Retina

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Costela FM, Kajtezovic S, Woods RL. The Preferred Retinal Locus Used to Watch Videos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(14):6073-6081.Abstract
Purpose: Eccentric viewing is a common strategy used by people with central vision loss (CVL) to direct the eye such that the image falls onto functioning peripheral retina, known as the preferred retinal locus (PRL). It has been long acknowledged that we do not know whether the PRL used in a fixation test is also used when performing tasks. We present an innovative method to determine whether the same PRL observed during a fixation task was used to watch videos and whether poor resolution affects gaze location. Methods: The gaze of a group of 60 normal vision (NV) observers was used to define a democratic center of interest (COI) of video clips from movies and television. For each CVL participant (N = 20), we computed the gaze offsets from the COI across the video clips. The distribution of gaze offsets of the NV participants was used to define the limits of NV behavior. If the gaze offset was within this 95% degree confidence interval, we presumed that the same PRL was used for fixation and video watching. Another 15 NV participants watched the video clips with various levels of defocus blur. Results: CVL participants had wider gaze-offset distributions than NV participants (P < 0.001). Gaze offsets of 18/20 CVL participants were outside the NV confidence interval. Further, none of the 15 NV participants watching the same videos with spherical defocus blur had a gaze offset that was decentered (outside the NV confidence interval), suggesting that resolution was not the problem. Conclusions: This indicates that many CVL participants were using a PRL to view videos that differed from that found with a fixation task and that it was not caused by poor resolution alone. The relationship between these locations needs further investigation.
Costela FM, Pesudovs K, Sandberg MA, Weigel-DiFranco C, Woods RL. Validation of a vision-related activity scale for patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020;18(1):196.Abstract
PURPOSE: There have been few systematic reports of vision-related activity limitations of people with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We report a merging of data from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) obtained in five previous studies. We asked whether the Vision Function Scale (VFS; Pesudovs et al., 2010) which was developed for cataract patients would apply in this new population (condition). METHODS: Five hundred ninety-four individuals completed a total of 1753 questionnaires, with 209 participants providing responses over at least 4 years. Rasch analysis showed that the 15-item VFS was poorly targeted. A new instrument created by adding four driving-related items to the VFS had better targeting. As an indirect validation, VFS-plus person scores were compared to visual field area measured using a Goldmann perimeter, to the summed score for the combined 30-2 and 30/60-1 Humphrey Field Analyzer programs (HFA), to 30-Hz full-field cone electroretinogram (ERG) amplitude, and to ETDRS visual acuity. Changes in VFS-plus person scores with age and between four common heredity groups were also examined. RESULTS: The Rasch model of responses to the 19 VFS-plus items had person and item separation of 2.66 and 24.43 respectively. The VFS-plus person scores were related to each vision measure (p < 0.001). Over a five-year period, there was a reduction in person scores of 0.5 logits (p < 0.001). Person scores fell by an average of 0.34 logits per decade (p < 0.0001). Participants with an X-linked hereditary pattern had, on average, lower person scores (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The VFS-plus instrument quantified a highly-significant annual reduction in perceived vision-related ability over a five-year period. The outcome was consistent with clinical measures of vision, and detected lower perceived vision-related ability in participants with X-linked disease. It may be of use in future studies, but this needs to be tested in a representative population sample.
Cremers FPM, Boon CJF, Bujakowska K, Zeitz C. Special Issue Introduction: Inherited Retinal Disease: Novel Candidate Genes, Genotype-Phenotype Correlations, and Inheritance Models. Genes (Basel) 2018;9(4)Abstract
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorders.[...].
da Cruz L, Dorn JD, Humayun MS, Dagnelie G, Handa J, Barale P-O, Sahel J-A, Stanga PE, Hafezi F, Safran AB, Salzmann J, Santos A, Birch D, Spencer R, Cideciyan AV, de Juan E, Duncan JL, Eliott D, Fawzi A, Olmos de Koo LC, Ho AC, Brown G, Haller J, Regillo C, Del Priore LV, Arditi A, Greenberg RJ, Greenberg RJ. Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial. Ophthalmology 2016;123(10):2248-54.Abstract

PURPOSE: The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc, Sylmar, CA) was developed to restore some vision to patients blind as a result of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or outer retinal degeneration. A clinical trial was initiated in 2006 to study the long-term safety and efficacy of the Argus II System in patients with bare or no light perception resulting from end-stage RP. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial. Within-patient controls included the nonimplanted fellow eye and patients' native residual vision compared with their vision with the Argus II. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty participants in 10 centers in the United States and Europe. METHODS: The worse-seeing eye of blind patients was implanted with the Argus II. Patients wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by 3 computer-based, objective tests. Secondary measures included functional vision performance on objectively scored real-world tasks. RESULTS: Twenty-four of 30 patients remained implanted with functioning Argus II Systems at 5 years after implantation. Only 1 additional serious adverse event was experienced after the 3-year time point. Patients performed significantly better with the Argus II on than off on all visual function tests and functional vision tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind as a result of RP. The Argus II is the first and only retinal implant to have market approval in the European Economic Area, the United States, and Canada.

Cui Y, Zhu Y, Wang JC, Lu Y, Zeng R, Katz R, Wu DM, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Miller JB. Imaging Artifacts and Segmentation Errors With Wide-Field Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019;8(6):18.Abstract
Purpose: To analyze imaging artifacts and segmentation errors with wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from December 2018 to March 2019. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR), and healthy control eyes were included. All patients were imaged with a SS-OCTA and the Montage Angio (15 × 9 mm) was used for analysis. Images were independently evaluated by two graders using the motion artifact score (MAS). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 25.0 and R software. Results: One hundred thirty-six eyes in 98 participants with the montage image were included in the study. Patients with more severe stages of DR had higher MAS by trend test analysis ( < 0.05). The occurrence of segmentation error was 0% in the healthy group, 10.53% in the no DR group, 10.00% in the NPDR group, and 50% in the PDR group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the severity of DR and dry eye were the major factors affecting MAS ( < 0.05). There were some modifiable artifacts that could be corrected to improve image quality. Conclusions: Wide field SS-OCTA assesses retinal microvascular changes by noninvasive techniques, yet distinguishing real alterations from artifacts is paramount to accurate interpretations. DR severity and dry eye correlated with MAS. Translational Relevance: Understanding contributing factors and methods to reduce artifacts is critical to routine use and clinical trial with wide-field SS-OCTA.
Currant H, Hysi P, Fitzgerald TW, Gharahkhani P, Bonnemaijer PWM, Senabouth A, Hewitt AW, and Consortium UKBEV, and Consortium UKBEV, Atan D, Aung T, Charng J, Choquet H, Craig J, Khaw PT, Klaver CCW, Kubo M, Ong J-S, Pasquale LR, Reisman CA, Daniszewski M, Powell JE, Pébay A, Simcoe MJ, Thiadens AAHJ, van Duijn CM, Yazar S, Jorgenson E, Macgregor S, Hammond CJ, Mackey DA, Wiggs JL, Foster PJ, Patel PJ, Birney E, Khawaja AP. Genetic variation affects morphological retinal phenotypes extracted from UK Biobank optical coherence tomography images. PLoS Genet 2021;17(5):e1009497.Abstract
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables non-invasive imaging of the retina and is used to diagnose and manage ophthalmic diseases including glaucoma. We present the first large-scale genome-wide association study of inner retinal morphology using phenotypes derived from OCT images of 31,434 UK Biobank participants. We identify 46 loci associated with thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer or ganglion cell inner plexiform layer. Only one of these loci has been associated with glaucoma, and despite its clear role as a biomarker for the disease, Mendelian randomisation does not support inner retinal thickness being on the same genetic causal pathway as glaucoma. We extracted overall retinal thickness at the fovea, representative of foveal hypoplasia, with which three of the 46 SNPs were associated. We additionally associate these three loci with visual acuity. In contrast to the Mendelian causes of severe foveal hypoplasia, our results suggest a spectrum of foveal hypoplasia, in part genetically determined, with consequences on visual function.
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Dahrouj M, Miller JB. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):341-345.Abstract
Ophthalmology has been at the forefront of medical specialties adopting artificial intelligence. This is primarily due to the "image-centric" nature of the field. Thanks to the abundance of patients' OCT scans, analysis of OCT imaging has greatly benefited from artificial intelligence to expand patient screening and facilitate clinical decision-making.In this review, we define the concepts of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning and how different artificial intelligence algorithms have been applied in OCT image analysis for disease screening, diagnosis, management, and prognosis.Finally, we address some of the challenges and limitations that might affect the incorporation of artificial intelligence in ophthalmology. These limitations mainly revolve around the quality and accuracy of datasets used in the algorithms and their generalizability, false negatives, and the cultural challenges around the adoption of the technology.
Dahrouj M, Oellers P, Wu DM. Sudden-Onset Unilateral Macular Hemorrhage in a Middle-aged Man. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(11):1301-1302.
Danford ID, Scruggs BA, Capone A, Trese MT, Drenser KA, Thanos A, Nudleman E, Amphornphruet A, Tipsuriyaporn B, Hubbard BG, Ells A, Harper AC, Goldstein J, Calvo C, Wallace-Carrete C, Berry D, Chang E, Leishman L, Shapiro M, Blair M, Mikhail M, Shields CL, Schwendeman R, Yonekawa Y, Gupta MP, Orlin A, Prakhunhungsit S, Mukai S, Berrocal A, Hartnett EM, Campbell PJ. The Prevalence of Retinal Disease and Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Young Patients with Incontinentia Pigmenti. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of retinal disease on fluorescein angiography (FA) in patients with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and to compare the severity of retinal disease in those with and without known central nervous system (CNS) disease. DESIGN: Multi-institutional consecutive retrospective case series SUBJECTS: New patients with a diagnosis of IP seen at the Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Wills Eye Hospital, or Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami from December 2011 to September 2018. METHODS: Detailed ophthalmoscopic examination and FA were recommended to all new patients and performed on every patient who had parental consent. Ophthalmoscopic findings and FA images were graded for severity by two masked graders on a 3-point scale: 0 = no disease, 1 = vascular abnormalities without leakage, 2 = leakage or neovascularization, 3 = retinal detachment. Presence of known CNS disease was documented. Additional cases were obtained from a pediatric retina listserv for examples of phenotypic variation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of eyes noted to have disease on ophthalmoscopy compared with FA. Severity of retinal disease in those with and without known CNS disease. RESULTS: Retinal pathology was detected in 18/35 (51%) by indirect ophthalmoscopy and 26/35 (74%) by FA (p=0.048) in a predominantly pediatric population (median age = 9 months). Ten patients (29%) had known CNS disease at the time of the eye exam. A Wilcoxon ranked sums test indicated that the retinal severity scores for patients with CNS disease (median = 2) were significantly higher than the retinal severity scores for patients without CNS disease (median = 1), z = -2.12, p = 0.034. CONCLUSION: Retinal disease is present in the majority of patients with IP, and the ophthalmoscopic examination is less sensitive than FA for detection of disease. There may be a correlation between the severity of retinal and CNS disease.
Davoudi S, Ebrahimiadib N, Yasa C, Sevgi DD, Roohipoor R, Papavasilieou E, Comander J, Sobrin L. Outcomes in Autoimmune Retinopathy Patients Treated With Rituximab. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;180:124-132.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical and ancillary testing, including adaptive optics, outcomes in autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) patients treated with rituximab. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: patients: Sixteen AIR patients treated with rituximab. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: All patients were treated with a loading and maintenance dose schedule of intravenous rituximab. Visual acuity (VA), electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and visual field (VF) results were recorded. A subset of patients was also imaged using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of VA change before vs after rituximab initiation were compared with mixed-model linear regression. RESULTS: The rate of visual decline was significantly less after rituximab initiation compared with the rate of visual decline prior to rituximab initiation (P = .005). Seventy-seven percent of eyes had stable or improved VA 6 months after rituximab initiation. Amplitudes and implicit times on ERG, mean deviation on VF, central subfield mean thickness, and total macular volume did not decrease to a significant degree over the rituximab treatment period. Six eyes had serial AO-SLO imaging. Cone densities did not change significantly over the treatment period. CONCLUSION: VA was stable or improved in a majority of AIR patients while they were being treated with rituximab. OCT and ERG parameters, as well as AO-SLO cone densities, were stable during treatment. Studies with additional patients and longer follow-up periods are needed to further explore the utility of rituximab in the management of AIR.
Davoudi S, Ahmadi T, Papavasilieou E, Leskov I, Sobrin L. Phage Immunoprecipitation Sequencing of Autoantigens in Autoimmune Retinopathy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To identify autoantigens in autoimmune retinopathy patients by phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq), a new technique for autoantigen discovery. METHODS: PhIP-Seq was used to sequence putative autoantibodies in plasma from 11 patients with autoimmune retinopathy and eight controls. We compared the autoantibodies' molecular weights with those of proteins detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Several autoantigens were found in cases and not detected in the controls. Autoantigens RTN3, PRPF6, TRPC6, and B3GNT8, four proteins expressed in the retina, were detected in plasma as autoantibodies from one patient each and no controls. Only one patient had an autoantibody, B3GNT8 (43.4 kDa), within a similar weight range as that detected by antiretinal antibody Western blot (42 kDa). Autoantibody POLR3A, which has a well-characterized role in scleroderma, was detected in two cases and no controls. CONCLUSION: PhIP-Seq detected autoantigens that are expressed in the retina as well as scleroderma-related autoantigens in autoimmune retinopathy patients.

Deitch I, Ferenchak K, Miller JB. Quantitative autofluorescence: Review of Current Technical Aspects and Applications in Chorioretinal Disease. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):346-350.Abstract
Purpose: In this review we discuss the broad clinical application of qAF and provide a descriptive summary of the phenotypic findings of different chorioretinal pathologies.Background: Quantitative Fundus autofluorescence (qAF) is a novel developing technology that can aid in diagnosis and longitudinal disease monitoring by measuring and comparing autofluorescence intensities. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a noninvasive imaging method that creates a density map of the fluorophores of the ocular fundus and provides both functional and topographic anatomic information about retinal cells. Fluorophores are molecules that have the ability to temporarily absorb irradiated light, and emit a small amount of light of a different wavelength. Different endogenous fluorophores can be found in the ocular fundus. Changes in accumulation of retinal fluorophores usually indicate retinal pathology and create characteristic patterns of hyper-autofluorescence and hypo-autofluorescence that help establish a diagnosis.Conclusion: qAF allows a safe non-invasive visualization of the retina, enables a standard for AF intensities comparison and aids to the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlations.
Diaz DJ, Wang JC, Oellers P, Lains I, Sobrin L, Husain D, Miller JW, Vavvas DG, Miller JB. Imaging the Deep Choroidal Vasculature Using Spectral Domain and Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. J Vitreoretin Dis 2018;2(3):146-154.Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the deeper choroidal vasculature in eyes with various ocular disorders using spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and swept source (SS) OCTA. Methods: Patients underwent OCTA imaging with either SD-OCTA (Zeiss Cirrus Angioplex or Optovue AngioVue) or SS-OCTA (Topcon Triton). Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) integrity, structural visualization of deep choroidal vessels on en face imaging, and OCTA of deep choroidal blood flow signal were analyzed. Choroidal blood flow was deemed present if deeper choroidal vessels appeared bright after appropriate segmentation. Results: Structural visualization of choroidal vessels was feasible in all eyes by en face imaging. In both SD-OCTA and SS-OCTA, choroidal blood flow signal was present in all eyes with overlying RPE atrophy (100% of eyes with RPE atrophy, 28.6% of all imaged eyes, P < .001). Conclusions: While choroidal vessels can be visualized anatomically in all eyes by en face imaging, choroidal blood flow detection in deep choroidal vessel is largely restricted to areas with overlying RPE atrophy. Intact RPE acts as a barrier for reliable detection of choroidal flow using current OCTA technology, inhibiting evaluation of flow in deeper choroidal vessels in most eyes.
Dong L, Han H, Huang X, Ma G, Fang D, Qi H, Han Z, Wang L, Tian J, Vanhaesebroeck B, Zhang G, Zhang S, Lei H. Idelalisib inhibits experimental proliferative vitroretinopathy. Lab Invest 2022;Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a fibrotic eye disease that develops after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and open-globe traumatic injury. Idelalisib is a specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ. While PI3Kδ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, its expression is also considerably high in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which play a crucial part in the PVR pathogenesis. Herein we show that GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling uncovered strong expression of fibronectin in RPE cells within epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR, and that idelalisib (10 μM) inhibited Akt activation, fibronectin expression and collagen gel contraction induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 in human RPE cells. Furthermore, we discovered that idelalisib at a vitreal concentration of 10 μM, a non-toxic dose to the retina, prevented experimental PVR induced by intravitreally injected RPE cells in rabbits assessed by experienced ophthalmologists using an indirect ophthalmoscope plus a + 30 D fundus lens, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography and histological analysis. These data suggested idelalisib could be harnessed for preventing patients from PVR.
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Efstathiou NE, Moustafa GA, Maidana DE, Konstantinou EK, Notomi S, Barbisan PRT, Georgakopoulos CD, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. Acadesine suppresses TNF-α induced complement component 3 (C3), in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. PLoS One 2020;15(12):e0244307.Abstract
RATIONALE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most prevalent form of irreversible blindness in the developed world. Aging, inflammation and complement dysregulation affecting the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), are considered significant contributors in its pathogenesis and several evidences have linked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and complement component 3 (C3) with AMD. Acadesine, an analog of AMP and an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, has been shown to have cytoprotective effects in human clinical trials as well as having anti-inflammatory and anti-vascular exudative effects in animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if acadesine is able to suppress TNF-α induced C3 in RPE cells. METHODS: ARPE-19 and human primary RPE cells were cultured and allowed to grow to confluence. TNF-α was used for C3 induction in the presence or absence of acadesine. Small molecule inhibitors and siRNA were used to determine if acadesine exerts its effect via the extracellular or intracellular pathway and to evaluate the importance of AMPK for these effects. The expression level of C3 was determined by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Acadesine suppresses TNF-α induced C3 in a dose dependent manner. When we utilized the adenosine receptor inhibitor dipyridamole (DPY) along with acadesine, acadesine's effects were abolished, indicating the necessity of acadesine to enter the cell in order to exert it's action. However, pretreatment with 5-iodotubericidin (5-Iodo), an adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitor, didn't prevent acadesine from decreasing TNF-α induced C3 expression suggesting that acadesine does not exert its effect through AMP conversion and subsequent activation of AMPK. Consistent with this, knockdown of AMPK α catalytic subunit did not affect the inhibitory effect of acadesine on TNF-α upregulation of C3. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acadesine suppresses TNF-α induced C3, likely through an AMPK-independent pathway, and could have potential use in complement over activation diseases.
Eliott D, Stryjewski TP, Andreoli MT, Andreoli CM. SMOKING IS A RISK FACTOR FOR PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY AFTER TRAUMATIC RETINAL DETACHMENT. Retina 2017;37(7):1229-1235.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of retinal redetachment due to proliferative vitreoretinopathy after open-globe trauma in smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: A total of 892 patients comprising 893 open-globe injuries, in whom 255 eyes were diagnosed with a retinal detachment, and 138 underwent surgical repair were analyzed in a retrospective case-control study. Time to redetachment was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and analysis of risk factors was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: Within one year after retinal detachment surgery, 47% (95% CI, 39-56%) of all 138 repaired retinas redetached because of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Being a smoker was associated with a higher rate of detachment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.96, P = 0.01). As shown in previous studies, the presence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy at the time of surgery was also an independent risk factor for failure (adjusted hazard ratio 2.13, P = 0.005). Treatment with vitrectomy-buckle compared favorably to vitrectomy alone (adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, P = 0.04). Only 8% of eyes that redetached achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or better, in comparison to 44% of eyes that did not redetach (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is a common complication after the repair of retinal detachment associated with open-globe trauma, and being a smoker is a risk factor for redetachment. Further study is needed to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this correlation.
Emerson MM, Surzenko N, Goetz JJ, Trimarchi J, Cepko CL. Otx2 and Onecut1 promote the fates of cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells and repress rod photoreceptors. Dev Cell 2013;26(1):59-72.Abstract
Cone photoreceptors carry out phototransduction in daylight conditions and provide the critical first step in color vision. Despite their importance, little is known about the developmental mechanisms involved in their generation, particularly how they are determined relative to rod photoreceptors, the cells that initiate vision in dim light. Here, we report the identification of a cis-regulatory module (CRM) for the thyroid hormone receptor beta (Thrb) gene, an early cone marker. We found that ThrbCRM1 is active in progenitor cells biased to the production of cones and an interneuronal cell type, the horizontal cell (HC). Molecular analysis of ThrbCRM1 revealed that it is combinatorially regulated by the Otx2 and Onecut1 transcription factors. Onecut1 is sufficient to induce cells with the earliest markers of cones and HCs. Conversely, interference with Onecut1 transcriptional activity leads to precocious rod development, suggesting that Onecut1 is critically important in defining cone versus rod fates.
Enayati S, Chang K, Achour H, Cho K-S, Xu F, Guo S, Z Enayati K, Xie J, Zhao E, Turunen T, Sehic A, Lu L, Utheim TP, Chen DF. Electrical Stimulation Induces Retinal Müller Cell Proliferation and Their Progenitor Cell Potential. Cells 2020;9(3)Abstract
Non-invasive electrical stimulation (ES) is increasingly applied to improve vision in untreatable eye conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Our previous study suggested that ES promoted retinal function and the proliferation of progenitor-like glial cells in mice with inherited photoreceptor degeneration; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Müller cells (MCs) are thought to be dormant residential progenitor cells that possess a high potential for retinal neuron repair and functional plasticity. Here, we showed that ES with a ramp waveform of 20 Hz and 300 µA of current was effective at inducing mouse MC proliferation and enhancing their expression of progenitor cell markers, such as (cone-rod homeobox) and , as well as their production of trophic factors, including ciliary neurotrophic factor. RNA sequencing revealed that calcium signaling pathway activation was a key event, with a false discovery rate of 5.33 × 10 ( = 1.78 × 10) in ES-mediated gene profiling changes. Moreover, the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, abolished the observed effects of ES on MC proliferation and progenitor cell gene induction, supporting a central role of ES-induced Ca signaling in the MC changes. Our results suggest that low-current ES may present a convenient tool for manipulating MC behavior toward neuroregeneration and repair.
Englander M, Chen TC, Paschalis EI, Miller JW, Kim IK. Intravitreal injections at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary: analysis of treatment indications and postinjection endophthalmitis rates. Br J Ophthalmol 2013;97(4):460-5.Abstract
AIM: To report the incidence rate of acute postoperative endophthalmitis secondary to therapeutic intravitreal injections. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive eyes after intravitreal injections was performed at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011. RESULTS: During the 5-year study interval, 10 208 intravitreal injections were performed. The overall incidence rate of endophthalmitis was 0.029% per injection (3 of 10 208 injections). In the three cases, in our series, the endophthalmitis occurred at an average of seven injections, which lies within the SD of the mean number of injections received by each eye in this study, suggesting approximately equal probability of infection for each eye after receiving multiple, sequential injections. Bacterial cultures and Gram stain revealed coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (n=1), moderate bacteria with negative culture (n=1) and moderate Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=1). All cases were successfully treated using either intravitreal antibiotics and steroids or pars plana vitrectomy. Best-corrected visual acuity reduction was not clinically significant at the last visit (>7 months for all cases). CONCLUSIONS: Acute endophthalmitis is a rare potential complication after intravitreal injection. Further studies are required to elucidate the best prophylactic and aseptic techniques to prevent this rare complication.
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Farkas MH, Grant GR, Pierce EA. Transcriptome analyses to investigate the pathogenesis of RNA splicing factor retinitis pigmentosa. Adv Exp Med Biol 2012;723:519-25.

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