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.29; TISA500 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; TISA750 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; 91 eyes). Phacoemulsification may result in little to no difference in best corrected VA at 12 months (MD -0.01 log MAR units, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.08; low certainty evidence), and the evidence is very uncertain about its effect on IOP at 12 months (MD 0.50 mmHg, 95% CI -2.64 to 3.64; very low certainty evidence). Postoperative fibrin reaction was observed in two participants in the phacoemulsification group and four in the phaco-VGP group. Three participants in the phaco-VGP group experienced hyphema. No data were available for progression of visual field loss and quality of life measurements at 12 months. Two studies compared phacoemulsification with phaco-goniosynechialysis (phaco-GSL). Low-certainty evidence suggested that there may be little to no difference in mean IOP at 12 months (MD -0.12 mmHg, 95% CI -4.72 to 4.48; 1 study, 32 eyes) between the interventions. Phacoemulsification did not reduce the number of IOP-lowering medications compared to phaco-GSL at 12 months (MD -0.38, 95% CI -1.23 to 0.47; 1 study, 32 eyes; moderate certainty evidence). Three eyes in the phaco-GSL group developed hyphemas. No data were available at 12 months for progression of visual field loss, gonioscopic findings, visual acuity, and quality of life measures. Three studies compared phacoemulsification with combined phaco-trabeculectomy, but the data were only available for one study (63 eyes). In this study, low-certainty evidence suggested that there was little to no difference between groups in mean change in IOP from baseline (MD -0.60 mmHg, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.79), number of IOP-lowering medications at 12 months (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.42), and VA measured by the Snellen chart (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.12). Participants in the phacoemulsification group had fewer complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.04), and the phaco-trabeculectomy group required more IOP-lowering procedures (RR 5.81, 95% CI 1.41 to 23.88), but the evidence was very uncertain. No data were available for other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence showed that lens extraction has an advantage over LPI in treating chronic PACG with clear crystalline lenses over three years of follow-up; ultimately, the decision for intervention should be part of a shared decision-making process between the clinician and the patient. For people with chronic PACG and visually significant cataracts, low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with either viscogonioplasty or goniosynechialysis does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone. There was insufficient evidence to draw any meaningful conclusions regarding phacoemulsification versus trabeculectomy. Low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone, and may cause more complications instead. These conclusions only apply to short- to medium-term outcomes; studies with longer follow-up periods can help assess whether these effects persist in the long term.
Oswald J, Kegeles E, Minelli T, Volchkov P, Baranov P. Transplantation of miPSC/mESC-derived retinal ganglion cells into healthy and glaucomatous retinas. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021;21:180-198.Abstract
Optic neuropathies, including glaucoma, are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. While previous studies demonstrated the potential to replace RGCs with primary neurons from developing mouse retinas, their use is limited clinically. We demonstrate successful transplantation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (miPSC)/mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived RGCs into healthy and glaucomatous mouse retinas, at a success rate exceeding 65% and a donor cell survival window of up to 12 months. Transplanted Thy1-GFP+ RGCs were able to polarize within the host retina and formed axonal processes that followed host axons along the retinal surface and entered the optic nerve head. RNA sequencing of donor RGCs re-isolated from host retinas at 24 h and 1 week post-transplantation showed upregulation of cellular pathways mediating axonal outgrowth, extension, and guidance. Additionally, we provide evidence of subtype-specific diversity within miPSC-derived RGCs prior to transplantation.
P
Pan BX, Margeta MA. Elevated Intraocular Pressure in a Young Man With a History of Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;
of Partnership GES, Li Z, Wang Z, Lee MC, Zenkel M, Peh E, Ozaki M, Topouzis F, Nakano S, Chan A, Chen S, Williams SEI, Orr A, Nakano M, Kobakhidze N, Zarnowski T, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Mizoguchi T, Manabe S-I, Hayashi K, Kazama S, Inoue K, Mori Y, Miyata K, Sugiyama K, Higashide T, Chihara E, Ideta R, Ishiko S, Yoshida A, Tokumo K, Kiuchi Y, Ohashi T, Sakurai T, Sugimoto T, Chuman H, Aihara M, Inatani M, Mori K, Ikeda Y, Ueno M, Gaston D, Rafuse P, Shuba L, Saunders J, Nicolela M, Chichua G, Tabagari S, Founti P, Sim KS, Meah WY, Soo HM, Chen XY, Chatzikyriakidou A, Keskini C, Pappas T, Anastasopoulos E, Lambropoulos A, Panagiotou ES, Mikropoulos DG, Kosior-Jarecka E, Cheong A, Li Y, Lukasik U, Nongpiur ME, Husain R, Perera SA, Álvarez L, García M, González-Iglesias H, Cueto AFV, Cueto LFV, Martinón-Torres F, Salas A, Oguz Ç, Tamcelik N, Atalay E, Batu B, Irkec M, Aktas D, Kasim B, Astakhov YS, Astakhov SY, Akopov EL, Giessl A, Mardin C, Hellerbrand C, Cooke Bailey JN, Igo RP, Haines JL, Edward DP, Heegaard S, Davila S, Tan P, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Kruse FE, Reis A, Carmichael TR, Hauser M, Ramsay M, Mossböck G, Yildirim N, Tashiro K, Konstas AGP, Coca-Prados M, Foo JN, Kinoshita S, Sotozono C, Kubota T, Dubina M, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Pasutto F, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Ho YS, Aung T, Tam WL, Khor CC. Association of Rare CYP39A1 Variants With Exfoliation Syndrome Involving the Anterior Chamber of the Eye. JAMA 2021;325(8):753-764.Abstract
Importance: Exfoliation syndrome is a systemic disorder characterized by progressive accumulation of abnormal fibrillar protein aggregates manifesting clinically in the anterior chamber of the eye. This disorder is the most commonly known cause of glaucoma and a major cause of irreversible blindness. Objective: To determine if exfoliation syndrome is associated with rare, protein-changing variants predicted to impair protein function. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 2-stage, case-control, whole-exome sequencing association study with a discovery cohort and 2 independently ascertained validation cohorts. Study participants from 14 countries were enrolled between February 1999 and December 2019. The date of last clinical follow-up was December 2019. Affected individuals had exfoliation material on anterior segment structures of at least 1 eye as visualized by slit lamp examination. Unaffected individuals had no signs of exfoliation syndrome. Exposures: Rare, coding-sequence genetic variants predicted to be damaging by bioinformatic algorithms trained to recognize alterations that impair protein function. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the presence of exfoliation syndrome. Exome-wide significance for detected variants was defined as P < 2.5 × 10-6. The secondary outcomes included biochemical enzymatic assays and gene expression analyses. Results: The discovery cohort included 4028 participants with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 78 years [interquartile range, 73-83 years]; 2377 [59.0%] women) and 5638 participants without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years [interquartile range, 65-78 years]; 3159 [56.0%] women). In the discovery cohort, persons with exfoliation syndrome, compared with those without exfoliation syndrome, were significantly more likely to carry damaging CYP39A1 variants (1.3% vs 0.30%, respectively; odds ratio, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.07-6.10]; P = 6.1 × 10-7). This outcome was validated in 2 independent cohorts. The first validation cohort included 2337 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 1132 women; n = 1934 with demographic data) and 2813 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years; 1287 women; n = 2421 with demographic data). The second validation cohort included 1663 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 75 years; 587 women; n = 1064 with demographic data) and 3962 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 951 women; n = 1555 with demographic data). Of the individuals from both validation cohorts, 5.2% with exfoliation syndrome carried CYP39A1 damaging alleles vs 3.1% without exfoliation syndrome (odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.26]; P < .001). Biochemical assays classified 34 of 42 damaging CYP39A1 alleles as functionally deficient (median reduction in enzymatic activity compared with wild-type CYP39A1, 94.4% [interquartile range, 78.7%-98.2%] for the 34 deficient variants). CYP39A1 transcript expression was 47% lower (95% CI, 30%-64% lower; P < .001) in ciliary body tissues from individuals with exfoliation syndrome compared with individuals without exfoliation syndrome. Conclusions and Relevance: In this whole-exome sequencing case-control study, presence of exfoliation syndrome was significantly associated with carriage of functionally deficient CYP39A1 sequence variants. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications of these findings.
Pasquale LR, Hanyuda A, Ren A, Giovingo M, Greenstein SH, Cousins C, Patrianakos T, Tanna AP, Wanderling C, Norkett W, Wiggs JL, Green K, Kang JH, Knepper PA. Nailfold Capillary Abnormalities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multisite Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(12):7021-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: There is considerable evidence for systemic vascular dysfunction in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed nailfold capillary video microscopy to observe directly the nature of nonocular microvasculature abnormalities in POAG. METHODS: We enrolled 199 POAG patients and 124 control subjects from four sites. We used JH-1004 capillaroscopes to perform nailfold capillary video microscopy on the fourth and fifth digits of each subject's nondominant hand. Videos were evaluated for hemorrhages, dilated capillary loops > 50 μm, and avascular zones > 100 μm by graders masked to case status. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POAG were obtained by means of logistic regression analyses that were applied to data from all cases and controls. Corresponding estimates of moderate or severe POAG versus mild POAG (based on the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish scale) were obtained among cases only. RESULTS: After controlling for demographic factors, family history of glaucoma, systemic diseases, and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, for each 100 nailfold capillaries assessed, all types of microvascular abnormalities were significantly associated with POAG. Specifically, the presence of any dilated capillaries (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.6), avascular zones (OR = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.3) and hemorrhages (OR = 12.2; 95% CI, 5.9-25.1) were associated with POAG. Among cases, the frequency of microvascular abnormalities was not associated with glaucoma severity (P ≥ 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: These data provided support for nonocular capillary bed abnormalities in POAG. Comparable vascular abnormalities in the optic nerve may render it susceptible to glaucomatous damage.

Pasquale LR, Loomis SJ, Weinreb RN, Kang JH, Yaspan BL, Bailey JC, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Lee RK, Scott WK, Lichter PR, Budenz DL, Liu Y, Realini T, Friedman DS, McCarty CA, Moroi SE, Olson L, Schuman JS, Singh K, Vollrath D, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Brilliant M, Sit AJ, Christen WG, Fingert J, Kraft P, Zhang K, Allingham RR, Pericak-Vance MA, Richards JE, Hauser MA, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. Estrogen pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open angle glaucoma: an analysis accounting for gender from the United States. Mol Vis 2013;19:1471-81.Abstract
PURPOSE: Circulating estrogen levels are relevant in glaucoma phenotypic traits. We assessed the association between an estrogen metabolism single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), accounting for gender. METHODS: We included 3,108 POAG cases and 3,430 controls of both genders from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium genotyped on the Illumina 660W-Quad platform. We assessed the relation between the SNP panels representative of estrogen metabolism and POAG using pathway- and gene-based approaches with the Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure (PARIS) software. PARIS executes a permutation algorithm to assess statistical significance relative to the pathways and genes of comparable genetic architecture. These analyses were performed using the meta-analyzed results from the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR data sets. We evaluated POAG overall as well as two subtypes of POAG defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥22 mmHg (high-pressure glaucoma [HPG]) or IOP <22 mmHg (normal pressure glaucoma [NPG]) at diagnosis. We conducted these analyses for each gender separately and then jointly in men and women. RESULTS: Among women, the estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG overall (permuted p=0.006) and HPG (permuted p<0.001) but not NPG (permuted p=0.09). Interestingly, there was no relation between the estrogen SNP pathway and POAG when men were considered alone (permuted p>0.99). Among women, gene-based analyses revealed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene showed strong associations with HTG (permuted gene p≤0.001) and NPG (permuted gene p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG among women.

Pages