Pediatric Ophthalmology

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Kruger SJ, VanderVeen DK, Freedman SF, Bothun E, Drews-Botsch CD, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Third-Party Coverage for Aphakic Contact Lenses for Children. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019;8(3):41.
Kwon MY, Lu Z-L, Miller A, Kazlas M, Hunter DG, Bex PJ. Assessing binocular interaction in amblyopia and its clinical feasibility. PLoS One 2014;9(6):e100156.Abstract
PURPOSE: To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. METHODS: Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n = 7), anisometropic amblyopia (n = 6), strabismus without amblyopia (n = 15) and normal vision (n = 40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (∼20%) of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r = 0.94, p<0.001) but without any significant bias between the two. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that abnormal binocular interaction can be reliably captured by measuring the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye and quantitative assessment of binocular interaction is a quick and simple test that can be performed in the clinic. We believe that reliable and timely assessment of deficits in a binocular interaction may improve detection and treatment of amblyopia.
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Lambert SR, Aakalu VK, Hutchinson AK, Pineles SL, Galvin JA, Heidary G, Binenbaum G, VanderVeen DK. Intraocular Lens Implantation during Early Childhood: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(10):1454-1461.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with optical correction using an intraocular lens (IOL), contact lenses, or spectacles after cataract surgery in children 2 years of age or younger. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the databases of clinical trials in February 2019, without date or language restrictions. The search resulted in 194 potentially relevant citations, and 34 were selected for full-text review. Fourteen studies were determined to be relevant to the assessment criteria and were selected for inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to these studies. RESULTS: Intraocular lenses were associated with visual outcomes similar to outcomes for contact lenses or spectacles for children who had both bilateral and unilateral cataracts. Intraocular lenses were also associated with an increased risk of visual axis opacities. All treatments were associated with a similar incidence of glaucoma. Although ocular growth was similar for all treatments, infants younger than 6 months who underwent IOL implantation had large myopic shifts that often resulted in high myopia or severe anisometropia later in childhood. Corneal endothelial cell counts were lower in eyes that underwent IOL implantation. The incidence of strabismus was similar with all treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular lens implantation is not recommended for children 6 months of age or younger because there is a higher incidence of visual axis opacities with this treatment compared with aphakia. The best available evidence suggests that IOL implantation can be done safely with acceptable side effects in children older than 6 months of age. However, the unpredictability of ocular growth means that these children will often have large refractive errors later in childhood that may necessitate an IOL exchange or wearing spectacles or contact lenses with a large refractive correction. In addition, the training and experience of the surgeon as well as ocular and systemic comorbidities should be taken into consideration when deciding whether IOL implantation would be appropriate.
Lambert SR, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, Hutchinson AK, Wilson LB, Galvin JA, VanderVeen DK. Contact Lens Correction of Aphakia in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2018;125(9):1452-1458.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to assess the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with the 2 most commonly used contact lenses for treating aphakia in children: silicone elastomer (SE) and rigid gas permeable (RGP). METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in January 2018 in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases with no date or language restrictions. These combined searches yielded 167 citations, 27 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 10 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: The literature search identified 4 level II studies and 6 level III studies. There were insufficient data to compare visual outcomes for eyes treated using SE lenses versus RGP lenses. Silicone elastomer lenses have the advantage that they can be worn on an extended-wear basis, but they were associated with more adverse events than RGP lenses. These adverse events included microbial keratitis, corneal infiltrates, corneal edema, corneal scars, lenses adhering to the cornea, superficial punctate keratopathy, lid swelling, and conjunctival hyperemia. The lens replacement rate was approximately 50% higher for RGP lenses in the only study that directly compared SE and RGP lenses. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found in the literature on this topic. Silicone elastomer and RGP contact lenses were found to be effective for treating aphakia in children. Silicone elastomer lenses are easier to fit and may be worn on an extended-wear basis. Rigid gas permeable lenses must be removed every night and require a more customized fit, but they are associated with fewer adverse events. The choice of which lens a practitioner prescribes should be based on the particular needs of each patient.
Leviton A, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, VanderVeen DK, O'Shea MT, Kuban K, Dammann O, Dammann O. Early Postnatal IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 Blood Levels in Extremely Preterm Infants: Relationships with Indicators of Placental Insufficiency and with Systemic Inflammation. Am J Perinatol 2019;36(14):1442-1452.Abstract
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate to what extent indicators of placenta insufficiency are associated with low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in neonatal blood, and to what extent the concentrations of these growth factors are associated with concentrations of proteins with inflammatory, neurotrophic, or angiogenic properties. STUDY DESIGN:  Using multiplex immunoassays, we measured the concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1, as well as 25 other proteins in blood spots collected weekly from ≥ 880 infants born before the 28th week of gestation, and sought correlates of concentrations in the top and bottom quartiles for gestational age and day the specimen was collected. RESULTS:  Medically indicated delivery and severe fetal growth restriction (sFGR) were associated with low concentrations of IGF-1 on the first postnatal day and with high concentrations of IGFBP-1 on almost all days. Elevated concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were accompanied by elevated concentrations of many other proteins with inflammatory, neurotrophic, or angiogenic properties. CONCLUSION:  Disorders associated with impaired placenta implantation and sFGR appear to account for a relative paucity of IGF-1 on the first postnatal day. Elevated concentrations of IGF-1 and especially IGFBP-1 were associated with same-day elevated concentrations of inflammatory, neurotrophic, and angiogenic proteins.
Ley D, Hallberg B, Hansen-Pupp I, Dani C, Ramenghi LA, Marlow N, Beardsall K, Bhatti F, Dunger D, Higginson JD, Mahaveer A, Mezu-Ndubuisi OJ, Reynolds P, Giannantonio C, van Weissenbruch M, Barton N, Tocoian A, Hamdani M, Jochim E, Mangili A, Chung J-K, Turner MA, Smith LEH, Hellström A, Hellström A. rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 in Preterm Infants: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr 2019;206:56-65.e8.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 complexed with its binding protein (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other complications of prematurity among extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This phase 2 trial was conducted from September 2014 to March 2016. Infants born at a gestational age of 23 weeks to 27 weeks were randomly allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 (250 µg/kg/ 24 hours, continuous intravenous infusion from <24 hours of birth to postmenstrual age 29 weeks) or standard neonatal care, with follow-up to a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Target exposure was ≥70% IGF-1 measurements within 28-109 µg/L and ≥70% intended therapy duration. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of ROP. Secondary endpoints included time to discharge from neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and growth measures. RESULTS: Overall, 61 infants were allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3, 60 to standard care (full analysis set); 24 of 61 treated infants achieved target exposure (evaluable set). rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not decrease ROP severity or ROP occurrence. There was, however, a 53% decrease in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the full analysis set (21.3% treated vs 44.9% standard care), and an 89% decrease in the evaluable set (4.8% vs 44.9%; P = .04 and P = .02, respectively) for severity distribution between groups. There was also a nonsignificant trend toward decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage in the full analysis set (13.1% vs 23.3%) and in the evaluable set (8.3% vs 23.3%). Fatal serious adverse events were reported in 19.7% of treated infants (12/61) and 11.7% of control infants (7/60). No effect was observed on time to discharge from neonatal care/growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not affect development of ROP, but decreased the occurrence of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, with a nonsignificant decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01096784.
Liegl R, Löfqvist C, Hellström A, Smith LEH. IGF-1 in retinopathy of prematurity, a CNS neurovascular disease. Early Hum Dev 2016;102:13-19.Abstract

The retina is part of the central nervous system and both the retina as well as the brain can suffer from severe damage after very preterm birth. Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the major causes of blindness in these children and brain neuronal impairments including cognitive defects, cerebral palsy and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are also complications of very preterm birth. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) acts to promote proliferation, maturation, growth and survival of neural cells. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 are associated with ROP and defects in the IGF-1 gene are associated with CNS disorders including learning deficits and brain growth restriction. Treatment of preterm infants with recombinant IGF-1 may potentially prevent ROP and CNS disorders. This review compares the role of IGF-1 in ROP and CNS disorders. A recent phase 2 study showed a positive effect of IGF-1 on the severity of IVH but no effect on ROP. A phase 3 trial is planned.

Löfqvist CA, Najm S, Hellgren G, Engström E, Sävman K, Nilsson AK, Andersson MX, Hård A-L, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Association of Retinopathy of Prematurity With Low Levels of Arachidonic Acid: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(3):271-277.Abstract
Importance: Mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy fed matched diets except for ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) vs ω-6 LC-PUFAs demonstrate relative antiangiogenic and neuroprotective associations of ω-3 LC-PUFAs. However, supplementing preterm infants with LC-PUFAs has been inconsistent in reducing major preterm morbidities. However, few studies measured serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To examine the associated risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from the levels of circulating ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal clinical study was a further analysis of serum lipid levels from a randomized controlled trial cohort of 90 infants born at gestational age (GA) less than 28 weeks. From April 4, 2013, to September 22, 2015, cord blood samples, followed by venous blood samples, were obtained at birth and at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after birth and then at postmenstrual age (PMA) 32, 36, and 40 weeks at the neonatal intensive care unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serum phospholipid fatty acids were transmethylated and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression Spearman rank correlation, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used to compare differences between infants with no ROP and infants who developed ROP. Results: Serum levels from 78 infants (43 male [55%]; mean [SD] GA, 25.5 [1.4] weeks) with a known ROP outcome were evaluated. Lower area under the curve (AUC) of arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4 ω-6) was seen in infants with a later diagnosis of ROP compared with infants with no ROP in the first month of life (mean, 34.05 [95% CI, 32.10-36.00] vs 37.15 [95% CI, 34.85-39.46]; P < .05). In addition, lower levels of AA at 32 weeks' PMA were seen in infants with later severe ROP compared with in those without ROP (mean, 7.06 [95% CI, 6.60-7.52] vs 8.74 [95% CI, 7.80-9.67]; P < .001). In logistic modeling, low postnatal serum levels of AA and GA at birth identified with a sensitivity greater than 90% of infants who developed ROP. Conclusions and Relevance: Low postnatal levels of the ω-6 LC-PUFAs (AA) are strongly associated with ROP development. Evaluating postnatal AA fraction after birth in addition to GA may be useful for ROP prediction. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02760472.
Ludwig CA, Jabbehdari S, Ji M, Vail D, Al-Moujahed A, Rosenblatt T, Azad AD, Veerappan M, Callaway NF, Moshfeghi DM. Higher prevalence of fundus haemorrhages in early-screened (NEST Study) as compared to late-screened (SUNDROP Study) newborn populations. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether timing of ophthalmic screening influences prevalence of neonatal fundus haemorrhages. We compared the prevalence of fundus haemorrhages in two populations: term newborns screened early (less than 72 hours) and preterm newborns screened late (4-11 weeks). Additionally, we reviewed the literature on timing and prevalence of newborn haemorrhages. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study. Infants who underwent wide-angle ophthalmic digital imaging over one overlapping year in the Newborn Eye Screen Testing (NEST) or Stanford University Network for Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (SUNDROP) programme were included. The PubMed database was filtered to include English-language articles dating back to 1950. Nine articles were selected for review based on inclusion of the prevalence of newborn fundus haemorrhages at multiple time points. RESULTS: A total of 202 patients received early imaging in the NEST cohort and 73 patients received late imaging in the SUNDROP cohort. In the NEST cohort, 20.2% of newborns had haemorrhages. In contrast, we found haemorrhages in only one case or 1.4% of the SUNDROP cohort. Using prevalence data from nine additional studies, we developed a predicted probabilities model of newborn haemorrhages. Per this model, the probability of seeing a haemorrhage if you screen an infant at 1 hour is 18.8%, at 2 weeks is 2.9% and at 1 month is 0.28%. CONCLUSION: We found a significant difference in the prevalence of fundus haemorrhages between the early-screened NEST cohort and the late-screened, preterm SUNDROP cohort. Likely, this difference is due to the transient nature of most newborn haemorrhages.
Lundgren P, Klevebro S, Brodin P, Smith LEH, Hallberg B, Hellström A. Leucocytosis is associated with retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm infants. Acta Paediatr 2019;108(7):1357-1358.
Lundgren P, Hellgren G, Pivodic A, Sävman K, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Erythropoietin serum levels, versus anaemia as risk factors for severe retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res 2019;86(2):276-282.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants with anaemia are treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). It is debated whether rhEPO treatment is a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We evaluated longitudinal EPO and haemoglobin levels, blood transfusions and neonatal morbidities as risk factors for severe ROP. METHOD: This prospective study included 78 Swedish infants, born <28 weeks gestational age (GA), screened for ROP. We tested serum EPO levels on postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 28 and at postmenstrual ages 32, 36 and 40 weeks. Haemoglobin levels and blood transfusions were recorded during postnatal weeks 1-4. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin ≤110 g/L. RESULTS: During postnatal week 1, infants with severe ROP requiring treatment (28%) more frequently developed anaemia (42.9% versus 8.0%, P = 0.003) and had higher mean EPO levels (postnatal day 7: 14.2 versus 10.8 mIU/mL, P = 0.003) compared to infants with no or less severe ROP not requiring treatment. In multivariable analyses, GA and anaemia during week 1 remained significant risk factors, but elevated EPO level postnatal day 7 was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among infants born <28 weeks GA, anaemia during week 1 was a significant risk factor for severe ROP requiring treatment but not elevated EPO levels.
Lundgren P, Hård A-L, Wilde Å, Löfqvist C, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Implementing higher oxygen saturation targets reduced the impact of poor weight gain as a predictor for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(5):767-773.Abstract
AIM: This study evaluated poor weight gain as a risk factor for infants who required treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), by comparing those born before and after the implementation of higher oxygen saturation (SpO ) targets at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. METHODS: We compared infants born at less than 31 weeks, who were screened and, or, treated for ROP: 127 in 2011-2012 when SpO targets were 88-92% and 142 in 2015-2016 when they were 91-95%. The subjects were reviewed for birth characteristics, weekly weight and ROP treatment. Data were analysed using the weight, insulin-like growth factor 1, neonatal, ROP (WINROP) prediction tool. RESULTS: The 2011-2012 infants who needed ROP treatment (12.6%) had significantly poorer postnatal weight gain than those who did not, but this was not seen in the treated (17.6%) and nontreated ROP groups in 2015-2016. WINROP sensitivity decreased from 87.5% in 2011-12 to 48% in 2015-2016. CONCLUSION: After the SpO target range was increased from 88-92% to 91-95%, postnatal weight gain was no longer a significant risk factor and WINROP lost its ability to predict ROP requiring treatment. Risk factors clearly change as neonatal care develops.
Lundgren P, Kistner A, Andersson EM, Hansen Pupp I, Holmström G, Ley D, Niklasson A, Smith LEH, Wu C, Hellström A, Löfqvist C. Low birth weight is a risk factor for severe retinopathy of prematurity depending on gestational age. PLoS One 2014;9(10):e109460.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of low birth weight as a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that will require treatment in correlation with gestational age at birth (GA). STUDY DESIGN: In total, 2941 infants born <32 weeks GA were eligible from five cohorts of preterm infants previously collected for analysis in WINROP (Weight IGF-I Neonatal ROP) from the following locations: Sweden (EXPRESS) (n = 426), North America (n = 1772), Boston (n = 338), Lund (n = 52), and Gothenburg (n = 353). Data regarding GA at birth, birth weight (BW), gender, and need for ROP treatment were retrieved. Birth weight standard deviation scores (BWSDS) were calculated with Swedish as well as Canadian reference models. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as BWSDS less than -2.0 SDS using the Swedish reference and as BW below the 10th percentile using the Canadian reference charts. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that low GA (p<0.001), low BW (p<0.001), male gender (p<0.05), low BWSDSCanada (p<0.001), and SGACanada (p<0.01) were risk factors for ROP that will require treatment. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, low GA (p<0.0001), male gender (p<0.01 and p<0.05), and an interaction term of BWSDS*GA group (p<0.001), regardless of reference chart, were risk factors. Low BWSDS was less important as a risk factor in infants born at GA <26 weeks compared with infants born at GA ≥26 weeks calculated with both reference charts (BWSDSSweden, OR = 0.80 vs 0.56; and BWSDSCanada, OR = 0.72 vs 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Low BWSDS as a risk factor for vision-threatening ROP is dependent on the infant's degree of immaturity. In more mature infants (GA ≥26 weeks), low BWSDS becomes a major risk factor for developing ROP that will require treatment. These results persist even when calculating BW deficit with different well-established approaches.
Lundgren P, Athikarisamy SE, Patole S, Lam GC, Smith LE, Simmer K. Duration of anaemia during the first week of life is an independent risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(5):759-766.Abstract
AIM: This study evaluated the correlation between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), anaemia and blood transfusions in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: We included 227 infants born below 28 weeks of gestation at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Australia, from 2014-2016. Birth characteristics and risk factors for ROP were retrieved, and anaemia and severe anaemia were defined as a haemoglobins of <110 g/L and <80 g/L, respectively. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Retinopathy of prematurity treatment was needed in 11% of cases and the mean number of blood transfusions (p < 0.01), and mean number of weeks of anaemia (p < 0.001) and of severe anaemia (p < 0.05), had positive associations with ROP cases warranting treatment. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the best-fit model of risk factors included anaemic days during first week of life, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46% and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.16-1.83 (p < 0.05), sepsis during the first 4 weeks of life (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.10-9.00, p < 0.05) and days of ventilation (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The duration of anaemia during the first week of life was an independent risk factor for ROP warranting treatment and preventing early anaemia may decrease this risk.
Lundgren P, Nilsson AK, Hellgren G, Pivodic A, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Association between low fatty acid levels and platelet count in infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2020;109(12):2547-2548.
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Ma KK, Robson CD, Gaier ED, Gise R. Reversal of Visual Loss From Skull Base Osteomyelitis in a Pediatric Patient. J Neuroophthalmol 2021;Publish Ahead of Print
MacKinnon S, Proctor MR, Rogers GF, Meara JG, Whitecross S, Dagi LR. Improving ophthalmic outcomes in children with unilateral coronal synostosis by treatment with endoscopic strip craniectomy and helmet therapy rather than fronto-orbital advancement. J AAPOS 2013;17(3):259-65.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare long-term ophthalmic outcomes in infants treated for unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) by endoscopic strip craniectomy (ESC) and helmet therapy with those treated by fronto-orbital advancement (FOA). METHODS: Consecutive patients with UCS, uncomplicated by other suture synostosis, were identified by a retrospective review of medical records. Assessment of presence of amblyopia, cycloplegic refraction, strabismus, and strabismus surgical intervention at all visits was recorded. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2010, 22 patients were treated by FOA (mean follow-up, 21.5 months) and 21 patients with ESC and helmet therapy (mean follow-up, 23.5 months). The mean aniso-astigmatism was equal; however, the SD was greater for those treated by FOA (P < 0.05). A more severe pattern of strabismus developed in those treated by FOA (P < 0.0001). Those treated by FOA were more likely to have amblyopia (P = 0.0015) and to undergo surgical correction of their strabismus (odds ratio, 6.3:1). CONCLUSIONS: Children with UCS treated with ESC and helmeting had less severe overelevation in adduction, amblyopia, extremes of astigmatism, and less need for strabismus surgery than those treated by FOA. Although the reason for these more favorable outcomes remains uncertain, we speculate that the earlier timing of ESC or differences in the anatomical changes resulting from the two procedures may play a role.
Maleki A, Anesi SD, Look-Why S, Manhapra A, Foster SC. Pediatric uveitis: A comprehensive review. Surv Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
Pediatric uveitis accounts for 5-10% of all uveitis. Uveitis in children differs from adult uveitis in that it is commonly asymptomatic and can become chronic and cause chronic damage to ocular structures. The diagnosis might be delayed for multiple reasons, including the preverbal age and difficulties in examining young children. Pediatric uveitis may be infectious or non-infectious in etiology. The etiology of non-infectious uveitis is presumed to be autoimmune or autoinflammatory. The most common causes of uveitis in this age group are idiopathic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. The stepladder approach for the treatment of pediatric uveitis is based on expert opinion and algorithms proposed by multidisciplinary panels. Uveitis morbidities in pediatric patients include cataract, glaucoma, and amblyopia. Pediatric patients with uveitis should be frequently examined until remission is achieved. Once in remission, the interval between follow-up visits can be extended; however, it is recommended that even after remission the child should be seen every 8-12 weeks depending on the history of uveitis and the medications used. Close follow up is also necessary as uveitis can flare up during immunomodulatory therapy. It is crucial to measure the impact of uveitis, it's treatment, and it's complications on the child and the child's family. Visual acuity can be considered as an acceptable criterion for assessing visual function. Additionally, the number of cells in the anterior chamber can be a measure of disease activity. We review different aspects of pediatric uveitis. We discuss the mechanisms of noninfectious uveitis, including autoimmune and autoinflammatory etiologies, and the risks of developing uveitis in children with systemic rheumatologic diseases. We address the risk factors for developing morbidities, the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria for timing and anatomical classifications and describe a stepladder approach in the treatment of pediatric uveitis based on expert opinion and algorithms proposed by multi-disciplinary panels. We describe the most common entities for each type of anatomical classification and complications of uveitis for the pediatric population. Additionally, we address monitoring of children with uveitis and evaluation of Quality of Life.
Mantagos IS, Kleinman ME, Kieran MW, Gordon LB. Ophthalmologic Features of Progeria. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;182:126-132.Abstract
PURPOSE: To establish the natural history of ophthalmic characteristics in Progeria patients and to determine incidence of ocular manifestations. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of patients with Progeria who were seen between 2007 and 2016. METHODS: Setting: Tertiary-care academic center. PATIENT POPULATION: Fourteen patients (28 eyes) with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome were included for statistical analysis from a total of 84 patients who have been enrolled in clinical trials for Progeria at Boston Children's Hospital. Clinical treatment trial patients who were not seen at the Department of Ophthalmology at our hospital, but for whom we had detailed clinical ophthalmologic records, were also included. This essentially represents an estimated 20% of the world's known patients with Progeria. Interventions or Observation Procedures: Complete ophthalmic examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity, stereoacuity, refraction, clinical findings of slit-lamp and dilated fundus examinations. RESULTS: Ophthalmic manifestations noted were hyperopia and signs of ocular surface disease owing to nocturnal lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy. Additional ophthalmic manifestations included reduced brow hair, madarosis, and reduced accommodation. Most patients had relatively good acuity; however, advanced ophthalmic disease was associated with reduced acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Children with Progeria are at risk for serious ophthalmic complications owing to ocular surface disease. Children with Progeria should have an ophthalmic evaluation at the time of diagnosis and at least yearly after that. Aggressive ocular surface lubrication is recommended, including the use of tape tarsorrhaphy at night.
Mazel EC, Bailin ES, Tietjen MW, Palmer PA. A Questionnaire Assessing What Teachers of the Visually Impaired Know About Cortical/Cerebral Vision Impairment. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:41-47.Abstract
Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is now the main cause of visual impairment in developed countries, yet it remains poorly understood. Four hundred and ninteen teachers of the visually impaired (TVIs) from across the United States responded to a questionnaire targeted at evaluating the preparedness of TVIs to serve their students with CVI. The TVIs were asked about their background knowledge, their abilities to assess a student with CVI, and their abilities to apply what they know to best help their students. The primary finding was that there is a perceived unmet need for TVIs to receive formal training in CVI during their certification. The results of this survey provide a foundation for future research on CVI knowledge and education among TVIs.

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