Glaucoma

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Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Wang W, Nwanaji-Enwerem O, Vokonas P, Baccarelli A, Weisskopf M, Herndon LW, Wiggs JL, Park SK, Schwartz J. Association of Long-term Ambient Black Carbon Exposure and Oxidative Stress Allelic Variants With Intraocular Pressure in Older Men. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;Abstract
Importance: Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Environmental air pollution has been suggested as a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure; however, no studies have demonstrated such an association to date. Objective: To investigate the association of long-term ambient black carbon exposure with intraocular pressure in community-dwelling older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based analysis, conducted from October 18, 2017, through March 22, 2018, used data from the all-male, New England-based Normative Aging Study of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. The analysis included 419 older men with a total of 911 follow-up study visits between January 1, 2000, and December 30, 2011. Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry during the study visits. Validated spatiotemporal models were used to generate 1-year black carbon exposure levels at the addresses of the participants. Main Outcomes and Measures: An independently developed genetic score approach was used to calculate allelic risk scores for 3 pathways associated with black carbon toxicity: endothelial function, oxidative stress, and metal processing. The associations among black carbon exposure, allelic risk scores, and intraocular pressure were explored using linear mixed-effects models. Results: All 419 participants were men with a mean (SD) age of 75.3 (6.9) years. The mean (SD) 1-year black carbon exposure was 0.51 (0.18) μg/m3, and the mean (SD) intraocular pressure for the left eye was 14.1 (2.8) mm Hg and for the right eye was 14.1 (3.0) mm Hg. Of the 911 visits, 520 (57.1%) had a high endothelial function allelic risk score, 644 (70.7%) had a high metal-processing allelic risk score, and 623 (68.4%) had a high oxidative stress allelic risk score. In fully adjusted linear mixed-effects models, the association of black carbon with intraocular pressure was greater in individuals with a high oxidative stress allelic score (β = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.003-0.73) compared with individuals with a low score (β = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.86 to 0.15). Conclusions and Relevance: Ambient black carbon exposure may be a risk factor for increased intraocular pressure in individuals susceptible to other biological oxidative stressors. If additional studies confirm these results, monitoring ambient black carbon exposure and physiological oxidative stress may prevent the development and progression of intraocular pressure-related disease.
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Oh D-J, Kang MH, Ooi YH, Choi KR, Sage HE, Rhee DJ. Overexpression of SPARC in human trabecular meshwork increases intraocular pressure and alters extracellular matrix. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(5):3309-19.Abstract
PURPOSE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation is largely unknown. SPARC-null mice demonstrate a lower IOP resulting from increased outflow. SPARC is a matricellular protein often associated with fibrosis. We hypothesized that SPARC overexpression would alter IOP by affecting extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and/or turnover in the trabecular meshwork (TM). METHODS: An adenoviral vector containing human SPARC was used to increase SPARC expression in human TM endothelial cells and perfused human anterior segments using multiplicities of infection (MOIs) 25 or 50. Total RNA from TM was used for quantitative PCR, while protein from cell lysates and conditioned media were used for immunoblot analyses and zymography. After completion of perfusion, the anterior segments were fixed, sectioned, and examined by light and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: SPARC overexpression increased the IOP of perfused human anterior segments. Fibronectin and collagens IV and I protein levels were elevated in both TM cell cultures and within the juxtacanalicular (JCT) region of perfused anterior segments. Collagen VI and laminin protein levels were increased in TM cell cultures but not in perfused anterior segments. The protein levels of pro-MMP-9 decreased while the kinetic inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 protein levels, increased at MOI 25. At MOI 50, the protein levels of pro-MMP-1, -3, and -9 also decreased while PAI-1 and TIMP-1 and -3 increased. Only MMP-9 activity was decreased on zymography. mRNA levels of the collagens, fibronectin, and laminin were not affected by SPARC overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: SPARC overexpression increases IOP in perfused cadaveric human anterior segments resulting from a qualitative change the JCT ECM. Selective decrease of MMP-9 activity is likely part of the mechanism. SPARC is a regulatory node for IOP.
Ojha P, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. The genetics of intraocular pressure. Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28(5-6):301-5.Abstract
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, yet there is little known about the molecular events that regulate IOP. Genetic and genomic studies have helped identify genes that influence IOP and could lead to the identification of biological pathways that serve as targets for novel pressure-modifying therapies. Genetic linkage studies resulted in the identification of several genes that cause Mendelian (autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive) forms of high-pressure glaucoma, including MYOC. PITX2, FOXC1, and CYP1B1. Classical twin studies suggest that IOP is a heritable trait. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that common genetic variants in the GAS7 and TMCO1 genomic regions are associated with elevated IOP. TMCO1 has also been associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with advanced disease. A further study identifying additional genes contributing to IOP will be necessary to fully define the underlying genetic architecture of IOP.
Ong AY, Ng SM, Vedula SS, Friedman DS. Lens extraction for chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021;3:CD005555.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is characterized by a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) secondary to aqueous outflow obstruction, with relative pupillary block being the most common underlying mechanism. There is increasing evidence that lens extraction may relieve pupillary block and thereby improve IOP control. As such, comparing the effectiveness of lens extraction against other commonly used treatment modalities can help inform the decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of lens extraction compared with other interventions in the treatment of chronic PACG in people without previous acute angle-closure attacks. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, one other database, and two trials registers (December 2019). We also screened the reference lists of included studies and the Science Citation Index database. We had no date or language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing lens extraction with other treatment modalities for chronic PACG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs with 914 eyes. We obtained data for participants meeting our inclusion criteria for these studies (PACG only, no previous acute angle-closure attacks), resulting in 513 eyes included in this review. The participants were recruited from a diverse range of countries. We were unable to conduct meta-analyses due to different follow-up periods and insufficient data. One study compared phacoemulsification with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) as standard care. Participants in the phacoemulsification group were less likely to experience progression of visual field loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13 to 0.91; 216 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and required fewer IOP-lowering medications (mean difference [MD] -0.70, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.51; 263 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared with standard care at 12 months. Moderate certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later (MD -84.93, 95% CI -131.25 to -38.61; 106 eyes). There was little to no difference in health-related quality of life measures (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.24; 254 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and visual acuity (VA) (MD 2.03 ETDRS letter, 95% CI -0.77 to 4.84; 242 eyes) at 12 months, and no observable difference in mean IOP (MD -0.03mmHg, 95% CI -2.34 to 2.32; 257 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared to standard care. Irreversible loss of vision was observed in one participant in the phacoemulsification group, and three participants in standard care at 36 months (moderate-certainty evidence). One study (91 eyes) compared phacoemulsification with phaco-viscogonioplasty (phaco-VGP). Low-certainty evidence suggested that fewer IOP-lowering medications were needed at 12 months with phacoemulsification (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.05). Low-certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification may have improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later compared to phaco-VGP (angle grading MD -0.60, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.29; TISA500 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; TISA750 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; 91 eyes). Phacoemulsification may result in little to no difference in best corrected VA at 12 months (MD -0.01 log MAR units, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.08; low certainty evidence), and the evidence is very uncertain about its effect on IOP at 12 months (MD 0.50 mmHg, 95% CI -2.64 to 3.64; very low certainty evidence). Postoperative fibrin reaction was observed in two participants in the phacoemulsification group and four in the phaco-VGP group. Three participants in the phaco-VGP group experienced hyphema. No data were available for progression of visual field loss and quality of life measurements at 12 months. Two studies compared phacoemulsification with phaco-goniosynechialysis (phaco-GSL). Low-certainty evidence suggested that there may be little to no difference in mean IOP at 12 months (MD -0.12 mmHg, 95% CI -4.72 to 4.48; 1 study, 32 eyes) between the interventions. Phacoemulsification did not reduce the number of IOP-lowering medications compared to phaco-GSL at 12 months (MD -0.38, 95% CI -1.23 to 0.47; 1 study, 32 eyes; moderate certainty evidence). Three eyes in the phaco-GSL group developed hyphemas. No data were available at 12 months for progression of visual field loss, gonioscopic findings, visual acuity, and quality of life measures. Three studies compared phacoemulsification with combined phaco-trabeculectomy, but the data were only available for one study (63 eyes). In this study, low-certainty evidence suggested that there was little to no difference between groups in mean change in IOP from baseline (MD -0.60 mmHg, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.79), number of IOP-lowering medications at 12 months (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.42), and VA measured by the Snellen chart (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.12). Participants in the phacoemulsification group had fewer complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.04), and the phaco-trabeculectomy group required more IOP-lowering procedures (RR 5.81, 95% CI 1.41 to 23.88), but the evidence was very uncertain. No data were available for other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence showed that lens extraction has an advantage over LPI in treating chronic PACG with clear crystalline lenses over three years of follow-up; ultimately, the decision for intervention should be part of a shared decision-making process between the clinician and the patient. For people with chronic PACG and visually significant cataracts, low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with either viscogonioplasty or goniosynechialysis does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone. There was insufficient evidence to draw any meaningful conclusions regarding phacoemulsification versus trabeculectomy. Low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone, and may cause more complications instead. These conclusions only apply to short- to medium-term outcomes; studies with longer follow-up periods can help assess whether these effects persist in the long term.
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Pan BX, Margeta MA. Elevated Intraocular Pressure in a Young Man With a History of Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;
of Partnership GES, Li Z, Wang Z, Lee MC, Zenkel M, Peh E, Ozaki M, Topouzis F, Nakano S, Chan A, Chen S, Williams SEI, Orr A, Nakano M, Kobakhidze N, Zarnowski T, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Mizoguchi T, Manabe S-I, Hayashi K, Kazama S, Inoue K, Mori Y, Miyata K, Sugiyama K, Higashide T, Chihara E, Ideta R, Ishiko S, Yoshida A, Tokumo K, Kiuchi Y, Ohashi T, Sakurai T, Sugimoto T, Chuman H, Aihara M, Inatani M, Mori K, Ikeda Y, Ueno M, Gaston D, Rafuse P, Shuba L, Saunders J, Nicolela M, Chichua G, Tabagari S, Founti P, Sim KS, Meah WY, Soo HM, Chen XY, Chatzikyriakidou A, Keskini C, Pappas T, Anastasopoulos E, Lambropoulos A, Panagiotou ES, Mikropoulos DG, Kosior-Jarecka E, Cheong A, Li Y, Lukasik U, Nongpiur ME, Husain R, Perera SA, Álvarez L, García M, González-Iglesias H, Cueto AFV, Cueto LFV, Martinón-Torres F, Salas A, Oguz Ç, Tamcelik N, Atalay E, Batu B, Irkec M, Aktas D, Kasim B, Astakhov YS, Astakhov SY, Akopov EL, Giessl A, Mardin C, Hellerbrand C, Cooke Bailey JN, Igo RP, Haines JL, Edward DP, Heegaard S, Davila S, Tan P, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Kruse FE, Reis A, Carmichael TR, Hauser M, Ramsay M, Mossböck G, Yildirim N, Tashiro K, Konstas AGP, Coca-Prados M, Foo JN, Kinoshita S, Sotozono C, Kubota T, Dubina M, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Pasutto F, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Ho YS, Aung T, Tam WL, Khor CC. Association of Rare CYP39A1 Variants With Exfoliation Syndrome Involving the Anterior Chamber of the Eye. JAMA 2021;325(8):753-764.Abstract
Importance: Exfoliation syndrome is a systemic disorder characterized by progressive accumulation of abnormal fibrillar protein aggregates manifesting clinically in the anterior chamber of the eye. This disorder is the most commonly known cause of glaucoma and a major cause of irreversible blindness. Objective: To determine if exfoliation syndrome is associated with rare, protein-changing variants predicted to impair protein function. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 2-stage, case-control, whole-exome sequencing association study with a discovery cohort and 2 independently ascertained validation cohorts. Study participants from 14 countries were enrolled between February 1999 and December 2019. The date of last clinical follow-up was December 2019. Affected individuals had exfoliation material on anterior segment structures of at least 1 eye as visualized by slit lamp examination. Unaffected individuals had no signs of exfoliation syndrome. Exposures: Rare, coding-sequence genetic variants predicted to be damaging by bioinformatic algorithms trained to recognize alterations that impair protein function. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the presence of exfoliation syndrome. Exome-wide significance for detected variants was defined as P < 2.5 × 10-6. The secondary outcomes included biochemical enzymatic assays and gene expression analyses. Results: The discovery cohort included 4028 participants with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 78 years [interquartile range, 73-83 years]; 2377 [59.0%] women) and 5638 participants without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years [interquartile range, 65-78 years]; 3159 [56.0%] women). In the discovery cohort, persons with exfoliation syndrome, compared with those without exfoliation syndrome, were significantly more likely to carry damaging CYP39A1 variants (1.3% vs 0.30%, respectively; odds ratio, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.07-6.10]; P = 6.1 × 10-7). This outcome was validated in 2 independent cohorts. The first validation cohort included 2337 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 1132 women; n = 1934 with demographic data) and 2813 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years; 1287 women; n = 2421 with demographic data). The second validation cohort included 1663 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 75 years; 587 women; n = 1064 with demographic data) and 3962 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 951 women; n = 1555 with demographic data). Of the individuals from both validation cohorts, 5.2% with exfoliation syndrome carried CYP39A1 damaging alleles vs 3.1% without exfoliation syndrome (odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.26]; P < .001). Biochemical assays classified 34 of 42 damaging CYP39A1 alleles as functionally deficient (median reduction in enzymatic activity compared with wild-type CYP39A1, 94.4% [interquartile range, 78.7%-98.2%] for the 34 deficient variants). CYP39A1 transcript expression was 47% lower (95% CI, 30%-64% lower; P < .001) in ciliary body tissues from individuals with exfoliation syndrome compared with individuals without exfoliation syndrome. Conclusions and Relevance: In this whole-exome sequencing case-control study, presence of exfoliation syndrome was significantly associated with carriage of functionally deficient CYP39A1 sequence variants. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications of these findings.
Pasquale LR, Hanyuda A, Ren A, Giovingo M, Greenstein SH, Cousins C, Patrianakos T, Tanna AP, Wanderling C, Norkett W, Wiggs JL, Green K, Kang JH, Knepper PA. Nailfold Capillary Abnormalities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Multisite Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(12):7021-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: There is considerable evidence for systemic vascular dysfunction in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed nailfold capillary video microscopy to observe directly the nature of nonocular microvasculature abnormalities in POAG. METHODS: We enrolled 199 POAG patients and 124 control subjects from four sites. We used JH-1004 capillaroscopes to perform nailfold capillary video microscopy on the fourth and fifth digits of each subject's nondominant hand. Videos were evaluated for hemorrhages, dilated capillary loops > 50 μm, and avascular zones > 100 μm by graders masked to case status. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POAG were obtained by means of logistic regression analyses that were applied to data from all cases and controls. Corresponding estimates of moderate or severe POAG versus mild POAG (based on the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish scale) were obtained among cases only. RESULTS: After controlling for demographic factors, family history of glaucoma, systemic diseases, and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, for each 100 nailfold capillaries assessed, all types of microvascular abnormalities were significantly associated with POAG. Specifically, the presence of any dilated capillaries (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.6), avascular zones (OR = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.3) and hemorrhages (OR = 12.2; 95% CI, 5.9-25.1) were associated with POAG. Among cases, the frequency of microvascular abnormalities was not associated with glaucoma severity (P ≥ 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: These data provided support for nonocular capillary bed abnormalities in POAG. Comparable vascular abnormalities in the optic nerve may render it susceptible to glaucomatous damage.

Pasquale LR, Loomis SJ, Weinreb RN, Kang JH, Yaspan BL, Bailey JC, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Lee RK, Scott WK, Lichter PR, Budenz DL, Liu Y, Realini T, Friedman DS, McCarty CA, Moroi SE, Olson L, Schuman JS, Singh K, Vollrath D, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Brilliant M, Sit AJ, Christen WG, Fingert J, Kraft P, Zhang K, Allingham RR, Pericak-Vance MA, Richards JE, Hauser MA, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. Estrogen pathway polymorphisms in relation to primary open angle glaucoma: an analysis accounting for gender from the United States. Mol Vis 2013;19:1471-81.Abstract
PURPOSE: Circulating estrogen levels are relevant in glaucoma phenotypic traits. We assessed the association between an estrogen metabolism single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel in relation to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), accounting for gender. METHODS: We included 3,108 POAG cases and 3,430 controls of both genders from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium genotyped on the Illumina 660W-Quad platform. We assessed the relation between the SNP panels representative of estrogen metabolism and POAG using pathway- and gene-based approaches with the Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure (PARIS) software. PARIS executes a permutation algorithm to assess statistical significance relative to the pathways and genes of comparable genetic architecture. These analyses were performed using the meta-analyzed results from the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR data sets. We evaluated POAG overall as well as two subtypes of POAG defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥22 mmHg (high-pressure glaucoma [HPG]) or IOP <22 mmHg (normal pressure glaucoma [NPG]) at diagnosis. We conducted these analyses for each gender separately and then jointly in men and women. RESULTS: Among women, the estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG overall (permuted p=0.006) and HPG (permuted p<0.001) but not NPG (permuted p=0.09). Interestingly, there was no relation between the estrogen SNP pathway and POAG when men were considered alone (permuted p>0.99). Among women, gene-based analyses revealed that the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene showed strong associations with HTG (permuted gene p≤0.001) and NPG (permuted gene p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The estrogen SNP pathway was associated with POAG among women.
Pasquale LR, Aschard H, Kang JH, Bailey JCN, Lindström S, Chasman DI, Christen WG, Allingham RR, Ashley-Koch A, Lee RK, Moroi SE, Brilliant MH, Wollstein G, Schuman JS, Fingert J, Budenz DL, Realini T, Gaasterland T, Gaasterland D, Scott WK, Singh K, Sit AJ, Igo RP, Song YE, Hark L, Ritch R, Rhee DJ, Gulati V, Havens S, Vollrath D, Zack DJ, Medeiros F, Weinreb RN, Pericak-Vance MA, Liu Y, Kraft P, Richards JE, Rosner BA, Hauser MA, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. Age at natural menopause genetic risk score in relation to age at natural menopause and primary open-angle glaucoma in a US-based sample. Menopause 2017;24(2):150-156.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Several attributes of female reproductive history, including age at natural menopause (ANM), have been related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We assembled 18 previously reported common genetic variants that predict ANM to determine their association with ANM or POAG. METHODS: Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (7,143 women), we validated the ANM weighted genetic risk score in relation to self-reported ANM. Subsequently, to assess the relation with POAG, we used data from 2,160 female POAG cases and 29,110 controls in the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (NEIGHBORHOOD), which consists of 8 datasets with imputed genotypes to 5.6+ million markers. Associations with POAG were assessed in each dataset, and site-specific results were meta-analyzed using the inverse weighted variance method. RESULTS: The genetic risk score was associated with self-reported ANM (P = 2.2 × 10) and predicted 4.8% of the variance in ANM. The ANM genetic risk score was not associated with POAG (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.002; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 1.007; P = 0.28). No single genetic variant in the panel achieved nominal association with POAG (P ≥0.20). Compared to the middle 80 percent, there was also no association with the lowest 10 percentile or highest 90 percentile of genetic risk score with POAG (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.21; P = 0.23 and OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.69; P = 0.65, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A genetic risk score predicting 4.8% of ANM variation was not related to POAG; thus, genetic determinants of ANM are unlikely to explain the previously reported association between the two phenotypes.

Pasquale LR, Hyman L, Wiggs JL, Rosner BA, Joshipura K, McEvoy M, McPherson ZE, Danias J, Kang JH. Reply. Ophthalmology 2017;124(5):e50-e51.
Pasquale LR, Jiwani AZ, Zehavi-Dorin T, Majd A, Rhee DJ, Chen T, Turalba A, Shen L, Brauner S, Grosskreutz C, Gardiner M, Chen S, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Greenstein SH, Chang K, Ritch R, Loomis S, Kang JH, Wiggs JL, Levkovitch-Verbin H. Solar exposure and residential geographic history in relation to exfoliation syndrome in the United States and Israel. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014;132(12):1439-45.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Residential (geographic) history and extent of solar exposure may be important risk factors for exfoliation syndrome (XFS) but, to our knowledge, detailed lifetime solar exposure has not been previously evaluated in XFS. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between residential history, solar exposure, and XFS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This clinic-based case-control study was conducted in the United States and Israel. It involved XFS cases and control individuals (all ≥60-year-old white individuals) enrolled from 2010 to 2012 (United States: 118 cases and 106 control participants; Israel: 67 cases and 72 control participants). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Weighted lifetime average latitude of residence and average number of hours per week spent outdoors as determined by validated questionnaires. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, each degree of weighted lifetime average residential latitude away from the equator was associated with 11% increased odds of XFS (pooled odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17; P < .001). Furthermore, every hour per week spent outdoors during the summer, averaged over a lifetime, was associated with 4% increased odds of XFS (pooled OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07; P = .03). For every 1% of average lifetime summer time between 10 am and 4 pm that sunglasses were worn, the odds of XFS decreased by 2% (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; P < .001) in the United States but not in Israel (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = .92; P for heterogeneity = .005). In the United States, after controlling for important environmental covariates, history of work over water or snow was associated with increased odds of XFS (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.36-10.9); in Israel, there were too few people with such history for analysis. We did not identify an association between brimmed hat wear and XFS (P > .57). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Lifetime outdoor activities may contribute to XFS. The association with work over snow or water and the lack of association with brimmed hat wear suggests that ocular exposure to light from reflective surfaces may be an important type of exposure in XFS etiology.
Pasquale LR, Borrás T, Fingert JH, Wiggs JL, Ritch R. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces. Acta Ophthalmol 2016;94(6):e505-12.Abstract

PURPOSE: To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. METHODS: The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. RESULTS: Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. CONCLUSION: Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS.

Pasquale LR, Kang JH, Wiggs JL. Prospects for gene-environment interactions in exfoliation syndrome. J Glaucoma 2014;:S64-7.Abstract

Complex traits can be triggered by environmental factors in genetically predisposed individuals. The lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene (LOXL1) variants associated with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) are detected in >90% of cases that have been genotyped from sites around the world. Remarkably, roughly 80% of people without XFS also possess these same variants in all populations that have been tested. Nonetheless, the prevalence of XFS varies from ≤0.4% to >20%. These data suggest that other genetic variants, epigenetic modifications, or environmental factors also contribute to XFS. Furthermore, it is possible that environmental factors modify the association between LOXL1 and XFS. Interactions between LOXL1 variants and environmental factors could explain the varying prevalence of XFS seen throughout the world. At the very least, the discovery of the association between LOXL1 variants and XFS has opened the door to the discovery of environmental risk factors for this condition. Candidate gene-environment interactions in XFS will be discussed.

Pasquale LR, Loomis SJ, Kang JH, Yaspan BL, Abdrabou W, Budenz DL, Chen TC, Delbono E, Friedman DS, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Grosskreutz CL, Lee RK, Lichter PR, Liu Y, McCarty CA, Moroi SE, Olson LM, Realini T, Rhee DJ, Schuman JS, Singh K, Vollrath D, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Allingham RR, Pericak-Vance MA, Weinreb RN, Zhang K, Hauser MA, Richards JE, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. CDKN2B-AS1 genotype-glaucoma feature correlations in primary open-angle glaucoma patients from the United States. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(2):342-353.e5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene region containing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense noncoding RNA (CDKN2B-AS1) and glaucoma features among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: We studied associations between 10 CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs and glaucoma features among 976 POAG cases from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and 1971 cases from the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium. For each patient, we chose the feature from the eye with the higher value. We created cohort-specific multivariable models for glaucoma features and then meta-analyzed the results. RESULTS: For 9 of the 10 protective CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs with minor alleles associated with reduced disease risk (eg, the G allele at rs2157719), POAG patients carrying these minor alleles had smaller cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units smaller per G allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.03; P = 6.23E-05) despite having higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (0.70 mm Hg higher per G allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.00; P = 5.45E-06). For the 1 adverse rs3217992 SNP with minor allele A associated with increased disease risk, POAG patients with A alleles had larger cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units larger per A allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07; P = 4.74E-04) despite having lower IOP (-0.57 mm Hg per A allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: -0.84, -0.29; P = 6.55E-05). CONCLUSION: Alleles of CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs, which influence risk of developing POAG, also modulate optic nerve degeneration among POAG patients, underscoring the role of CDKN2B-AS1 in POAG.
Pasquale LR, Brusie S. The blue arc entoptic phenomenon in glaucoma (an American ophthalmological thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2013;111:46-55.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine whether the blue arc entoptic phenomenon, a positive visual response originating from the retina with a shape that conforms to the topology of the nerve fiber layer, is depressed in glaucoma. METHODS: We recruited a cross-sectional, nonconsecutive sample of 202 patients from a single institution in a prospective manner. Subjects underwent full ophthalmic examination, including standard automated perimetry (Humphrey Visual Field 24-2) or frequency doubling technology (Screening C 20-5) perimetry. Eligible patients viewed computer-generated stimuli under conditions chosen to optimize perception of the blue arcs. Unmasked testers instructed patients to report whether they were able to perceive blue arcs but did not reveal what response was expected. We created multivariable logistic regression models to ascertain the demographic and clinical parameters associated with perceiving the blue arcs. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, each 0.1 unit increase in cup-disc ratio was associated with 36% reduced likelihood of perceiving the blue arcs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.83], P<.001). A smaller mean defect was associated with an increased likelihood of perceiving the blue arcs (OR=1.79 [95% CI: 1.40-2.28]); P<.001), while larger pattern standard deviation (OR=0.72 [95% CI: 0.57-0.91]; P=.005) and abnormal glaucoma hemifield test (OR=0.25 [0.10-0.65]; P=.006) were associated with a reduced likelihood of perceiving them. Older age and media opacity were also associated with an inability to perceive the blue arcs. CONCLUSION: In this study, the inability to perceive the blue arcs correlated with structural and functional features associated with glaucoma, although older age and media opacity were also predictors of this entoptic response.
Pasquale LR, Hyman L, Wiggs JL, Rosner BA, Joshipura K, McEvoy M, McPherson ZE, Danias J, Kang JH. Prospective Study of Oral Health and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Men: Data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Ophthalmology 2016;123(11):2318-2327.Abstract

PURPOSE: Tooth loss or periodontal disease is associated with systemic endothelial dysfunction, which has been implicated in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The relationship between oral health and POAG has received limited attention. Thus, we evaluated the association between oral health history and risk of POAG and POAG subtypes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants (40 536 men) followed biennially from 1986 to 2012. At each 2-year risk period, eligible participants were aged 40+ years, were free of POAG, and reported eye examinations. METHODS: By using validated questions, we updated participants' status on number of natural teeth, teeth lost, periodontal disease with bone loss, and root canal treatments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During follow-up, 485 incident cases of POAG were confirmed with medical records and classified into subtypes defined by intraocular pressure (IOP; ≥ or <22 mmHg) or visual field (VF) loss pattern at diagnosis (peripheral loss only or early paracentral loss). Multivariable relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS: Number of natural teeth, periodontal disease, and root canal treatment were not associated with POAG. However, compared with no report of tooth loss, a report of losing teeth within the past 2 years was associated with a 1.45-fold increased risk of POAG (95% CI, 1.06-1.97); in particular, a report within the past 2 years of both losing teeth and having a prevalent diagnosis of periodontal disease was associated with a 1.85-fold increased risk of POAG (95% CI, 1.07-3.18). The associations with recent tooth loss were not significantly different for the POAG subtypes (P for heterogeneity ≥0.36), although associations were strongest in relation to the POAG subtypes with IOP <22 mmHg (MVRR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43) and early paracentral VF loss (MVRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.32-3.88). CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of natural teeth was not associated with risk of POAG, recent tooth loss was associated with an increased risk of POAG. Because these findings may be due to chance, they need confirmation in larger studies.

Poon LY-C, Chodosh J, Vavvas DG, Dohlman CH, Chen TC. Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation for the Treatment of Glaucoma in Boston Keratoprosthesis Type II Patient. J Glaucoma 2017;26(4):e146-e149.Abstract

We describe the surgical technique of endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in a Boston keratoprosthesis type II patient. This patient with ocular cicatricial pemphigoid had pars plana endoscopic cyclophotocoagula through wounds created in the eyelids.

Porporato N, Baskaran M, Perera S, Tun TA, Sultana R, Tan M, Quah JHM, Allen JC, Friedman D, Cheng CY, Aung T. Evaluation of meridional scans for angle closure assessment with anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(1):131-134.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) simultaneously obtains 128 meridional scans, it is important to identify which scans are playing the main role in classifying gonioscopic angle closure to simplify the analysis. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of every meridional scan in its ability to detect gonioscopic angle closure. METHODS: Observational study with 2027 phakic subjects consecutively recruited from a community polyclinic. Gonioscopy and SS-OCT were performed. Gonioscopic angle closure was defined as non-visibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork in ≥180° of the angle, while SS-OCT was defined as iridotrabecular contact anterior to the scleral spur. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the diagnostic performance of each single scan, the sequential anticlockwise cumulative effect of those single scans and different combinations of them. RESULTS: The AUCs of each scan ranged from 0.73 to 0.82. The single scan at 80°-260° had the highest AUC (0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.84) and performed significantly better than most of the temporonasal scans (from 0° to 52° and from 153° to 179°). The superoinferior scans achieved higher AUCs compared with the temporonasal ones. When assessing the cumulative effect of adding individual scans consecutively, the peak AUC (0.80) was obtained when considering the superoinferior scans closer to 80°-85°, but no further positive cumulative effect was seen when adding the rest of the temporonasal scans of the circumference. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the single SS-OCT scan at 80°-260° had the highest diagnostic performance. Our study suggests that the 360° evaluation may not translate to better clinical utility for detection of gonioscopic angle closure.
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Qian CX, Hassanaly S, Harissi-Dagher M. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in the Long-Term Follow-up andDetection of Glaucoma in Boston TypeIKeratoprosthesis. Ophthalmology 2015;122(2):317-25.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a standardized method of imaging Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) after surgery, particularly in the visualization of iris and angle structures. DESIGN: Prospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients who underwent KPro implantation in 1 eye. METHODS: Patients underwent AS OCT imaging before surgery. After KPro implantation, patients were imaged using the AS single, dual, and quad scans to obtain transverse images of the eye every 15° over 360°. High-resolution, corneal quad, and anterior chamber scans were also obtained. This imaging protocol allowed juxtaposition and comparison of the same imaging coordinates obtained before surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative visual acuity (VA), glaucoma progression on clinical examination and formal visual field testing, and anatomic angle changes on AS OCT defined by angle closure, peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), iris-KPro backplate touch, and graft-host interface changes over time. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 18.8±3.2 months. The average preoperative VA was 1.9±0.5 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution. After surgery, VA improved to 1.0±0.9 at last follow-up (P = 0.002). Fourteen of 20 patients had glaucoma before surgery. After surgery, 5 of these patients deteriorated clinically and 1 de novo diagnosis of glaucoma was made. On OCT, the average total degrees of angle closure for all patients increased from 158.5±158.9° before surgery to 205.4±154.0° after surgery (P = 0.04). The number of eyes with 360° of PAS increased from 6 of 20 before surgery to 9 of 20 after surgery. Iris-backplate touch was demonstrated in 5 of 20 patients, with an average area of involvement of 24.2±36.2°. Overall, of the 12 of 20 patients with clear signs of anatomic angle narrowing and synechiae progression on imaging, 3 had glaucoma deterioration detected by clinical examination. In the other 9 patients, angle changes on OCT were not accompanied by any detectable clinical signs of glaucomatous deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior segment OCT can be used to observe anatomic changes after KPro implantation that cannot be detected otherwise. We were unable to demonstrate a correlation between anatomic features and clinical progression.

Qiu M, Woreta F, Boland MV. Microinvasive Glaucoma Surgery in United States Ophthalmology Residency: Surgical Case Log Cross-sectional Analysis and Proposal for New Glaucoma Procedure Classification. J Glaucoma 2021;Abstract
PRECIS: A cross-sectional sample of the United States ophthalmology residency graduating class of 2018 revealed that 18.4% of residents logged less than 5 traditional glaucoma surgeries, and 63.4% logged at least one microinvasive glaucoma surgery. PURPOSE: Describe the state of microinvasive glaucoma surgery in United States ophthalmology residency training and propose a glaucoma procedure classification system for residents' surgical case logs. METHODS: Deidentified case logs from residents graduating in 2018 were requested from United States residency program directors. RESULTS: Case logs were received for 152/488 (31%) residents from 36/115 (31%) programs. The mean number of traditional glaucoma surgeries per resident was 9.0±5.9 (range 0-31). The mean number of microinvasive glaucoma surgery per resident was 5.2±8.9 cases (range 0-58). There were 28/152 (18.4%) residents from 16/36 (44.4%) programs who logged <5 traditional glaucoma surgeries, and 3/152 (2.0%) residents from 3/36 (8.3%) programs who logged zero traditional glaucoma surgeries. There were 98/152 (64.5%) residents from 32/36 (88.8%) programs who logged <5 microinvasive glaucoma surgery as primary surgeon, and 48/152 (31.6%) residents from 25 of 36 (69.4%) programs who logged zero microinvasive glaucoma surgery. There were 104/152 (63.4%) residents from 33/36 (91.6%) programs who logged at least 1 microinvasive glaucoma surgery; there were 3/36 (8.3%) residency programs where no resident logged any microinvasive glaucoma surgery. CONCLUSIONS: United States ophthalmology residents' microinvasive glaucoma surgery experience varies widely. Residents can satisfy glaucoma surgery requirements with some microinvasive glaucoma surgery, even in the absence of adequate traditional glaucoma surgeries. We propose a residency case log classification system that better reflects the growing role of microinvasive glaucoma surgery in clinical practice and helps ophthalmic educators more accurately track procedures requiring related skills.

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