Imaging and Diagnostics

Guzman Aparicio MA, Chen TC. New views on three-dimensional imaging technologies for glaucoma: an overview. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(2):103-111.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on three-dimensional (3D) technological advances in ophthalmology, the quantitative methods associated with this, and their improved ability to help detect glaucoma disease progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements in measuring glaucomatous structural changes are the result of dual innovations in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology and in associated quantitative software. SUMMARY: Compared with two-dimensional (2D) OCT parameters, newer 3D parameters provide more data and fewer artifacts.
Hanumunthadu D, Lescrauwaet B, Jaffe M, Sadda SV, Wiecek E, Hubschman JP, Patel PJ. Clinical Update on Metamorphopsia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Imaging. Curr Eye Res 2021;46(12):1777-1791.Abstract
Purpose: To discuss the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia, its characterisation using retinal imaging and methods of assessment of patient symptoms and visual function.Methods: A literature search of electronic databases was performedResults: Metamorphopsia has commonly been associated with vitreomacular interface disorders (such as epiretinal membrane) and has also regularly been noted in diseases of the retina and choroid, particularly age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy. Developments in optical coherence tomography retinal imaging have enabled improved imaging of the foveal microstructure and have led to the localisation of the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia within the retinal layers of the macula. Alteration of alignment of inner and outer retinal layers at various retinal loci has been identified using multimodal imaging in patients with metamorphopsia in a range of conditions. Although the Amsler Grid assessment of metamorphopsia is a useful clinical indicator, new emerging methods of metamorphopsia assessment with psychophysical tests such as M-CHARTS and preferential hyperacuity perimetry, have been developed.Conclusions: It appears that there is a complex relationship between visual acuity and metamorphopsia symptoms that vary between retinal conditions. Although metamorphopsia has traditionally been challenging to measure in the clinic, advances in technology promise more robust, easy-to-use tests. It is possible that home assessment of metamorphopsia, particularly in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, may help to guide the need for further clinic evaluation and consideration of treatment.
Inomata T, Nakamura M, Sung J, Midorikawa-Inomata A, Iwagami M, Fujio K, Akasaki Y, Okumura Y, Fujimoto K, Eguchi A, Miura M, Nagino K, Shokirova H, Zhu J, Kuwahara M, Hirosawa K, Dana R, Murakami A. Smartphone-based digital phenotyping for dry eye toward P4 medicine: a crowdsourced cross-sectional study. NPJ Digit Med 2021;4(1):171.Abstract
Multidimensional integrative data analysis of digital phenotyping is crucial for elucidating the pathologies of multifactorial and heterogeneous diseases, such as the dry eye (DE). This crowdsourced cross-sectional study explored a novel smartphone-based digital phenotyping strategy to stratify and visualize the heterogenous DE symptoms into distinct subgroups. Multidimensional integrative data were collected from 3,593 participants between November 2016 and September 2019. Dimension reduction via Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection stratified the collected data into seven clusters of symptomatic DE. Symptom profiles and risk factors in each cluster were identified by hierarchical heatmaps and multivariate logistic regressions. Stratified DE subgroups were visualized by chord diagrams, co-occurrence networks, and Circos plot analyses to improve interpretability. Maximum blink interval was reduced in clusters 1, 2, and 5 compared to non-symptomatic DE. Clusters 1 and 5 had severe DE symptoms. A data-driven multidimensional analysis with digital phenotyping may establish predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine.
Islam R, Jackson C, Eidet JR, Messelt EB, Corraya RM, Lyberg T, Griffith M, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. Effect of Storage Temperature on Structure and Function of Cultured Human Oral Keratinocytes. PLoS One 2015;10(6):e0128306.Abstract

PURPOSE/AIMS: To assess the effect of storage temperature on the viability, phenotype, metabolism, and morphology of cultured human oral keratinocytes (HOK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultured HOK cells were stored in HEPES- and sodium bicarbonate-buffered Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) at nine temperatures in approximately 4°C increments from 4°C to 37°C for seven days. Cells were characterized for viability by calcein fluorescence, phenotype retention by immunocytochemistry, metabolic parameters (pH, glucose, lactate, and O2) within the storage medium by blood gas analysis, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. RESULTS: Relative to the cultured, but non-stored control cells, a high percentage of viable cells were retained only in the 12°C and 16°C storage groups (85%±13% and 68%±10%, respectively). Expression of ABCG2, Bmi1, C/EBPδ, PCNA, cytokeratin 18, and caspase-3 were preserved after storage in the 5 groups between 4°C and 20°C, compared to the non-stored control. Glucose, pH and pO2 in the storage medium declined, whereas lactate increased with increasing storage temperature. Morphology was best preserved following storage of the three groups between 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. CONCLUSION: We conclude that storage temperatures of 12°C and 16°C were optimal for maintenance of cell viability, phenotype, and morphology of cultured HOK. The storage method described in the present study may be applicable for other cell types and tissues; thus its significance may extend beyond HOK and the field of ophthalmology.

Jabroun MN, AlWattar BK, Fulton AB. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Prematurity. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):264-269.Abstract
Purpose: During normal foveal development there is a close interaction between the neurosensory and vascular elements of the fovea making it vulnerable to prematurity and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We aim to assess this potential effect on foveal development in preterms evaluated simultaneously with both optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA).Method: Unrestricted literature search in the PubMed and Cochrane library databases yielded 20 distinct citations. Fifteen were relevant and reviewed.Results: In preterms, OCTA demonstrated a significant decrease in the foveal avascular zone area and an increase in foveal vessel density. OCT showed a decrease in foveal pit depth and an increase in the thickness of the subfoveal retinal layers. Some studies correlated these changes with reduced vision.Conclusion: Changes in the vascular and neurosensory retina were found in premature children. It remains unclear whether this is related to prematurity alone or ROP and its treatment.
Kras A, Celi LA, Miller JB. Accelerating ophthalmic artificial intelligence research: the role of an open access data repository. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2020;31(5):337-350.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence has already provided multiple clinically relevant applications in ophthalmology. Yet, the explosion of nonstandardized reporting of high-performing algorithms are rendered useless without robust and streamlined implementation guidelines. The development of protocols and checklists will accelerate the translation of research publications to impact on patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Beyond technological scepticism, we lack uniformity in analysing algorithmic performance generalizability, and benchmarking impacts across clinical settings. No regulatory guardrails have been set to minimize bias or optimize interpretability; no consensus clinical acceptability thresholds or systematized postdeployment monitoring has been set. Moreover, stakeholders with misaligned incentives deepen the landscape complexity especially when it comes to the requisite data integration and harmonization to advance the field. Therefore, despite increasing algorithmic accuracy and commoditization, the infamous 'implementation gap' persists. Open clinical data repositories have been shown to rapidly accelerate research, minimize redundancies and disseminate the expertise and knowledge required to overcome existing barriers. Drawing upon the longstanding success of existing governance frameworks and robust data use and sharing agreements, the ophthalmic community has tremendous opportunity in ushering artificial intelligence into medicine. By collaboratively building a powerful resource of open, anonymized multimodal ophthalmic data, the next generation of clinicians can advance data-driven eye care in unprecedented ways. SUMMARY: This piece demonstrates that with readily accessible data, immense progress can be achieved clinically and methodologically to realize artificial intelligence's impact on clinical care. Exponentially progressive network effects can be seen by consolidating, curating and distributing data amongst both clinicians and data scientists.
Kunkler AL, Patel NA, Russell JF, Fan KC, Al-Khersan H, Iyer PG, Acon D, Negron CI, Yannuzzi NA, Berrocal AM. Intraoperative OCT Angiography in Children with Incontinentia Pigmenti. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;6(4):330-332.
Lu Y, Wang JC, Cui Y, Zhu Y, Zeng R, Lu ES, Katz R, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Kim LA, Miller JW, Miller JB. A quantitative comparison of four optical coherence tomography angiography devices in healthy eyes. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021;259(6):1493-1501.Abstract
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel imaging modality for the diagnosis of chorioretinal diseases. A number of FDA-approved OCT-A devices are currently commercially available, each with unique algorithms and scanning protocols. Although several published studies have compared different combinations of OCT-A machines, there is a lack of agreement on the consistency of measurements across OCT-A devices. Therefore, we conducted a prospective quantitative comparison of four available OCT-A platforms. METHODS: Subjects were scanned on four devices: Optovue RTVue-XR, Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 module, Zeiss Plex Elite 9000 Swept-Source OCT, and Topcon DRI-OCT Triton Swept-Source OCT. 3 mm × 3 mm images were utilized for analysis. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area was separately and independently measured by two investigators. Fractal dimension (FD), superficial capillary plexus (SCP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) vessel densities (VD) were calculated from binarized images using the Fiji image processing software. SCP and DCP VD were further calculated after images were skeletonized. Repeated measures ANOVA, post hoc tests, and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen healthy eyes from sixteen patients were scanned on the four devices. Images of five eyes from the Triton device were excluded due to poor image quality; thus, the authors performed two sets comparisons, one with and one without the Triton machine. FAZ area showed no significant difference across devices with an ICC of > 95%. However, there were statistically significant differences for SCP and DCP VD both before and after skeletonization (p < 0.05). Fractal analysis revealed no significant difference of FD at the SCP; however, a statistically significant difference was found for FD at the DCP layer (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that FAZ measurements were consistent across all four devices, while significant differences in VD and FD measurements existed. Therefore, we suggest that for both clinical follow-up and research studies, FAZ area is a useful parameter for OCT-A image analysis when measurements are made on different machines, while VD and FD show significant variability when measured across devices.
Lu Y, Wang JC, Zeng R, Nagata T, Katz R, Mukai S, Miller JB. Detection of retinal microvascular changes in von Hippel-Lindau disease using optical coherence tomography angiography. PLoS One 2020;15(2):e0229213.Abstract
PURPOSE: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary disorder that can lead to ophthalmic manifestations, including retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH). The diagnosis of RCH is often guided by wide-field fluorescein angiography. In some cases, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) serves as a non-invasive alternative to FA. Herein, we used OCT-A to examine the macular microvasculature in patients with VHL disease. SUBJECTS: Subjects were selected from patients with a diagnosis of VHL. The control group included eyes without retinal diagnosis from patients with an episode of unilateral retinal detachment or trauma and age ≤ 50 years old. METHODS: Subjects were scanned on the Optovue RTVue-XR device to acquire 3mm x 3mm OCT-A images of the superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). SCP and DCP vessel density (VD) were calculated after the images were binarized. Furthermore, for subjects with RCH, each OCT-A image was divided equally into four quadrants. SCP and DCP VD of quadrants with RCH were compared to those without RCH. T-tests were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 67 eyes with a history of VHL disease were included as study subjects, while 16 eyes were included as controls. Significant increases in VD were found in patients with VHL disease for both the SCP (p = 0.0441) and DCP (p = 0.0344). When comparing quadrants with associated RCH development to those without, we found no significant difference in SCP VD (p = 0.160) or DCP VD (p = 0.484). CONCLUSIONS: OCT-A can detect changes in the retinal microvasculature in the macula of patients with VHL disease. OCT-A imaging may be an additional tool for screening and early detection of patients at risk of developing ocular complications of VHL disease. Future studies should explore subtle progression on OCT-A associated with the pathogenesis and development of RCH, particularly with larger scan patterns.
Ludwig CA, Moon J, Garg I, Miller JB. Ultra-Widefield Imaging for Evaluation of the Myopic Eye. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):185-190.Abstract
Topic : Ultra-widefield (UWF) imaging of the myopic eye. Clinical Relevance : Myopes, and particularly high and pathologic myopes, present a unique challenge in fundoscopic imaging. Critical pathology is often located in the anteriormost portion of the retina, variations in posterior segment contour are difficult to capture in two-dimensional images, and extremes in axial length make simply focusing imaging devices difficult. Methods: We review the evolution of modalities for ophthalmic imaging (color fundus photography [CFP], optical coherence topography [OCT], angiography, artificial intelligence [AI]) to present day UWF technology and its impact on our understanding of myopia. Results: Advances in UWF technology address many of the challenges in fundoscopic imaging of myopes, providing new insights into the structure and function of the myopic eye. UWF CFP improves our ability to detect and document anterior peripheral pathology prevalent in approximately half of all high myopes. UWF OCT better captures the staphylomatous contour of the myopic eye, providing enhanced visualization of the vitreoretinal interface and progressive development of myopic traction maculopathy. UWF angiography highlights the posterior vortex veins, thin choriocapillaris, far peripheral avascularity, and peripheral retinal capillary microaneurysms more prevalent in the myopic eye. Researchers have demonstrated the ability of AI algorithms to predict refractive error, and great potential remains in the use of AI technology for the screening and prevention of myopic disease. Conclusion: We note significant progress in our ability to capture anterior pathology and improved image quality of the posterior segment of high and pathologic myopes. The next jump forward for UWF imaging will be the ability to capture a high quality ora to ora multimodal fundoscopic image in a single scan that will allow for sensitive AI-assisted screening of myopic disease.
Milman T, Kao AA, Chu D, Gorski M, Steiner A, Simon CZ, Shih C, Aldave AJ, Eagle RC, Jakobiec FA, Udell I. Paraproteinemic Keratopathy: The Expanding Diversity of Clinical and Pathologic Manifestations. Ophthalmology 2015;122(9):1748-56.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe 7 patients with paraproteinemic keratopathy and to highlight the clinical and pathologic diversity of this rare entity and the importance of timely, systemic evaluation. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter collaborative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients with paraproteinemic keratopathy. METHODS: Clinical and pathologic records were reviewed to identify patients with well-documented corneal immunoglobulin deposits. Detailed ophthalmologic and medical histories were assembled. In 6 patients, corneal tissue was evaluated histochemically and immunohistochemically; in selected cases, corneal tissue was evaluated by in situ hybridization and ultrastructurally. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity and anterior segment examination at presentation and follow-up; local therapy; systemic diagnosis and management; and histopathologic, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and ultrastructural findings. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified with corneal immunoglobulin deposition. In addition to previously reported crystalline, nummular, patch-like, and lattice-like corneal opacities, prominent corneal vascularization was present in 2 patients mimicking interstitial keratitis and limbal stem cell deficiency. All patients had evidence of paraproteinemia in a setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering plasma cell myeloma, or Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Corneal findings were the first manifestation of systemic disease in 4 patients, and the diagnosis was not suspected in 3 of these patients. Pathologic evaluation of biopsied corneal and conjunctival tissues demonstrated immunoglobulin deposits. Previously unreported ultrastructural patterns in the cornea were noted: large scroll-like immunotactoid deposits, immune complex-like deposits, and randomly arranged fibrils morphologically intermediate between amyloid and immunotactoid deposits. Surgical intervention to improve vision was performed in 4 patients, with recurrence of deposits in 3 patients. Three patients underwent systemic therapy with diminution of the deposits and improvement in vision in 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and pathologic expressions of corneal immunoglobulin deposits are protean and present a diagnostic challenge. Early recognition of this rare entity is important to address the potentially serious associated systemic disease.

Moon JY, Garg I, Cui Y, Katz R, Zhu Y, Le R, Lu Y, Lu ES, Ludwig CA, Elze T, Wu DM, Eliott D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Miller JB. Wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in the assessment of retinal microvasculature and choroidal thickness in patients with myopia. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pathological myopia (PM) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to evaluate microvascular and chorioretinal changes in different stages of myopia with wide-field (WF) swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional observational study included 186 eyes of 122 patients who had undergone imaging between November 2018 and October 2020. Vessel density (VD) and vessel skeletonised density (VSD) of superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus and whole retina, as well as foveal avascular zone parameters, retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal thickness (CT), were calculated. RESULTS: This study evaluated 75 eyes of 48 patients with high myopia (HM), 43 eyes of 31 patients with mild to moderate myopia and 68 eyes of 53 age-matched controls. Controlling for age and the presence of systemic hypertension, we found that HM was associated with decrease in VD and VSD in all layers on 12×12 mm² scans. Furthermore, HM was associated with a VD and VSD decrease in every Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid, with a larger decrease temporally (βVD=-0.39, βVSD=-10.25, p<0.01). HM was associated with decreased RT and CT. Reduction in RT was outside the macular region, while reduction in CT was in the macular region. CONCLUSION: Using WF SS-OCTA, we identified reduction in microvasculature and structural changes associated with myopia. Decrease in VD and VSD was greater in the temporal quadrant, and reductions in RT and CT were uneven across the retina. Further work may help identify risk factors for the progression of PM and associated vision-threatening complications.
Naninck T, Kahlaoui N, Lemaitre J, Maisonnasse P, De Mori A, Pascal Q, Contreras V, Marlin R, Relouzat F, Delache B, Hérate C, Aldon Y, van Gils M, Zabaleta N, Tsong Fang RH, Bosquet N, Sanders RW, Vandenberghe LH, Chapon C, Le Grand R. Computed tomography and [18F]-FDG PET imaging provide additional readouts for COVID-19 pathogenesis and therapies evaluation in non-human primates. iScience 2022;25(4):104101.Abstract
Non-human primates (NHPs) are particularly relevant as preclinical models for SARS-CoV-2 infection and nuclear imaging may represent a valuable tool for monitoring infection in this species. We investigated the benefit of computed X-ray tomography (CT) and [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the early phase of the disease in a large cohort (n = 76) of SARS-CoV-2 infected macaques. Following infection, animals showed mild COVID-19 symptoms including typical lung lesions. CT scores at the acute phase reflect the heterogeneity of lung burden following infection. Moreover, [18F]-FDG PET revealed that FDG uptake was significantly higher in the lungs, nasal cavities, lung-draining lymph nodes, and spleen of NHPs by 5 days postinfection compared to pre-infection levels, indicating early local inflammation. The comparison of CT and PET data from previous COVID-19 treatments or vaccines we tested in NHP, to this large cohort of untreated animals demonstrated the value of in vivo imaging in preclinical trials.
O'Bryhim BE, Lin JB, Van Stavern GP, Apte RS. OCT Angiography Findings in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease: 3-Year Follow-Up. Ophthalmology 2021;128(10):1489-1491.
Parikh R, Sakurada Y, Yannuzzi LA. Multimodal Imaging to Monitor Recurrent Serpiginous Choroiditis. Ophthalmology 2018;125(8):1252.
Park EA, Tsikata E, Lee JJ, Shieh E, Braaf B, Vakoc BJ, Bouma BE, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Artifact Rates for 2D Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Versus 3D Neuroretinal Rim Thickness Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020;9(10):10.Abstract
Purpose: To compare the rates of clinically significant artifacts for two-dimensional peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness versus three-dimensional (3D) neuroretinal rim thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Only one eye per patient was used for analysis of 120 glaucoma patients and 114 normal patients. For RNFL scans and optic nerve scans, 15 artifact types were calculated per B-scan and per eye. Neuroretinal rim tissue was quantified by the minimum distance band (MDB). Global MDB neuroretinal rim thicknesses were calculated before and after manual deletion of B-scans with artifacts and subsequent automated interpolation. A clinically significant artifact was defined as one requiring manual correction or repeat scanning. Results: Among glaucomatous eyes, artifact rates per B-scan were significantly more common in RNFL scans (61.7%, 74 of 120) compared to B-scans in neuroretinal rim volume scans (20.9%, 1423 of 6820) (95% confidence interval [CI], 31.6-50.0; < 0.0001). For clinically significant artifact rates per eye, optic nerve scans had significantly fewer artifacts (15.8% of glaucomatous eyes, 13.2% of normal eyes) compared to RNFL scans (61.7% of glaucomatous eyes, 25.4% of normal eyes) (glaucoma group: 95% CI, 34.1-57.5, < 0.0001; normal group: 95% CI, 1.3-23.3, = 0.03). Conclusions: Compared to the most commonly used RNFL thickness scans, optic nerve volume scans less frequently require manual correction or repeat scanning to obtain accurate measurements. Translational Relevance: This paper illustrates the potential for 3D OCT algorithms to improve in vivo imaging in glaucoma.
Porporato N, Baskaran M, Tun TA, Sultana R, Tan M, Quah JHM, Allen JC, Perera S, Friedman DS, Cheng CY, Aung T. Understanding diagnostic disagreement in angle closure assessment between anterior segment optical coherence tomography and gonioscopy. Br J Ophthalmol 2020;104(6):795-799.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although being a more objective tool for assessment and follow-up of angle closure, reliability studies have reported a moderate diagnostic performance for anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technologies when comparing with gonioscopy as the reference standard. We aim to determine factors associated with diagnostic disagreement in angle closure when assessed by anterior segment swept source OCT (SS-OCT, CASIA SS-1000; Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) and gonioscopy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. A total of 2027 phakic subjects aged ≥50 years, with no relevant previous ophthalmic history, were consecutively recruited from a community polyclinic in Singapore. Gonioscopy and SS-OCT (128 radial scans) for the entire circumference of the angle were performed for each subject. A two-quadrant closed gonioscopic definition was used. On SS-OCT images, angle closure was defined as iridotrabecular contact (ITC) to the extent of ≥35%, ≥50% and ≥75% of the circumferential angle. Diagnostic disagreements between both methods, that is, false positives or overcalls and false negatives or undercalls were defined, respectively, as gonioscopic open/closed angles inversely assessed as closed/open by SS-OCT. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-two (14.7%) resulted in overcall results (false positives) when ≥50% of the angle circumference was closed using SS-OCT. These eyes had significantly wider (anterior chamber width, 11.7 vs 11.6 mm, p<0.001) and deeper (anterior chamber depth (ACD), 2.4 vs 2.2 mm, p<0.001) anterior chambers than eyes assessed by both methods as closed (true positives). Deeper ACD (OR 9.31) and lower lens vault (LV) (OR 0.04) were significantly associated with a false positive diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. Most of these cases had short (52.6%) or irregular (39%) ITC in SS-OCT images. CONCLUSIONS: We found that anterior chamber dimensions, determined by ACD and LV, were factors significantly associated with diagnostic disagreement between anterior segment SS-OCT and gonioscopy in angle closure assessment.
Quiroz YT, Schultz AP, Chen K, Protas HD, Brickhouse M, Fleisher AS, Langbaum JB, Thiyyagura P, Fagan AM, Shah AR, Muniz M, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Munoz C, Garcia G, Acosta-Baena N, Giraldo M, Tirado V, Ramírez DL, Tariot PN, Dickerson BC, Sperling RA, Lopera F, Reiman EM. Brain Imaging and Blood Biomarker Abnormalities in Children With Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study. JAMA Neurol 2015;72(8):912-9.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized in children at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation-carrying and noncarrying children with ADAD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional measures of structural and functional MRI and plasma Aβ assays were assessed in 18 PSEN1 E280A carriers and 19 noncarriers aged 9 to 17 years from a Colombian kindred with ADAD. Recruitment and data collection for this study were conducted at the University of Antioquia and the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in Medellín, Colombia, between August 2011 and June 2012. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: All participants had blood sampling, structural MRI, and functional MRI during associative memory encoding and resting-state and cognitive assessments. Outcome measures included plasma Aβ1-42 concentrations and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios, memory encoding-dependent activation changes, resting-state connectivity, and regional gray matter volumes. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and search regions related to AD. RESULTS: Similar to findings in adult mutation carriers, in the later preclinical and clinical stages of ADAD, mutation-carrying children were distinguished from control individuals by significantly higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels (mean [SD]: carriers, 18.8 [5.1] pg/mL and noncarriers, 13.1 [3.2] pg/mL; P < .001) and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios (mean [SD]: carriers, 0.32 [0.06] and noncarriers, 0.21 [0.03]; P < .001), as well as less memory encoding task-related deactivation in parietal regions (eg, mean [SD] parameter estimates for the right precuneus were -0.590 [0.50] for noncarriers and -0.087 [0.38] for carriers; P < .005 uncorrected). Unlike carriers in the later stages, mutation-carrying children demonstrated increased functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with medial temporal lobe regions (mean [SD] parameter estimates were 0.038 [0.070] for noncarriers and 0.190 [0.057] for carriers), as well as greater gray matter volumes in temporal regions (eg, left parahippocampus; P < . 049, corrected for multiple comparisons). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Children at genetic risk for ADAD have functional and structural brain changes and abnormal levels of plasma Aβ1-42. The extent to which the underlying brain changes are either neurodegenerative or developmental remains to be determined. This study provides additional information about the earliest known biomarker changes associated with ADAD.

Rageh A, Ashraf M, Fleming A, Silva PS. Automated Microaneurysm Counts on Ultrawide Field Color and Fluorescein Angiography Images. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):315-321.Abstract
BACKGROUND: The severity and extent of microaneurysms (MAs) have been used to determine diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and estimate the risk of DR progression over time. The recent introduction of ultrawide field (UWF) imaging has allowed ophthalmologists to readily image nearly the entire retina. Manual counting of MAs, especially on UWF images, is laborious and time-consuming, limiting its potential use in clinical settings. Automated MA counting techniques are potentially more accurate and reproducible compared to manual methods. METHOD: Review of available literature on current techniques of automated MA counting techniques on both ultrawide field (UWF) color images (CI) and fluorescein angiography (FA) images. RESULTS: Automated MA counting techniques on UWF images are still in the early phases of development with UWF-FA counts being further along. Early studies have demonstrated that these techniques are accurate and reproducible. CONCLUSION: Automated techniques may be an appropriate option for detecting and quantifying MAs on UWF images, especially in eyes with earlier DR severity. Larger studies are needed to appropriately validate these techniques and determine if they add substantially to clinical practice compared to standard DR grading.
Ratanawongphaibul K, Tsikata E, Zemplenyi M, Lee H, Margeta MA, Ondeck CL, Kim J, Pan BX, Petrakos P, Coleman AL, Yu F, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Earlier Detection of Glaucoma Progression Using High-Density 3-Dimensional Spectral-Domain OCT Optic Nerve Volume Scans. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;4(6):604-616.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare onset times of glaucoma progression among different glaucoma tests: disc photography (DP), visual field (VF) testing, 2-dimensional (2D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and 3-dimensional (3D) spectral-domain (SD) OCT neuroretinal rim measurements. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-four eyes of 124 patients with open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Over a 5-year period, 124 patients with open-angle glaucoma underwent yearly DP, VF testing, SD OCT RNFL thickness scans, and optic nerve volume scans (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering), all performed on the same day. From high-density optic nerve volume scans, custom-built software calculated the minimum distance band (MDB) thickness, a 3D neuroretinal rim parameter. Patients were classified as glaucoma progressors or nonglaucoma progressors using event-based analysis. Progression by DP and VF testing occurred when 3 masked glaucoma specialists unanimously concurred. Progression by RNFL and MDB thickness occurred if change of more than test-retest variability was observed. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to analyze time-to-progression data. Kappa Coefficients were used to measure agreement of progressing eyes among methods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to glaucoma progression among all 4 methods. RESULTS: Global MDB thickness detected glaucoma progression in the highest percentage of eyes (52.4%) compared with DP (16.1%; P < 0.001) and global RNFL thickness (15.3%; P < 0.001). Global MDB thickness detected glaucoma progression earlier than either DP (23 months vs. 44 months; P < 0.001) or global RNFL thickness (23 months vs. 33 months; P < 0.001). Among MDB progressing eyes, 46.2% were confirmed simultaneously or later by other conventional methods. Agreement of glaucoma-progressing eyes for all 4 methods in paired fashion were slight to fair (κ = 0.095-0.300). CONCLUSIONS: High-density 3D SD OCT neuroretinal rim measurements detected glaucoma progression approximately 1 to 2 years earlier compared with current clinically available structural tests (i.e., DP and 2D RNFL thickness measurements).