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Wladis EJ, Aakalu VK, Tao JP, Sobel RK, Freitag SK, Foster JA, Mawn LA. Monocanalicular Stents in Eyelid Lacerations: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(9):1324-1329.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and complication rates of monocanalicular stents in the setting of canalicular lacerations. METHODS: A literature search was performed in May 2018 in the PubMed database to identify all English-language reports of monocanalicular stenting to address canalicular lacerations. Studies that did not include at least 10 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up evaluation after surgery were excluded. Ninety-nine articles were identified, and 15 of these met criteria for data abstraction and were included in this assessment. The panel methodologist (V.K.A.) evaluated the quality of evidence and assigned a level-of-evidence rating to each of these studies. RESULTS: All 15 studies were rated as level III evidence. Anatomic and functional success rates after surgery ranged from 68% to 100% and 79% to 100%, respectively. Stents were generally well tolerated, although extrusion rates varied from 0% to 29%. CONCLUSIONS: Only level III evidence was available, and studies were not powered to detect differences between groups for rare complications or failure. Monocanalicular stents seem to be efficacious and well tolerated in the management of canalicular lacerations. Potential complications include extrusion (most commonly), tube displacement, granuloma, ectropion, slit punctum, fistula, and infection. Further comparative studies would help to identify the optimal time for device removal and to directly compare monocanalicular with bicanalicular stents.
Sayres R, Taly A, Rahimy E, Blumer K, Coz D, Hammel N, Krause J, Narayanaswamy A, Rastegar Z, Wu D, Xu S, Barb S, Joseph A, Shumski M, Smith J, Sood AB, Corrado GS, Peng L, Webster DR. Using a Deep Learning Algorithm and Integrated Gradients Explanation to Assist Grading for Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):552-564.Abstract
PURPOSE: To understand the impact of deep learning diabetic retinopathy (DR) algorithms on physician readers in computer-assisted settings. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic technology. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand seven hundred ninety-six retinal fundus images from 1612 diabetic patients. METHODS: Ten ophthalmologists (5 general ophthalmologists, 4 retina specialists, 1 retina fellow) read images for DR severity based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy disease severity scale in each of 3 conditions: unassisted, grades only, or grades plus heatmap. Grades-only assistance comprised a histogram of DR predictions (grades) from a trained deep-learning model. For grades plus heatmap, we additionally showed explanatory heatmaps. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each experiment arm, we computed sensitivity and specificity of each reader and the algorithm for different levels of DR severity against an adjudicated reference standard. We also measured accuracy (exact 5-class level agreement and Cohen's quadratically weighted κ), reader-reported confidence (5-point Likert scale), and grading time. RESULTS: Readers graded more accurately with model assistance than without for the grades-only condition (P < 0.001). Grades plus heatmaps improved accuracy for patients with DR (P < 0.001), but reduced accuracy for patients without DR (P = 0.006). Both forms of assistance increased readers' sensitivity moderate-or-worse DR: unassisted: mean, 79.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 72.3%-86.5%]; grades only: mean, 87.5% [95% CI, 85.1%-89.9%]; grades plus heatmap: mean, 88.7% [95% CI, 84.9%-92.5%] without a corresponding drop in specificity (unassisted: mean, 96.6% [95% CI, 95.9%-97.4%]; grades only: mean, 96.1% [95% CI, 95.5%-96.7%]; grades plus heatmap: mean, 95.5% [95% CI, 94.8%-96.1%]). Algorithmic assistance increased the accuracy of retina specialists above that of the unassisted reader or model alone; and increased grading confidence and grading time across all readers. For most cases, grades plus heatmap was only as effective as grades only. Over the course of the experiment, grading time decreased across all conditions, although most sharply for grades plus heatmap. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning algorithms can improve the accuracy of, and confidence in, DR diagnosis in an assisted read setting. They also may increase grading time, although these effects may be ameliorated with experience.
Noble CW, Gangaputra SS, Thompson IA, Yuan A, Apolo AB, Lee J-M, Papaliodis GN, Kodati S, Bishop R, Magone TM, Sobrin L, Sen NH. Ocular Adverse Events following Use of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Metastatic Malignancies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features, severity, and management of ocular immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for metastatic malignancies. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at three tertiary ophthalmology clinics. Electronic medical records were reviewed between 2000 and 2017 for patients with new ocular symptoms while undergoing checkpoint inhibition therapy. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified. Ocular irAEs ranged from keratoconjunctivitis sicca to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like findings. Average timing of irAEs from starting checkpoint inhibitor therapy was 15.7 weeks. Ocular inflammation was successfully controlled with corticosteroids in most cases, however three patients discontinue treatment as a result of ocular inflammation with decreased visual acuity, two discontinued due to progression of metastatic disease, and one discontinued due to severe systemic irAEs. CONCLUSION: We found a wide spectrum of ocular irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In most cases, ocular AEs did not limit ongoing cancer treatment.
Garza-Leon M, Amparo F, Ortíz G, de la Parra-Colin P, Sanchez-Huerta V, Beltran F, Hernandez-Quintela E. Translation and validation of the contact lens dry eye questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8) to the Spanish language. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2019;42(2):155-158.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present the process of cultural and psychometric adaptation, and clinical validation of a new version in the Spanish language of the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 (CLDEQ-8). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The translation-retro-translation method was applied to the CLDEQ-8 questionnaire. Two independent native Spanish-speaking translators adapted the questionnaire from English to Spanish, and then a committee of experienced clinicians (CE) evaluated the semantic equivalence and designed a Spanish version of the CLDEQ-8 questionnaire. The resulting translated version was tested conducting a pilot study in contact lens users and assessing their perception and overall understanding of the terminology. The results were analyzed and a final version was designed. The final version was retro-translated to English by a native English-speaking translator and compared with the original CLDEQ-8 version to confirm there were no meaningful differences. To clinically validate the new instrument, a prospective study was conducted to apply the new Spanish CLDEQ-8 to 50 contact lens users. RESULTS: Fifty patients were studied with an average age of 21.50 ± 1.66 years. The average CLDEQ-8 score was 13.28 ± 6.81 points (range 1-31). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.89, with a corrected index of homogeneity >0.50 for all evaluated items. CONCLUSIONS: The process of trans-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire CLDEQ-8 resulted in the elaboration of a reliable and much needed instrument capable of measuring frequency and intensity of dry eye symptoms in Spanish-speaking contact lens users.
Berner D, Hoja U, Zenkel M, Ross JJ, Uebe S, Paoli D, Frezzotti P, Rautenbach RM, Ziskind A, Williams SE, Carmichael TR, Ramsay M, Topouzis F, Chatzikyriakidou A, Lambropoulos A, Sundaresan P, Ayub H, Akhtar F, Qamar R, Zenteno JC, Cruz-Aguilar M, Astakhov YS, Dubina M, Wiggs J, Ozaki M, Kruse FE, Aung T, Reis A, Khor CC, Pasutto F, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U. The protective variant rs7173049 at LOXL1 locus impacts on retinoic acid signaling pathway in pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 2019;Abstract
LOXL1 (lysyl oxidase-like 1) has been identified as the major effect locus in pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, a fibrotic disorder of the extracellular matrix and frequent cause of chronic open-angle glaucoma. However, all known PEX-associated common variants show allele effect reversal in populations of different ancestry, casting doubt on their biological significance. Based on extensive LOXL1 deep sequencing, we report here the identification of a common noncoding sequence variant, rs7173049A>G, located downstream of LOXL1, consistently associated with a decrease in PEX risk (OR=0.63, p=6.33x10-31) in nine different ethnic populations. We provide experimental evidence for a functional enhancer-like regulatory activity of the genomic region surrounding rs7173049 influencing expression levels of ISLR2 (immunoglobulin superfamily containing leucine-rich repeat protein 2) and STRA6 (stimulated by retinoic acid receptor 6), apparently mediated by allele-specific binding of the transcription factor THRβ (thyroid hormone receptor beta). We further show that the protective rs7173049-G allele correlates with increased tissue expression levels of ISLR2 and STRA6 and that both genes are significantly downregulated in tissues of PEX patients together with other key components of the STRA6 receptor-driven retinoic acid signaling pathway. siRNA-mediated downregulation of retinoic acid signaling induces upregulation of LOXL1 and PEX-associated matrix genes in PEX-relevant cell types. These data indicate that dysregulation of STRA6 and impaired retinoid metabolismare involved in the pathophysiology of PEX syndrome and that the variant rs7173049-G, which represents the first common variant at the broad LOXL1 locus without allele effect reversal, mediates a protective effect through upregulation of STRA6 in ocular tissues.
Wang SK, Xue Y, Rana P, Hong CM, Cepko CL. Soluble CX3CL1 gene therapy improves cone survival and function in mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019;116(20):10140-10149.Abstract
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a disease that initially presents as night blindness due to genetic deficits in the rod photoreceptors of the retina. Rods then die, causing dysfunction and death of cone photoreceptors, the cell type that mediates high acuity and color vision, ultimately leading to blindness. We investigated immune responses in mouse models of RP and found evidence of microglia activation throughout the period of cone degeneration. Using adeno-associated vectors (AAVs), delivery of genes encoding microglial regulatory signals led to the identification of AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) soluble CX3CL1 (sCX3CL1) as a promising therapy for degenerating cones. Subretinal injection of AAV8-sCX3CL1 significantly prolonged cone survival in three strains of RP mice. Rescue of cones was accompanied by improvements in visual function. AAV8-sCX3CL1 did not affect rod survival, microglia localization, or inflammatory cytokine levels in the retina. Furthermore, although RNA sequencing of microglia demonstrated marked transcriptional changes with AAV8-sCX3CL1, pharmacological depletion of up to ∼99% of microglia failed to abrogate the effect of AAV8-sCX3CL1 on cone survival. These findings indicate that AAV8-sCX3CL1 can rescue cones in multiple mouse models of RP via a pathway that does not require normal numbers of microglia. Gene therapy with sCX3CL1 is a promising mutation-independent approach to preserve vision in RP and potentially other forms of retinal degeneration.
Takusagawa HL, Hoguet A, Junk AK, Nouri-Mahdavi K, Radhakrishnan S, Chen TC. Swept-Source OCT for Evaluating the Lamina Cribrosa: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(9):1315-1323.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on the use of swept-source (SS) OCT for evaluating the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma. METHODS: A PubMed and Cochrane Library literature search initially conducted on March 3, 2017, and updated on June 26, 2018, yielded a total of 64 articles. Articles that were reviews or that were not published in English were excluded, and 29 were found to fit the inclusion criteria. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to each study. Fifteen studies were rated level III, 14 studies were rated level II, and no studies were rated level I. RESULTS: Different aspects of the lamina cribrosa were studied using SS-OCT, including the anterior lamina cribrosa curvature, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, anterior lamina cribrosa insertions, laminar thickness, focal lamina cribrosa defects (FLCDs), and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture. In general, imaging of the anterior lamina can be achieved reliably, although shadowing from blood vessels at the neuroretinal rim remains an issue. Imaging of the posterior lamina can be achieved with varying levels of success. In glaucoma, there is posterior migration of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertions as well as increased thinning and posterior curvature of the lamina cribrosa. Focal lamina cribrosa defects appear more commonly in glaucoma, and this may hint at the pathogenesis of axonal damage. In addition, there may be remodeling of the microarchitecture of the lamina, resulting in more variable laminar pores. There are limited studies comparing SS-OCT with spectral-domain (SD) OCT with regard to imaging of the lamina, but the difference in image quality between enhanced depth imaging (EDI) with SD-OCT and SS-OCT seems minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Imaging of the lamina cribrosa using SS-OCT has demonstrated that the lamina cribrosa is likely biomechanically active and that significant changes occur in glaucoma. The diagnostic utility of SS-OCT for lamina cribrosa imaging is promising, but standardized nomenclature, automated measurements, and longitudinal studies with larger and more diverse sample sizes are needed.
Moein H-R, Saeed HN, Jacobs DS, Rapoport Y, Yoon MK, Shah AS, Khan H, Raoof D, Jurkunas UV. Exposure, entropion, and bilateral corneal ulceration in a newborn as a manifestation of chromosome 22 q11.2 duplication syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019;13:16-19.Abstract
Purpose: Chromosome 22q11.2 micro-duplication syndrome (MDS), is a rare autosomal dominant condition, with a highly variable phenotype that ranges from unremarkable and asymptomatic, to fatal due to cardiovascular defects. Hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, superior displacement of the eyebrows, and ptosis are the most commonly reported ocular manifestations. Here, we report a newborn with bilateral exposure, entropion, and corneal ulceration related to 22q11.2 MDS. Observation: A newborn girl presented with bilateral upper eyelid entropion, bilateral lower eyelid ectropion, and lagophthalmos. She subsequently developed bilateral corneal ulcers. Topical antibacterial drops, bandage contact lenses, medroxyprogesterone 1%, and fluorometholone 0.1%, together with partial tarsorrhaphy and correction of eyelid malposition, were used to treat the ulcers and address the underlying issues of exposure and entropion. Genetic testing revealed chromosome 22q11.2.MDS; further evaluation revealed systemic manifestations of this syndrome. The ocular surface healed well with gradual improvement of corneal opacification as well as bilateral partial tarsorrhaphy. Conclusion and importance: This report is the first that describes a newborn with 22q11.2 MDS presenting with sight-threatening corneal ulceration. Entropion, ectropion, and lagophthalmos were identified and treated, allowing for healing of the corneal surface. Genetic testing revealed a syndrome not known to be associated with eyelid abnormalities and corneal ulceration, but with other important systemic and ocular implications. Bilateral partial tarsorrhaphy should not be excluded as a treatment option for infants who fail more conservative measures for the treatment of exposure.
Hudry E, Vandenberghe LH. Therapeutic AAV Gene Transfer to the Nervous System: A Clinical Reality. Neuron 2019;101(5):839-862.Abstract
Gene transfer has long been a compelling yet elusive therapeutic modality. First mainly considered for rare inherited disorders, gene therapy may open treatment opportunities for more challenging and complex diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Today, examples of striking clinical proof of concept, the first gene therapy drugs coming onto the market, and the emergence of powerful new molecular tools have broadened the number of avenues to target neurological disorders but have also highlighted safety concerns and technology gaps. The vector of choice for many nervous system targets currently is the adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector due to its desirable safety profile and strong neuronal tropism. In aggregate, the clinical success, the preclinical potential, and the technological innovation have made therapeutic AAV drug development a reality, particularly for nervous system disorders. Here, we discuss the rationale, opportunities, limitations, and progress in clinical AAV gene therapy.
Busch C, Iglicki M, Okada M, Gabrielle P-H, Cohen S, Mariussi M, Amphornphruet A, Cebeci Z, Chaikitmongkol V, Couturier A, Fraser-Bell S, Fung AT, Iannetta D, Radecka L, Laíns I, Rodrigues TM, Lupidi M, Ozimek M, Sala-Puigdollers A, Rehak M, Loewenstein A, Zur D, Zur D. Causative Pathogens of Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injection: An International Multicenter Study. Ophthalmologica 2019;241(4):211-219.Abstract
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological spectrum of endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF injections and to compare streptococcal with non-streptococcus-associated cases with regard to baseline characteristics and injection procedure. METHODS: Retrospective, international multicenter study of patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection at 17 different retina referral centers. RESULTS: Eighty-three cases with 87 identified pathogens were included. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (59%) and viridans streptococci (15%) were the most frequent pathogens found. The use of postoperative antibiotics and performance of injections in an operating room setting significantly reduced the rate of streptococcus-induced endophthalmitis cases (p = 0.01 for both). CONCLUSION: We found a statistically significant lower rate of postinjectional local antibiotic therapy and operating room-based procedures among the streptococcus-induced cases compared to cases caused by other organisms.
Wu W, Hutcheon AEK, Sriram S, Tran JA, Zieske JD. Initiation of fibrosis in the integrin Αvβ6 knockout mice. Exp Eye Res 2019;180:23-28.Abstract
We previously demonstrated that β6 knockout mice showed impaired wound repair in corneal debridement and keratectomy wounds. In the current investigation, we continued our examination of integrin αvβ6 in order to determine if it was required for the initiation of wound healing in a corneal wound model that normally heals in a fibrotic manner. A full-thickness corneal incision was made in C57BL/6 J wild type (WT) and C57BL/6-Itgb6 KO (β6) mice. The mice were observed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-incision. The morphology of corneal restoration was observed in tissue sections stained with hemotoxilin and eosin (H&E). In addition, indirect-immunofluorescence (IF) was performed on sections and/or whole mounts to evaluate the immunolocalization of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). H&E staining revealed that the corneas in β6 mice healed slower than those in WT mice, with an obvious delay in the restoration of the stromal matrix and epithelium. In sections at 3 and 7 days, SMA and TSP-1 were greatly reduced in the β6 mice as compared to WT, but peaked at 28 days after incision. Whole mount SMA IF results were consistent with those from sections. Therefore, the initiation of fibrosis was inhibited by the lack of αvβ6; however, there appeared to be an alternate mechanism that initiated fibrosis 7-14 days later. Localization of TSP-1 correlated with expression of SMA whether wound healing was delayed or initiated immediately after wounding.
Shirzaei Sani E, Kheirkhah A, Rana D, Sun Z, Foulsham W, Sheikhi A, Khademhosseini A, Dana R, Annabi N. Sutureless repair of corneal injuries using naturally derived bioadhesive hydrogels. Sci Adv 2019;5(3):eaav1281.Abstract
Corneal injuries are common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for transparent biomaterials that have high adhesion, cohesion, and regenerative properties. Herein, we engineer a highly biocompatible and transparent bioadhesive for corneal reconstruction using a visible light cross-linkable, naturally derived polymer, GelCORE (gel for corneal regeneration). The physical properties of GelCORE could be finely tuned by changing prepolymer concentration and photocrosslinking time. GelCORE revealed higher tissue adhesion compared to commercial adhesives. Furthermore, in situ photopolymerization of GelCORE facilitated easy delivery to the cornea, allowing for bioadhesive curing precisely according to the required geometry of the defect. In vivo experiments, using a rabbit stromal defect model, showed that bioadhesive could effectively seal corneal defects and induce stromal regeneration and re-epithelialization. Overall, GelCORE has many advantages including low cost and ease of production and use. This makes GelCORE a promising bioadhesive for corneal repair.
Owen LA, Shakoor A, Morgan DJ, Hejazi AA, McEntire WM, Brown JJ, Farrer LA, Kim I, Vitale A, Deangelis MM. The Utah Protocol for Postmortem Eye Phenotyping and Molecular Biochemical Analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(4):1204-1212.Abstract
Purpose: Current understanding of local disease pathophysiology in AMD is limited. Analysis of the human disease-affected tissue is most informative, as gene expression, expressed quantitative trait loci, microenvironmental, and epigenetic changes can be tissue, cell type, and location specific. Development of a novel translational treatment and prevention strategies particularly for earlier forms of AMD are needed, although access to human ocular tissue analysis is challenging. We present a standardized protocol to study rapidly processed postmortem donor eyes for molecular biochemical and genomic studies. Methods: We partnered with the Utah Lions Eye Bank to obtain donor human eyes, blood, and vitreous, within 6 hours postmortem. Phenotypic analysis was performed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and color fundus photography. Macular and extramacular tissues were immediately isolated, and the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid from each specimen were separated and preserved. Ocular disease phenotype was analyzed using clinically relevant grading criteria by a group of four ophthalmologists incorporating data from SD-OCT retinal images, fundus photographs, and medical records. Results: The use of multimodal imaging leads to greater resolution of retinal pathology, allowing greater phenotypic rigor for both interobserver phenotype and known clinical diagnoses. Further, our analysis resulted in excellent quality RNA, which demonstrated appropriate tissue segregation. Conclusions: The Utah protocol is a standardized methodology for analysis of disease mechanisms in AMD. It uniquely allows for simultaneous rigorous phenotypic, molecular biochemical, and genomic analysis of both systemic and local tissues. This better enables the development of disease biomarkers and therapeutic interventions.

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