Pediatric Ophthalmology

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Minaeva O, Sarangi S, Ledoux DM, Moncaster JA, Parsons DS, Washicosky KJ, Black CA, Weng FJ, Ericsson M, Moir RD, Tripodis Y, Clark JI, Tanzi RE, Hunter DG, Goldstein LE. In Vivo Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering Eye Scanner Detects Molecular Aging in Humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020;75(9):e53-e62.Abstract
The absence of clinical tools to evaluate individual variation in the pace of aging represents a major impediment to understanding aging and maximizing health throughout life. The human lens is an ideal tissue for quantitative assessment of molecular aging in vivo. Long-lived proteins in lens fiber cells are expressed during fetal life, do not undergo turnover, accumulate molecular alterations throughout life, and are optically accessible in vivo. We used quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) to measure age-dependent signals in lenses of healthy human subjects. Age-dependent QLS signal changes detected in vivo recapitulated time-dependent changes in hydrodynamic radius, protein polydispersity, and supramolecular order of human lens proteins during long-term incubation (~1 year) and in response to sustained oxidation (~2.5 months) in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that QLS analysis of human lens proteins provides a practical technique for noninvasive assessment of molecular aging in vivo.
Modest JR, Johnston SC, Majzoub KM, Moore B, Trudell EK, Ramsey JE, Vernacchio L. Results of a primary care-based quality improvement project to optimize chart-based vision screening for preschool age children. J AAPOS 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE: To design chart-based vision screening for preschool-aged children. METHODS: Our program consisted of educational sessions for providers as well as hands-on training for practice staff. We evaluated the intervention through pre- and post-intervention review of medical records. RESULTS: Completion of full vision screening (distance visual acuity in each eye plus stereovision beginning at 3 years of age, as recommended at the time of the project) at well-child visits improved for 5-year-olds (45.0% to 58.2%; risk difference +13.2% [95% CI, 1.7-24.7]) and 4-year-olds (39.3% to 51.4%; risk difference +12.0% [95% CI, 0.7-23.4]) but declined somewhat among 3-year-olds (23.1% to 14.3%; risk difference, -8.8% [95% CI, -17.7 to 0.0]). Risk factors for not being fully screened included being 3 years old (risk ratio of 4.1 compared to 5-year-olds) and being a patient of a small practice (risk ratio of 1.9 compared to large practices). CONCLUSIONS: This quality improvement project showed that screening for visual acuity and stereovision among preschool-aged children using chart-based techniques is difficult to accomplish and unlikely to be consistently successful, especially among 3-year-olds.

Moskowitz A, Hansen RM, Eklund SE, Fulton AB. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in pediatric patients using vigabatrin. Doc Ophthalmol 2012;124(3):197-209.Abstract
The antiepileptic drug vigabatrin is known to cause retinal and visual dysfunction, particularly visual field defects, in some patients. Electroretinography (ERG) is used in an attempt to identify adverse effects of vigabatrin (VGB) in patients who are not candidates for conventional perimetry. We report data from 114 pediatric patients taking VGB referred for clinical evaluation; median age at test was 22.9 (2.4 to 266.1) months, and median duration of VGB use was 9.7 (0.3 to 140.7) months. Twenty-seven of them were tested longitudinally (3 to 12 ERG tests). ERG responses to full-field stimuli were recorded in scotopic and photopic conditions, and results were compared to responses from healthy control subjects. We found that abnormalities of photoreceptor and post-receptor ERG responses are frequent in these young patients. The most frequently abnormal scotopic parameter was post-receptor sensitivity, log σ, derived from the b-wave stimulus-response function; the most frequently abnormal photopic parameter was the implicit time of the OFF response (d-wave) to a long (150 ms) flash. Abnormal 30-Hz flicker response amplitude, previously reported to be a predictor of visual field loss, occurred infrequently. For the group as a whole, none of the ERG parameters changed significantly with increasing duration of VGB use. Four of the 27 patients tested longitudinally showed systematic worsening of log σ with duration of VGB use. In a subset of patients who underwent perimetry (N = 39), there was no significant association of any ERG parameter with visual field defects. We cannot determine whether the ERG abnormalities we found were due solely to the effects of VGB. We caution against over-reliance on the ERG to monitor pediatric patients for VGB toxicity and recommend further development of a reliable test of peripheral vision to supplant ERG testing.
Moustafa GA, Topham AK, Aronow ME, Vavvas DG. Paediatric ocular adnexal lymphoma: a population-based analysis. BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2020;5(1):e000483.Abstract
Objective: To investigate the incidence, clinicopathological characteristics and survival of ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) in the paediatric population. Methods and analysis: In this retrospective case series, the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was accessed to identify individuals with OAL ≤18 years of age, diagnosed between 1973 and 2015. OAL located in the eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus and orbit were included. Main outcome measures were the age-adjusted incidence rates (IRs) per 1 000 000 population at risk (calculated for the period 2000-2015) and descriptive statistics of demographic and clinicopathological features. Results: The IR of paediatric OAL was 0.12 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.16) per 1 000 000. Males (0.15; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.22) and blacks (0.24; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.42) had a higher tendency for OAL development. A total of 55 tumours in 54 children were identified. The majority were localised (78.4%), conjunctival (49.1%) lymphomas. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL, 45.5%, n=25) was the most frequent subtype, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, 9.1%, n=5), B lymphoblastic lymphoma (7.3%, n=4), follicular lymphoma (5.5%, n=3), Burkitt lymphoma (5.5%, n=3), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, 3.6%, n=2), small lymphocytic lymphoma (1.8%, n=1), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, immunoblastic (1.8%, n=1) and panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (1.8%, n=1). Localised, low-grade, conjunctival lymphomas were frequently treated with complete excision with or without radiation, while high-grade and distant tumours usually received chemotherapy. Only 29.1% of paediatric OAL cases were treated with radiation. Three out of five (60%) patients with DLBCL died of lymphoma at a median follow-up of 21 (range 10-86) months, and 1 out of 2 (50%) patients with ALCL died of lymphoma at 23 months from diagnosis. Conclusion: OAL in the paediatric population is rare. The majority of OAL are EMZL and are characterised by excellent prognosis. The histological subtype was found to be the main predictor of outcome with cancer-specific deaths observed in patients with DLBCL and ALCL.
Munro RJ, Fulton AB, Chui TYP, Moskowitz A, Ramamirtham R, Hansen RM, Prabhu SP, Akula JD. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(5):3121-31.Abstract

PURPOSE: We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, Lray(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, Eray(x), from Lraydy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for Eray(x), G(x), at every age and position. RESULTS: Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. CONCLUSIONS: We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

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Nguyen JQN, Resnick CM, Chang Y-H, Hansen RM, Fulton AB, Moskowitz A, Calabrese CE, Dagi LR. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on optic nerve function in patients with craniosynostosis and recurrent intracranial hypertension. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: Assessment of combined impact of intracranial pressure (ICH) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on optic nerve function in children with craniosynostosis (CS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study METHODS: Patients treated at Boston Children's Hospital for CS who had an ophthalmic examination that included pattern reversal (pr)VEP (2013-2014) and history of ICH based on direct measurement, papilledema, or classic features on neuroimaging and during cranial vault expansion were included. History of OSA was determined by polysomnography and associated conditions, including apnea and (adeno)tonsillectomy. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) resolved ICH absent history of OSA; (2) resolved ICH with history of OSA; (3) recurrent ICH absent history of OSA; and (4) recurrent ICH with history of OSA. Predictor variables included latency of P100 component of prVEP, best-corrected visual acuity, optic nerve appearance, visual fields and global RNFL. Primary outcome was association of prolonged P100 latency with resolved versus recurrent ICH and OSA. RESULTS: Twenty-eight children met inclusion criteria (mean age 11.6 ± 6.9 years): group 1 (N = 3); group 2 (N = 6); group 3 (N = 8); group 4 (N = 11). P100 latencies were not prolonged in groups 1 and 2. Three of 8 in group 3 and 9 of 11 in group 4 had prolonged P100 latency. Group 4 was significantly worse than group 3 (P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: History of OSA, in addition to recurrent ICH, is associated with greatest risk of optic neuropathy with CS. Ophthalmologists should encourage early management of OSA as well as ICH to optimize ophthalmic outcomes.
Nihalani BR, VanderVeen DK. Benchmarks for outcome indicators in pediatric cataract surgery. Eye (Lond) 2017;31(3):417-421.Abstract

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to establish benchmarks for outcome indicators that may help ascertain the quality of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Patients and methodsA retrospective chart review of patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation, by multiple surgeons in a tertiary-care center, from November 2005 to February 2016 was conducted. Patients with ocular comorbidities that would affect the outcomes were excluded. The outcome measures chosen were as follows: (1) final best corrected Snellen visual acuity (BCVA) in patients who had bilateral cataract surgery analyzed at the last clinic visit; (2) prediction error (PE)=expected refraction-actual refraction. Mean PE and mean absolute PE were assessed 1 month postoperatively, irrespective of age or laterality.ResultsMean age at surgery was 8.3±4.6 years and mean follow-up duration was 3.7±2.7 years. The results of outcome measures were as follows: (1) BCVA was 20/40 or better in 96% (n=124 eyes, mean patient age: 8.3±4.6 years). Remaining five eyes had amblyopia with two eyes having BCVA worse than 20/100 that did not respond to amblyopia treatment. (2) Mean PE was 0.3±1.1 D and mean absolute PE was 0.9±0.7 D. PE was within ±0.5 D in 43.0%, ±1.0 D in 66%, and ±2.0 D in 95% (n=235 eyes).ConclusionGood visual acuity after cataract surgery should be expected for children with bilateral cataracts, setting a high benchmark similar to that recommended in adult cataract surgery. Prediction error is greater in pediatric eyes than in adult eyes, setting a lower benchmark. This study establishes benchmark for outcome indicators in pediatric patients older than 2 years undergoing cataract surgery with primary IOL implantation.

Nilsson AK, Andersson MX, Sjöbom U, Hellgren G, Lundgren P, Pivodic A, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Sphingolipidomics of serum in extremely preterm infants: Association between low sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and severe retinopathy of prematurity. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021;1866(7):158939.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants are at risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that can cause impaired vision or blindness. Changes in blood lipids have been associated with ROP. This study aimed to monitor longitudinal changes in the serum sphingolipidome of extremely preterm infants and investigate the relationship to development of severe ROP. METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 47 infants born <28 gestational weeks. Serum samples were collected from cord blood and at postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28, and at postmenstrual weeks (PMW) 32, 36, and 40. Serum sphingolipids and phosphatidylcholines were extracted and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Associations between sphingolipid species and ROP were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. RESULTS: The serum concentration of all investigated lipid classes, including ceramide, mono- di- and trihexosylceramide, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylcholine displayed distinct temporal patterns between birth and PMW40. There were also substantial changes in the lipid species composition within each class. Among the analyzed sphingolipid species, sphingosine-1-phosphate showed the strongest association with severe ROP, and this association was independent of gestational age at birth and weight standard deviation score change. CONCLUSIONS: The serum phospho- and sphingolipidome undergoes significant remodeling during the first weeks of the preterm infant's life. Low postnatal levels of the signaling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with the development of severe ROP.
Nilsson AK, Löfqvist C, Najm S, Hellgren G, Sävman K, Andersson MX, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Influence of Human Milk and Parenteral Lipid Emulsions on Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Extremely Preterm Infants. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2019;43(1):152-161.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely are at risk of a deficiency in ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated how fatty acids from breast milk and parenteral lipid emulsions shape serum LC-PUFA profiles in extremely preterm infants during early perinatal life. METHODS: Ninety infants born < 28 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive parenteral lipids with or without the ω-3 LC-PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (SMOFlipid: Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden, or Clinoleic: Baxter Medical AB, Kista, Sweden, respectively). The fatty acid composition of infant serum phospholipids was determined from birth to postmenstrual age 40 weeks, and in mother's milk total lipids on postnatal day 7. Enteral and parenteral intake of LC-PUFAs was correlated with levels in infant serum. RESULTS: Infants administered parenteral ω-3 LC-PUFAs received 4.4 and 19.3 times more DHA and EPA, respectively, over the first 2 weeks of life. Parenteral EPA but not DHA correlated with levels in infant serum. We found linear relationships between dietary EPA and DHA and infant serum levels in the Clinoleic (Baxter Medical AB) group. The volume of administered SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi) was inversely correlated with serum AA, whereas Clinoleic (Baxter Medical AB) inversely correlated with serum EPA and DHA. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no or low correlation between the amount of DHA administered parenterally and levels measured in serum. Whether this observation reflects serum phospholipid fraction only or truly represents the amount of accreted DHA needs to be investigated. None of the parenteral lipid emulsions satisfactorily maintained high levels of both ω-6 and ω-3 LC-PUFAs in infant serum.
Nilsson AK, Löfqvist C, Najm S, Hellgren G, Sävman K, Andersson MX, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decline rapidly in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm indicating the need for supplementation. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(6):1020-1027.Abstract
AIM: Our aim was to perform an in-depth analysis of the composition of fatty acids in milk from mothers delivering extremely preterm babies. We investigated longitudinal changes in milk fatty acid profiles and the relationship between several types of fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6. METHODS: Milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation from 78 mothers who delivered at less than 28 weeks of pregnancy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, from April 2013 to September 2015. Fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A reduction in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) was observed during the lactation period. The concentrations of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid declined from medians of 0.34 to 0.22 mol% and 0.29 to 0.15 mol%, respectively, between postnatal day 7 and a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Strong correlations were found between the intermediates of several classes of fatty acids, including omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9. CONCLUSION: A rapid reduction in LCPUFA content in the mother's milk during the lactation period emphasises the importance of fatty acid supplementation to infants born extremely preterm, at least during the period corresponding to the third trimester, when rapid development of the brain and adipose tissue requires high levels of LCPUFAs.
Nolan JG, Vestal M, Stone S, Dagi LR. "Plugged In". Orbit 2020;39(1):73-74.
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Oke I, Vanderveen D. Machine Learning Applications in Pediatric Ophthalmology. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):210-217.Abstract
Purpose : To describe emerging applications of machine learning (ML) in pediatric ophthalmology with an emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting visual development. Methods : Literature review of studies applying ML algorithms to problems in pediatric ophthalmology. Results : At present, the ML literature emphasizes applications in retinopathy of prematurity. However, there are increasing efforts to apply ML techniques in the diagnosis of amblyogenic conditions such as pediatric cataracts, strabismus, and high refractive error. Conclusions : A greater understanding of the principles governing ML will enable pediatric eye care providers to apply the methodology to unexplored challenges within the subspecialty.
Oke I, Alkharashi M, Petersen RA, Ashenberg A, Shah AS. Treatment of Ocular Pyogenic Granuloma With Topical Timolol. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(4):383-385.Abstract

Importance: Pyogenic granulomas, acquired vascular lesions, form on the ocular or palpebral surface related to inflammation from chalazia, trauma, or surgery. They can be unsightly, spontaneously bleed, and cause irritation to patients. Observations: A case series is presented of 4 consecutive children with acquired ocular surface pyogenic granulomas treated at Boston Children's Hospital from 2014 to 2016 with only topical timolol, 0.5%, twice daily for a minimum of 21 days. In all cases, complete resolution occurred within the treatment period with no recurrence for at least 3 months. There were no adverse effects from the timolol during follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance: This case series of 4 children, while limited to no greater than 12 weeks of follow-up and without control children, suggests that ocular surface pyogenic granulomas respond to topical timolol treatment, which has a lower adverse-effect profile than conventional topical steroid treatments or other medical or surgical therapies. If confirmed in larger studies with longer follow-up and controls, this may be the desired treatment modality.

Olson HE, Costantini JG, Swanson LC, Kaufmann WE, Benke TA, Fulton AB, Hansen R, Poduri A, Heidary G. Cerebral visual impairment in CDKL5 deficiency disorder: vision as an outcome measure. Dev Med Child Neurol 2021;Abstract
AIM: To characterize the neuro-ophthalmological phenotype of cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency disorder (CDD) and assess visual acuity as a reproducible, quantitative outcome measure. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from patients with CDD. Complete neuro-ophthalmological assessments, including visual acuity, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 26 patients (22 females, four males; median age 4y, interquartile range 2y 1mo-7y 10mo), cerebral visual impairment (CVI), defined as visual dysfunction in the absence of ocular or anterior visual pathway abnormalities, was diagnosed in all those over 2 years of age. Ophthalmological examinations revealed nystagmus in 10 patients and strabismus in 24 patients. Visual acuity was measured in 24 patients, by preferential looking in all and by sweep visual evoked potential in 13. Visual acuities were lower than age expectations and demonstrated improvement in the first 3 years. Adjusting for age and sex, average preferential looking visual acuity after 2 years of age was higher in patients with intact mobility than in those who were non-mobile. INTERPRETATION: CVI was observed in patients with CDD. Visual acuity improved over time and correlated with mobility. Visual acuity, as a quantifiable measure of visual function, should be considered as an outcome measure in pre-clinical and clinical studies for CDD.
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, Holmes JM, Manny RE, Lazar EL, Birch EE, Kelly KR, Summers AI, Martinson SR, Raghuram A, Colburn JD, Law C, Marsh JD, Bitner DP, Kraker RT, Wallace DK. A Randomized Trial of Binocular Dig Rush Game Treatment for Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years. Ophthalmology 2019;126(3):456-466.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game plus continued spectacle correction vs. continued spectacle correction alone. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-eight participants aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia (33-72 letters, i.e., approximately 20/200 to 20/40) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were required to have at least 16 weeks of optical treatment in spectacles if needed or demonstrate no improvement in amblyopic-eye visual acuity (VA) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. METHODS: Eligible participants (mean age 9.6 years, mean baseline VA of 59.6 letters, history of prior amblyopia treatment other than spectacles in 96%) were randomly assigned to treatment for 8 weeks with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game (prescribed for 1 hour per day 5 days per week) plus spectacle wear if needed (n = 69) or continued spectacle correction alone if needed (n = 69). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 4 weeks, assessed by a masked examiner. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA letter score improved from baseline by 1.3 (2-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-2.6; 0.026 logMAR) with binocular treatment and by 1.7 (2-sided 95% CI: 0.4-3.0; 0.034 logMAR) with continued spectacle correction alone. After adjusment for baseline VA, the letter score difference between groups (binocular minus control) was -0.3 (95% CI: -2.2 to 1.5, P = 0.71, difference of -0.006 logMAR). No difference in letter scores was observed between groups when the analysis was repeated after 8 weeks of treatment (adjusted mean: -0.1, 98.3% CI: -2.4 to 2.1). For the binocular group, adherence data from the iPad indicated that slightly more than half of the participants (58% and 56%) completed >75% of prescribed treatment by the 4- and 8-week visits, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In children aged 7 to 12 years who have received previous treatment for amblyopia other than spectacles, there was no benefit to VA or stereoacuity from 4 or 8 weeks of treatment with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game.
Phanphruk W, Alkharashi M, Bilge A, Hunter DG. Sedated suture adjustment in children undergoing adjustable-suture strabismus surgery. J AAPOS 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: To study methods and adverse events of postoperative, sedated suture adjustment after strabismus surgery in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). METHODS: We reviewed the postoperative experience of all children ≤18 years of age undergoing adjustable suture strabismus surgery at Boston Children's Hospital over a 3-year period. Time in the hospital, adverse events, and surgical outcomes were reviewed to evaluate safety and healthcare resource utilization. RESULTS: Of 356 patients, 113 required suture adjustment in the PACU, including 24 adjusted while awake and 89 adjusted under sedation. For sedation, sequential boluses of propofol were administered until adjustment was complete. Complete data from the sedated adjustment was available in 76 patients. The median initial bolus was 30 mg; the median total propofol rate was 273 mcg/kg/min. Twelve patients (16%) required only a single bolus of propofol. Of remaining 64 patients, median time from initial to final propofol dose was 7 minutes. Median anesthesiologist time in the PACU was 13 minutes. In the sedated adjustment group, there were no clinically significant adverse events, and the pain score never exceeded 6 (of a possible 10). Median duration of PACU stay was shortest in the group not requiring adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Sedated suture adjustment allows for fine-tuning of postoperative binocular alignment in children and uncooperative adults. No adverse events were observed in our study group, but the procedure does increase the time patients spend in the hospital. This work will inform disclosure of risks and benefits of sedated adjustment while allowing for more accurate assessment of the cost and quality of adjustable sutures in children.
Pineles SL, Kraker RT, VanderVeen DK, Hutchinson AK, Galvin JA, Wilson LB, Lambert SR. Atropine for the Prevention of Myopia Progression in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2017;124(12):1857-1866.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on the efficacy of topical atropine for the prevention of myopic progression in children. METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in December 2016 in the PubMed database with no date restrictions, but were limited to studies published in English, and in the Cochrane Library database without any restrictions. The combined searches yielded 98 citations, 23 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 17 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: Seventeen level I, II, and III studies were identified. Most of the studies reported less myopic progression in children treated with atropine compared with various control groups. All 8 of the level I and II studies that evaluated primarily myopic progression revealed less myopic progression with atropine (myopic progression ranging from 0.04±0.63 to 0.47±0.91 diopters (D)/year) compared with control participants (myopic progression ranging from 0.38±0.39 to 1.19±2.48 D/year). In studies that evaluated myopic progression after cessation of treatment, a rebound effect was noted. Several studies evaluated the optimal dosage of atropine with regard to myopic progression, rebound after treatment cessation, and minimization of side effects. Lower dosages of atropine (0.5%, 0.1%, and 0.01%) were found to be slightly less effective during treatment periods of 1 to 2 years, but they were associated with less rebound myopic progression (for atropine 0.01%, mean myopic progression after treatment cessation of 0.28±0.33 D/year, compared with atropine 0.5%, 0.87±0.52 D/year), fewer side effects, and similar long-term results for myopic progression after the study period and rebound effect were considered. The most robust and well-designed studies were carried out in Asian populations. Studies involving patients of other ethnic backgrounds failed to provide sufficient evidence of an effect of atropine on myopic progression. CONCLUSIONS: Level I evidence supports the use of atropine to prevent myopic progression. Although there are reports of myopic rebound after treatment is discontinued, this seems to be minimized by using low doses (especially atropine 0.01%).
Pineles SL, Aakalu VK, Hutchinson AK, Galvin JA, Heidary G, Binenbaum G, VanderVeen DK, Lambert SR. Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2020;127(2):261-272.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature assessing the efficacy of binocular therapy for the treatment of amblyopia compared with standard treatments. METHODS: Literature searches with no date restrictions and limited to the English language were conducted in January 2018 and updated in April 2019 in the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library database with no restrictions. The search yielded 286 citations, and the full text of 50 articles was reviewed. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria for this assessment and were assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. Six studies were rated level I, 1 study was rated level II, and 13 studies were rated level III because of the impact on the development and popularization of this technology. RESULTS: Two of the level I and II studies reviewed described a significant improvement in visual acuity in the binocular group versus standard patching standard treatment (the total number of patients in these 2 studies was 147). However, the 5 studies that failed to show a visual improvement from binocular therapy compared with standard treatments were larger and more rigorously designed (the total number of patients in these 5 studies was 813). Level I and II studies also failed to show a significant improvement over baseline in sensory status, including depth of suppression and stereopsis of those treated with binocular therapy. Several smaller level III case series (total number of patients in these 13 studies was 163) revealed more promising results than the binocular treatments studied in the level I and II studies, especially using treatments that are more engaging and are associated with better compliance. CONCLUSIONS: There is no level I evidence to support the use of binocular treatment as a substitute for current therapies for amblyopia (including patching and optical treatment). Furthermore, 2 large randomized controlled trials showed inferior performance compared with standard patching treatment. On the basis of this review of the published literature, binocular therapy cannot be recommended as a replacement for standard amblyopia therapy. However, more research is needed to determine the potential benefits of proposed binocular treatments in the future.
Pivodic A, Johansson H, Smith LEH, Hård A-L, Löfqvist C, Yoder BA, Hartnett EM, Wu C, Bründer M-C, Lagrèze WA, Stahl A, Al-Hawasi A, Larsson E, Lundgren P, Gränse L, Sunnqvist B, Tornqvist K, Wallin A, Holmström G, Albertsson-Wikland K, Nilsson S, Hellström A. Development and validation of a new clinical decision support tool to optimize screening for retinopathy of prematurity. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prematurely born infants undergo costly, stressful eye examinations to uncover the small fraction with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that needs treatment to prevent blindness. The aim was to develop a prediction tool (DIGIROP-Screen) with 100% sensitivity and high specificity to safely reduce screening of those infants not needing treatment. DIGIROP-Screen was compared with four other ROP models based on longitudinal weights. METHODS: Data, including infants born at 24-30 weeks of gestational age (GA), for DIGIROP-Screen development (DevGroup, N=6991) originate from the Swedish National Registry for ROP. Three international cohorts comprised the external validation groups (ValGroups, N=1241). Multivariable logistic regressions, over postnatal ages (PNAs) 6-14 weeks, were validated. Predictors were birth characteristics, status and age at first diagnosed ROP and essential interactions. RESULTS: ROP treatment was required in 287 (4.1%)/6991 infants in DevGroup and 49 (3.9%)/1241 in ValGroups. To allow 100% sensitivity in DevGroup, specificity at birth was 53.1% and cumulatively 60.5% at PNA 8 weeks. Applying the same cut-offs in ValGroups, specificities were similar (46.3% and 53.5%). One infant with severe malformations in ValGroups was incorrectly classified as not needing screening. For all other infants, at PNA 6-14 weeks, sensitivity was 100%. In other published models, sensitivity ranged from 88.5% to 100% and specificity ranged from 9.6% to 45.2%. CONCLUSIONS: DIGIROP-Screen, a clinical decision support tool using readily available birth and ROP screening data for infants born GA 24-30 weeks, in the European and North American populations tested can safely identify infants not needing ROP screening. DIGIROP-Screen had equal or higher sensitivity and specificity compared with other models. DIGIROP-Screen should be tested in any new cohort for validation and if not validated it can be modified using the same statistical approaches applied to a specific clinical setting.
Pivodic A, Nilsson S, Stahl A, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Validation of the Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale (ROP-ActS) using retrospective clinical data. Acta Ophthalmol 2021;99(2):201-206.Abstract
PURPOSE: The International Neonatal Consortium recently published a proposed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) activity scale intended for use in clinical trials after validation. The aim of this study was to validate the ROP activity scale (ROP-ActS) in a ROP screened cohort with protocol based collected data by evaluating the ability of the ROP-Act scores to predict ROP treatment. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the scale's sensitivity characteristic of disease severity by studying association with gestational age (GA) in comparison with conventionally used ROP stage and zone. METHODS: A cohort of 535 preterm infants with 3324 ROP examinations with an end-point of ROP treatment or end of screening in Gothenburg, Sweden, was included. Median GA was 28.1 weeks, 47.5% were girls, and 74 (13.8%) infants were treated for ROP. The validation was performed by estimating probabilities for ROP treatment, and by applying logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: The original ROP-ActS was overall well-ordered with respect to ability to predict ROP treatment but could be improved by re-ordering score 3 (zone II stage 1) and 5 (zone III stage 3) based on our clinical cohort data. The modified ROP-ActS was superior to ROP stage and zone in the prediction analysis of ROP treatment. Modified ROP-ActS was more strongly related to GA than currently used ROP stage, but not zone. CONCLUSION: In the studied cohort, the modified ROP-ActS could better predict ROP treatment compared to ROP stage and zone. Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale (ROP-ActS) had a superior sensitivity characteristic studied through association to GA than conventionally used ROP stage.

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