Neuro-ophthalmology

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Li Y, Andereggen L, Yuki K, Omura K, Yin Y, Gilbert H-Y, Erdogan B, Asdourian MS, Shrock C, de Lima S, Apfel U-P, Zhuo Y, Hershfinkel M, Lippard SJ, Rosenberg PA, Benowitz L. Mobile zinc increases rapidly in the retina after optic nerve injury and regulates ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017;114(2):E209-E218.Abstract

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release. Zn(2+) accumulation in amacrine cell processes involves the Zn(2+) transporter protein ZnT-3, and deletion of slc30a3, the gene encoding ZnT-3, promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration. Intravitreal injection of Zn(2+) chelators enables many RGCs to survive for months after nerve injury and regenerate axons, and enhances the prosurvival and regenerative effects of deleting the gene for phosphatase and tensin homolog (pten). Importantly, the therapeutic window for Zn(2+) chelation extends for several days after nerve injury. These results show that retinal Zn(2+) dysregulation is a major factor limiting the survival and regenerative capacity of injured RGCs, and point to Zn(2+) chelation as a strategy to promote long-term RGC protection and enhance axon regeneration.

Li L-Y, Wang Y-Y, Gao J-W, Chen J, Kang M, Ying P, Liao XL, Wang Y, Zou J, Su T, Wei H, Shao Y. The Predictive Potential of Altered Voxel-Based Morphometry in Severely Obese Patients With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Front Neurosci 2022;16:939268.Abstract
Objective: To investigate voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in meibomian gland dysfunction patients with severe obesity (PATs) and to explore the application of VBM in the early diagnosis, prevention of cognitive impairment and targeted treatment of this disease. Methods: Sixteen PATs and 12 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and underwent MRI. Whole-head images were analyzed using VBM and data were compared between groups using an independent samples t-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were utilized to assess the diagnostic value of this approach. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were used to assess cognitive impairment and were analyzed using an independent samples t-test. Results: Compared with HCs, the VBM values in PATs were reduced in the left cerebellum and right thalamus but increased in the right brainstem, right precuneus and right paracentral lobule. The results of ROC curve analysis indicated that VBM may be useful in meibomian gland disease diagnosis. Comparison of MMSE scores between groups showed mild cognitive impairment in PATs. Conclusion: PATs showed altered VBM values in some brain areas. These findings may provide information about the pathophysiology of meibomian gland dysfunction and may help to explain the underlying mechanisms of clinical manifestations in PATs, such as cognitive impairment. Abnormal VBM values in these brain areas may serve as predictive factors for development of meibomian gland disease in severely obese people and as indicators for individualized treatment.
Liebman DL, Tam EK, Lithgow MY, Kane JE, Fischbein NJ, Lefebvre DR, Chwalisz BK, Gaier ED. Optic Perineuritis Associated With Cryptococcal Meningitis Presenting With a "Hot Orbit" in a Patient With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;42(2):272-277.Abstract
ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old man presented with 3 days of progressive left retro-orbital pain, eyelid swelling, tearing, and pain with extraocular movement. His medical history was significant for type II diabetes mellitus and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, stable on no therapy since diagnosis 8 years prior. The initial examination was significant for diffuse restriction of left ocular motility, marked lid edema, and mild dyschromatopsia. Computed tomography demonstrated asymmetric left periorbital soft tissue swelling and intraconal fat stranding with an irregular left optic nerve sheath complex and clear paranasal sinuses. He was hospitalized for orbital cellulitis and treated empirically with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, but his visual acuity declined over the ensuing 2 days. Subsequent MRI demonstrated left-greater-than-right circumferential optic nerve sheath enhancement, and leptomeningeal enhancement. An orbital biopsy demonstrated monoclonal B-cell lymphocyte aggregation, whereas a lumbar puncture was positive for Cryptococcus antigen with subsequent demonstration of abundant Cryptococcus by Papanicolaou stain. The final diagnosis was optic perineuritis secondary to cryptococcal meningitis presenting with orbital inflammation. Although his clinical course was complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, symptoms and signs of optic neuropathy ultimately resolved after 1 month of intensive antifungal therapy.
Lin LY, Reshef ER, Lansberg MP, Barshak MB, Chwalisz BK, Holbrook EH, Wolkow N. Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in the Setting of Cocaine-Induced Orbital and Sinonasal Inflammation. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;Abstract
Intranasal cocaine abuse can lead to significant sinus and orbital complications, including optic neuropathy. A 46-year-old man with a history of recurrent cocaine-induced sino-orbital inflammation and infection with bony destruction presented with acute, painless, vision loss. Examination revealed no light perception vision. MRI of the orbits demonstrated new restricted diffusion of the right optic nerve on diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient sequences, consistent with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. This is the first among cases of cocaine-induced optic neuropathy in the literature to illustrate ischemic changes on MRI in the optic nerve, highlighting the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient sequences when optic neuropathy is suspected and further suggesting an underlying ischemic etiology in similar cases.
Liou VD, Yoon MK, Maher M, Chwalisz BK. Orbital Inflammation in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: To present 2 patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease with unilateral orbital inflammation, optic nerve head edema, and abnormalities of the optic nerve and nerve sheath on imaging. We review the most current literature on this important and uncommon clinical phenotype. METHODS: A case report of 2 patients and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature on orbital inflammation in MOG antibody-associated disease (MOG-AD). RESULTS: Two patients presented with decreased vision and unilateral orbital inflammation. Both had optic nerve head edema and abnormalities of the optic nerve and nerve sheath on imaging. The patients were treated with immunosuppressants and had improvement of vision changes as well as their orbital inflammatory signs. MOG antibody was positive in high titers in both patients. Only 3 other cases of orbital inflammation associated with MOG antibody have been described. In all cases, orbital signs responded rapidly to intravenous methylprednisolone, but the improvement in visual acuity was variable and less robust. CONCLUSION: Orbital inflammation is a unique and underrecognized phenotype of MOG-AD with only a few reports in the literature. In patients who present with vision loss and orbital inflammation, MOG-AD should be considered in the differential.
Littau JL, Velilla L, Hase Y, Villalba-Moreno ND, Hagel C, Drexler D, Osorio Restrepo S, Villegas A, Lopera F, Vargas S, Glatzel M, Krasemann S, Quiroz YT, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Kalaria R, Sepulveda-Falla D. Evidence of beta amyloid independent small vessel disease in familial Alzheimer's disease. Brain Pathol 2022;:e13097.Abstract
We studied small vessel disease (SVD) pathology in Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) subjects carrying the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) p.Glu280Ala mutation in comparison to those with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) as a positive control for Alzheimer's pathology and Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) bearing different NOTCH3 mutations, as positive controls for SVD pathology. Upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in life, some FAD showed mild white matter hyperintensities and no further radiologic evidence of SVD. In post-mortem studies, total SVD pathology in cortical areas and basal ganglia was similar in PSEN1 FAD and CADASIL subjects, except for the feature of arteriosclerosis which was higher in CADASIL subjects than in PSEN1 FAD subjects. Further only a few SAD subjects showed a similar degree of SVD pathology as observed in CADASIL. Furthermore, we found significantly enlarged perivascular spaces in vessels devoid of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in FAD compared with SAD and CADASIL subjects. As expected, there was greater fibrinogen-positive perivascular reactivity in CADASIL but similar reactivity in PSEN1 FAD and SAD groups. Fibrinogen immunoreactivity correlated with onset age in the PSEN1 FAD cases, suggesting increased vascular permeability may contribute to cognitive decline. Additionally, we found reduced perivascular expression of PDGFRβ AQP4 in microvessels with enlarged PVS in PSEN1 FAD cases. We demonstrate that there is Aβ-independent SVD pathology in PSEN1 FAD, that was marginally lower than that in CADASIL subjects although not evident by MRI. These observations suggest presence of covert SVD even in PSEN1, contributing to disease progression. As is the case in SAD, these consequences may be preventable by early recognition and actively controlling vascular disease risk, even in familial forms of dementia.
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M Mallery R, Poolman P, J Thurtell M, Full JM, Ledolter J, Kimbrough D, Frohman EM, Frohman TC, Kardon RH. Visual Fixation Instability in Multiple Sclerosis Measured Using SLO-OCT. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(1):196-201.Abstract
Purpose: Precise measurements of visual fixation and its instability were recorded during optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a marker of neural network dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could be used to monitor disease progression or response to treatment. Methods: A total of 16 MS patients and 26 normal subjects underwent 30 seconds of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based eye tracking during OCT scanning of retinal layer thickness. Study groups consisted of normal eyes, MS eyes without prior optic neuritis (MS wo ON), and MS eyes with prior optic neuritis (MS + ON). Kernel density estimation quantified fixation instability from the distribution of fixation points on the retina. In MS wo ON eyes, fixation instability was compared to other measures of visual and neurologic function. Results: Fixation instability was increased in MS wo ON eyes (0.062 deg2) compared to normal eyes (0.030 deg2, P = 0.015). A further increase was seen for MS + ON eyes (0.11 deg2) compared to MS wo ON (P = 0.04) and normal (P = 0.006) eyes. Fixation instability correlated weakly with ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume and showed no correlation with low-contrast letter acuity, EDSS score, or SDMT score. Conclusions: Fixation instability reflects the integrity of a widespread neural network germane to visual processing and ocular motor control, and is disturbed in MS. Further study of visual fixation, including the contribution of microsaccades to fixation instability, may provide insight into the localization of fixation abnormalities in MS and introduce innovative and easily measured outcomes for monitoring progression and treatment response.
M Mallery R, Friedman DI, Digre KB, Liu GT. Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features for Improving the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Without Papilledema: Response. J Neuroophthalmol 2019;39(3):439.
M Mallery R, Rehmani OF, Woo JH, Chen YJ, Reddi S, Salzman KL, Pinho MC, Ledbetter L, Tamhankar MA, Shindler KS, Digre KB, Friedman DI, Liu GT. Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features for Improving the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Without Papilledema. J Neuroophthalmol 2019;39(3):299-307.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Revised diagnostic criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) were proposed in part to reduce misdiagnosis of intracranial hypertension without papilledema (WOP) by using 3 or 4 MRI features of intracranial hypertension when a sixth nerve palsy is absent. This study was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI criteria and to validate their utility for diagnosing IIH in patients with chronic headaches and elevated opening pressure (CH + EOP), but WOP. METHODS: Brain MRIs from 80 patients with IIH with papilledema (WP), 33 patients with CH + EOP, and 70 control patients with infrequent episodic migraine were assessed in a masked fashion for MRI features of intracranial hypertension. RESULTS: Reduced pituitary gland height was moderately sensitive for IIH WP (80%) but had low specificity (64%). Increased optic nerve sheath diameter was less sensitive (51%) and only moderately specific (83%). Flattening of the posterior globe was highly specific (97%) but had low sensitivity (57%). Transverse venous sinus stenosis was moderately sensitive for IIH WP (78%) but of undetermined specificity. A combination of any 3 of 4 MRI features was nearly 100% specific, while maintaining a sensitivity of 64%. Of patients with CH + EOP, 30% had 3 or more MRI features, suggesting IIH WOP in those patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of any 3 of 4 MRI features is highly specific for intracranial hypertension and suggests IIH WOP when present in patients with chronic headache and no papilledema.
Maallo AMS, Moulton EA, Sieberg CB, Giddon DB, Borsook D, Holmes SA. A lateralized model of the pain-depression dyad. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021;127:876-883.Abstract
Chronic pain and depression are two frequently co-occurring and debilitating conditions. Even though the former is treated as a physical affliction, and the latter as a mental illness, both disorders closely share neural substrates. Here, we review the association of pain with depression, especially when symptoms are lateralized on either side of the body. We also explore the overlapping regions in the forebrain implicated in these conditions. Finally, we synthesize these findings into a model, which addresses gaps in our understanding of comorbid pain and depression. Our lateralized pain-depression dyad model suggests that individuals diagnosed with depression should be closely monitored for pain symptoms in the left hemibody. Conversely, for patients in pain, with the exception of acute pain with a known source, referrals in today's pain centers for psychological evaluation should be part of standard practice, within the framework of an interdisciplinary approach to pain treatment.
MacIntosh PW, Fay AM. Update on the ophthalmic management of facial paralysis. Surv Ophthalmol 2019;64(1):79-89.Abstract
Bell's palsy is the most common neurologic condition affecting the cranial nerves. Lagophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, and corneal ulceration are potential complications. In this review, we evaluate various causes of facial paralysis as well as the level 1 evidence supporting the use of a short course of oral steroids for idiopathic Bell's palsy to improve functional outcomes. Various surgical and nonsurgical techniques are also discussed for the management of residual facial dysfunction.
Madhavan R, Bansal AK, Madsen JR, Golby AJ, Tierney TS, Eskandar EN, Anderson WS, Kreiman G. Neural Interactions Underlying Visuomotor Associations in the Human Brain. Cereb Cortex 2019;29(11):4551-4567.Abstract
Rapid and flexible learning during behavioral choices is critical to our daily endeavors and constitutes a hallmark of dynamic reasoning. An important paradigm to examine flexible behavior involves learning new arbitrary associations mapping visual inputs to motor outputs. We conjectured that visuomotor rules are instantiated by translating visual signals into actions through dynamic interactions between visual, frontal and motor cortex. We evaluated the neural representation of such visuomotor rules by performing intracranial field potential recordings in epilepsy subjects during a rule-learning delayed match-to-behavior task. Learning new visuomotor mappings led to the emergence of specific responses associating visual signals with motor outputs in 3 anatomical clusters in frontal, anteroventral temporal and posterior parietal cortex. After learning, mapping selective signals during the delay period showed interactions with visual and motor signals. These observations provide initial steps towards elucidating the dynamic circuits underlying flexible behavior and how communication between subregions of frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex leads to rapid learning of task-relevant choices.
Madriz Peralta G, Cestari DM. An update of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018;29(6):495-502.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to provide a comprehensive and updated review on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), including the most current studies and treatment options. Special focus will be put on recent theories about the pathophysiology, and on newer prospective studies on treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) provided evidence supporting acetazolamide as a well tolerated first-line therapy in IIH patients with mild vision loss. Recent studies have shown venous sinus stenting as a well tolerated and effective surgical alternative for patients with refractory IIH. SUMMARY: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a vision-threatening disorder that predominantly affects obese women of childbearing age. This disorder is becoming more prevalent as the obesity epidemic continues to increase. As our understanding of this disorder continues to evolve, diagnosis and management approaches have changed over time. However, the pathogenesis for IIH remains unclear. Several theories have been proposed, including abnormalities in cerebrospinal dynamics, metabolic causes and genetics. The diagnostic criteria are based on the revised Dandy criteria. Traditionally, treatment was based on clinical experiences and retrospective studies. However, a new, prospective, randomized, controlled trial, the IIHTT, provided evidence-based data to help guide medical therapy. Additionally new, prospective studies are underway for the different surgical alternatives to treat IIH.
Maher MD, Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Collens SI, Gilbert AL, Torun N, Klein JP, Sobrin L, Buchbinder BR, Gupta R, Mukerji SS, Chwalisz BK. Clinical and neuroradiologic characteristics in varicella zoster virus reactivation with central nervous system involvement. J Neurol Sci 2022;437:120262.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation involving the cranial nerves and central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: This is a retrospective, multi-center case-series of 37 patients with VZV infection affecting the cranial nerves and CNS. RESULTS: The median age was 71 years [IQR 51.5-76]; 21 (57%) were men. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was available in 24/37 (65%); median CSF white blood cell count was 11 [IQR 2-23] cells/μL and protein was 45.5 [IQR 34.5-75.5] mg/dL. VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were positive in 6/21 (29%) CSF and 8/9 (89%) ocular samples. Clinical involvement included the optic nerve in 12 (32%), other cranial nerves in 20 (54%), brain parenchyma in 12 (32%) and spinal cord or nerve roots in 4 (11%). Twenty-seven/28 immunocompetent patients' MRIs were available for review (96%). Of the 27, 18 had T1 postcontrast fat saturated sequences without motion artifact to evaluate for cranial nerve enhancement and optic perineuritis (OPN). Eight/18 (44%) demonstrated OPN. All 8 experienced vision loss: 3 optic neuritis, 1 acute retinal necrosis, and 3 CNS vasculitis with 1 central and 1 branch retinal artery occlusion and 1 uveitis. Diplopic patients had cranial nerve and cavernous sinus enhancement. All immunosuppressed patients were imaged. Seven/9 (88%) had extensive neuraxis involvement, including encephalitis, vasculitis and transverse myelitis; one case had OPN. CONCLUSION: OPN is a frequent manifestation in VZV-associated vision loss among immunocompetent patients. Immunosuppressed patients had greater neuraxis involvement. Optimizing MRI protocols may improve early diagnosis in VZV reactivation.
Maleki N, Szabo E, Becerra L, Moulton E, Scrivani SJ, Burstein R, Borsook D. Ictal and interictal brain activation in episodic migraine: Neural basis for extent of allodynia. PLoS One 2021;16(1):e0244320.Abstract
In some patients, migraine attacks are associated with symptoms of allodynia which can be localized (cephalic) or generalized (extracephalic). Using functional neuroimaging and cutaneous thermal stimulation, we aimed to investigate the differences in brain activation of patients with episodic migraine (n = 19) based on their allodynic status defined by changes between ictal and interictal pain tolerance threshold for each subject at the time of imaging. In this prospective imaging study, differences were found in brain activity between the ictal and interictal visits in the brainstem/pons, thalamus, insula, cerebellum and cingulate cortex. Significant differences were also observed in the pattern of activation along the trigeminal pathway to noxious heat stimuli in no allodynia vs. generalized allodynia in the thalamus and the trigeminal nucleus but there were no activation differences in the trigeminal ganglion. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings provide direct evidence for the view that in migraine patients who are allodynic during the ictal phase of their attacks, the spinal trigeminal nucleus and posterior thalamus become hyper-responsive (sensitized)-to the extent that they mediate cephalic and extracephalic allodynia, respectively. In addition, descending analgesic systems seem as "switched off" in generalized allodynia.
Marsiglia M, Chwalisz BK, Maher M. Neuroradiologic Imaging of Neurologic and Neuro-Ophthalmic Complications of Coronavirus-19 Infection. J Neuroophthalmol 2021;41(4):452-460.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To review the literature and provide a summary of COVID-19-related neurologic and neuro-ophthalmic complications. METHODS: The currently available literature was reviewed on PubMed and Google Scholar using the following keywords for searches: CNS, Neuro-Ophthalmology, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, optic neuritis, pseudotumor cerebri, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), meningitis, encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. RESULTS: Neuroradiologic findings of neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic complications in relationship to COVID-19 infection were reviewed. Afferent visual pathway-related disorders with relevant imaging manifestations included fundus nodules on MRI, papilledema and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, optic neuritis, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, vascular injury with thromboembolism and infarct, leukoencephalopathy, gray matter hypoxic injury, hemorrhage, infectious meningitis/encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and PRES. Efferent visual pathway-related complications with relevant imaging manifestations were also reviewed, including orbital abnormalities, cranial neuropathy, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes, and nystagmus and other eye movement abnormalities related to rhombencephalitis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can cause central and peripheral nervous system disease, including along both the afferent and efferent components of visual axis. Manifestations of disease and long-term sequela continue to be studied and described. Familiarity with the wide variety of neurologic, ophthalmic, and neuroradiologic presentations can promote prompt and appropriate treatment and continue building a framework to understand the underlying mechanism of disease.
Masland RH. Systems neuroscience: Diversity in sight. Nature 2017;542(7642):418-419.
Master CL, Bacal D, Grady MF, Hertle R, Shah AS, Strominger M, Whitecross S, Bradford GE, Lum F, Donahue SP. Vision and Concussion: Symptoms, Signs, Evaluation, and Treatment. Pediatrics 2022;Abstract
Visual symptoms are common after concussion in children and adolescents, making it essential for clinicians to understand how to screen, identify, and initiate clinical management of visual symptoms in pediatric patients after this common childhood injury. Although most children and adolescents with visual symptoms after concussion will recover on their own by 4 weeks, for a subset who do not have spontaneous recovery, referral to a specialist with experience in comprehensive concussion management (eg, sports medicine, neurology, neuropsychology, physiatry, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology) for additional assessment and treatment may be necessary. A vision-specific history and a thorough visual system examination are warranted, including an assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment in all positions of gaze, smooth pursuit (visual tracking of a moving object), saccades (visual fixation shifting between stationary targets), vestibulo-ocular reflex (maintaining image focus during movement), near point of convergence (focusing with both eyes at near and accommodation (focusing with one eye at near because any of these functions may be disturbed after concussion. These deficits may contribute to difficulty with returning to both play and the learning setting at school, making the identification of these problems early after injury important for the clinician to provide relevant learning accommodations, such as larger font, preprinted notes, and temporary use of audio books. Early identification and appropriate management of visual symptoms, such as convergence insufficiency or accommodative insufficiency, may mitigate the negative effects of concussion on children and adolescents and their quality of life.
Mathys H, Davila-Velderrain J, Peng Z, Gao F, Mohammadi S, Young JZ, Menon M, He L, Abdurrob F, Jiang X, Martorell AJ, Ransohoff RM, Hafler BP, Bennett DA, Kellis M, Tsai L-H. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of Alzheimer's disease. Nature 2019;570(7761):332-337.Abstract
Alzheimer's disease is a pervasive neurodegenerative disorder, the molecular complexity of which remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed 80,660 single-nucleus transcriptomes from the prefrontal cortex of 48 individuals with varying degrees of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Across six major brain cell types, we identified transcriptionally distinct subpopulations, including those associated with pathology and characterized by regulators of myelination, inflammation, and neuron survival. The strongest disease-associated changes appeared early in pathological progression and were highly cell-type specific, whereas genes upregulated at late stages were common across cell types and primarily involved in the global stress response. Notably, we found that female cells were overrepresented in disease-associated subpopulations, and that transcriptional responses were substantially different between sexes in several cell types, including oligodendrocytes. Overall, myelination-related processes were recurrently perturbed in multiple cell types, suggesting that myelination has a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Our single-cell transcriptomic resource provides a blueprint for interrogating the molecular and cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.
McGrath ER, Batra A, Lam AD, Rizzo JF, Cole AJ. Clinical Reasoning: A 64-year-old man with visual distortions. Neurology 2016;87(21):e252-e256.

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