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Lin MM, Rageh A, Turalba AV, Lee H, Falkenstein IA, Hoguet AS, Ojha P, Rao VS, Ratanawongphaibul K, Rhee DJ, Shen LQ, Song BJ, Chen TC. Differential Efficacy of Combined Phacoemulsification and Endocyclophotocoagulation in Open-angle Glaucoma Versus Angle-closure Glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2019;28(5):473-480.Abstract
PRéCIS:: This retrospective study found that combined phacoemulsification and endocyclophotocoagulation reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) to a greater degree in angle-closure glaucoma versus open-angle glaucoma and was effective for all stages of glaucoma. PURPOSE: Endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) laser treatment of the ciliary processes is believed to decrease IOP by reducing aqueous production. Anecdotal experience in angle-closure glaucoma suggests that it may also lower IOP by opening the drainage angle to promote aqueous outflow. This study sought to evaluate combined phacoemulsification and ECP (phaco/ECP) in eyes with different types and stages of glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Retrospective chart review of eyes that underwent phaco/ECP between October 2010 and December 2016 at one institution was conducted. RESULTS: In 63 eyes of 63 patients with an average of 3.0±1.7 years of follow-up, the 22 eyes with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) had greater IOP reduction and medication reduction than the 41 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma at both 1 year (6.4 vs. 2.1 mm Hg, P=0.01; 0.9 vs. 0.2 medications, P=0.04) and final follow-up (6.2 vs. 2.4 mm Hg, P=0.02; 0.9 vs. 0.3 medications, P=0.05). There was no difference in IOP reduction or medication reduction for eyes with mild, moderate, or advanced glaucoma at both 1 year (3.5, 3.9, 0.5 mm Hg, respectively, P=0.18; 0.3, 0.6, 0.4 medications, P=0.58) and final follow-up (3.3, 4.8, 0.7 mm Hg, P=0.11; 0.1, 0.8, 0.4 medications, P=0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with CACG were more responsive to phaco/ECP in terms of IOP and medication reduction compared with eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma. This finding could be partially or entirely due to concurrent cataract extraction and greater CACG preoperative IOP. Phaco/ECP was effective in all stages of glaucoma.
Farinha CVL, Cachulo ML, Alves D, Pires I, Marques JP, Barreto P, Nunes S, Costa J, Martins A, Sobral I, Laíns I, Figueira J, Ribeiro L, Cunha-Vaz J, Silva R. Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Central Region of Portugal: The Coimbra Eye Study - Report 5. Ophthalmic Res 2019;:1-10.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the 6.5-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a coastal town of central Portugal. METHODS: Population-based cohort study. Participants underwent standardized interviews and ophthalmological examination. Color fundus photographs were graded according to the International Classification and Grading System for AMD and ARM. The crude and age-standardized incidence of early and late AMD was calculated, and progression was analyzed. RESULTS: The 6.5-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 10.7%, and of late AMD it was 0.8%. The incidence of early AMD was 7.2, 13.1 and 17.7% for participants aged 55-64, 65-74 and 75-84 years (p < 0.001). The late AMD incidence was 0.3, 0.9 and 2.8% for the corresponding age groups (p = 0.003). The age-standardized incidence was 10.8% (95% CI, 10.74-10.80%) for early and 1.0% (95% CI, 1.00-1.02%) for late AMD. The incidence of both neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy was 0.4%. Progression occurred in 17.2% of patients. CONCLUSION: The early AMD incidence in a coastal town of central Portugal was found to be similar to that of major epidemiological studies of European-descent populations; however, the incidence of late AMD was lower, and further analysis on risk factors will be conducted.
Burstein R, Noseda R, Fulton AB. Neurobiology of Photophobia. J Neuroophthalmol 2019;39(1):94-102.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Photophobia is commonly associated with migraine, meningitis, concussion, and a variety of ocular diseases. Advances in our ability to trace multiple brain pathways through which light information is processed have paved the way to a better understanding of the neurobiology of photophobia and the complexity of the symptoms triggered by light. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent anatomical and physiological studies on the neurobiology of photophobia with emphasis on migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: Observations made in blind and seeing migraine patients, and in a variety of animal models, have led to the discovery of a novel retino-thalamo-cortical pathway that carries photic signal from melanopsinergic and nonmelanopsinergic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to thalamic neurons. Activity of these neurons is driven by migraine and their axonal projections convey signals about headache and light to multiple cortical areas involved in the generation of common migraine symptoms. Novel projections of RGCs into previously unidentified hypothalamic neurons that regulate parasympathetic and sympathetic functions have also been discovered. Finally, recent work has led to a novel understanding of color preference in migraine-type photophobia and of the roles played by the retina, thalamus, and cortex. SUMMARY: The findings provide a neural substrate for understanding the complexity of aversion to light in patients with migraine and neuro-ophthalmologic other disorders.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Habib LA, Freitag SK. Orbital Nasal-Type Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: An Ongoing Diagnostic Challenge Further Confounded by Small-Cell Predominance. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(5):478-483.Abstract
PURPOSE: To highlight the histopathologic diagnostic challenges of small-cell predominant extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENTNKT) of the orbit. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of 3 cases. RESULTS: Three cases of ENTNKT presented to the Mass Eye and Ear emergency room as orbital cellulitis over 1 year. The first case was unusual in that there was a predominance of small cells, giving the ENTNKT the histopathologic appearance of a nonmalignant inflammatory process. This challenging case is juxtaposed alongside 2 other cases, which exhibited the more typical lymphomatous microscopic appearance. DISCUSSION: ENTNKT can extend into the orbit from the adjacent sinuses or rarely arise primarily in the orbit. A diagnosis is typically made with a biopsy. Occasionally, however, the histopathologic diagnosis can be elusive when a predominance of small lymphomatous cells that are virtually indistinguishable from non-neoplastic inflammatory cells is present. Demonstration of CD56 positivity by immunostaining and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus are essential in confirming the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: ENTNKT should be considered both in the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses of orbital infections and idiopathic inflammations (pseudotumor).
Shanbhag SS, Chodosh J, Saeed HN. Sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation with cyanoacrylate glue for acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ocul Surf 2019;Abstract
Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation, when performed in the acute phase in Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) for patients with ocular complications, is known to reduce the morbidity of ocular complications in the chronic phase. In conditions such as SJS/TEN, AM needs to be secured to the ocular surface as well as the eyelids. Previously, techniques of securing a large sheet of AM with fibrin glue to the ocular surface and with sutures and bolsters to the eyelids have been described in the acute phase of SJS/TEN. These techniques often necessitate the use of an operating room in acutely ill patients. We describe a bedside technique that uses cyanoacrylate glue to secure the AM to the eyelids, as well as long-term outcomes in 4 patients with acute SJS/TEN. The combination of a custom symblepharon ring to secure AM over the entire ocular surface and cyanoacrylate glue to secure AM to the eyelid margins is quick, painless, does not require local or general anesthesia, and might prove useful in other conditions previously shown to benefit from AMT, such as ocular chemical injuries.
Ing EB, Wang DN, Kirubarajan A, Benard-Seguin E, Ma J, Farmer JP, Belliveau MJ, Sholohov G, Torun N. Systematic Review of the Yield of Temporal Artery Biopsy for Suspected Giant Cell Arteritis. Neuroophthalmology 2019;43(1):18-25.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the positive yield (utility rate) of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis (GCA). STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review (CRD42017078508) and meta-regression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All articles concerning TAB for suspected GCA with English language abstracts from 1998 to 2017 were retrieved. Articles were excluded if they exclusively reported positive TAB, or only cases of known GCA. Where available, the pre-specified predictors of age, sex, vision symptoms, jaw claudication, duration of steroid treatment prior to TAB, specimen length, bilateral TAB, and use of ultrasound/MRI (imaging) were recorded for meta-regression. RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen articles met eligibility criteria. The was 92%, and with such high heterogeneity, meta-analysis is unsuitable. The median yield of TAB was 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.27), with interquartile range 0.17 to 0.34. On univariate meta-regression age (coefficient 0.012,  = 0.025) was the only statistically significant patient factor associated with TAB yield. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic review revealed high heterogeneity in the yield of TAB. The median utility rate of 25% and its interquartile range provides a benchmark for decisions regarding the under/overutilization of TAB and aids in the evaluation of non-invasive alternatives for the investigation of GCA.
Chirapapaisan C, Abbouda A, Jamali A, Müller RT, Cavalcanti BM, Colon C, Witkin D, Sahin A, Dana R, Cruzat A, Hamrah P. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Demonstrates Increased Immune Cell Densities in Corneal Graft Rejection Correlating With Signs and Symptoms. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;203:26-36.Abstract
PURPOSE: Diagnosis of graft rejection is based on patient symptoms and on clinical signs detected by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. This study investigated whether laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) can aid in the diagnosis of corneal graft rejection by detecting cellular corneal changes that take place after transplantation. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SUBJECTS: Thirty-eight eyes of 38 patients with penetrating keratoplasty (15 eyes with corneal graft rejection, 23 eyes without rejection) and 9 age-matched normal controls. METHODS: Laser IVCM was performed in the corneal grafts centrally. The density of immune cells (IC) was assessed for epithelial, sub-epithelial, stromal, and endothelial layers by 2 masked observers. IC density was compared among different groups and correlated to clinical signs and symptoms of corneal graft rejection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measurement was the IC density in the corneal layers and its associations with the presence of clinical signs and symptoms of corneal graft rejection. RESULTS: The IC density was significantly different between rejected and non-rejected grafts (P = 0.004) and different from that of normal controls (P = 0.001). Among corneal layers, IC density was significantly higher in rejected grafts than in non-rejected grafts in only the sub-basal (611.54 ± 573.74 vs. 340.61 ± 268.60 cells/mm, respectively; P = 0.049) and endothelial layers (250.62 ± 267.13 vs. 103.47 ± 81.91 cells/mm, respectively; P = 0.001). Patients with decreased best corrected visual acuity, Khodadoust line, and anterior chamber cells demonstrated a significant increase in total IC density (P < 0.05), whereas patients with symptoms of irritation, light sensitivity, and pain revealed a specific increase in IC density in the sub-basal layer (P < 0.05). Patients with ocular pain had higher IC density in the epithelial layer than those without pain (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with corneal graft rejection demonstrate a significant increase in corneal immune cells, particularly, in the sub-basal and endothelial layers compared to patients with non-rejected grafts and controls. Although symptoms associated with endothelial rejection demonstrate a general increase in IC, pain, irritation, and light sensitivity are associated with increased IC in the sub-basal layer. Assessment of patients with corneal graft rejection by IVCM may serve as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis and management of corneal graft rejection.
Zhao B, Torun N, Elsayed M, Cheng A-D, Brook A, Chang Y-M, Bhadelia RA. Diagnostic Utility of Optic Nerve Measurements with MRI in Patients with Optic Nerve Atrophy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019;40(3):558-561.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: No MR imaging measurement criteria are available for the diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy. We determined a threshold optic nerve area on MR imaging that predicts a clinical diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy and assessed the relationship between optic nerve area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography, an ancillary test used to evaluate optic nerve disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 26 patients with suspected optic nerve atrophy (8 with unilateral, 13 with bilateral and 5 with suspected but not demonstrable optic nerve atrophy) who had both orbital MR imaging and optical coherence tomography examinations. Forty-five patients without optic nerve atrophy served as controls. Coronal inversion recovery images were used to measure optic nerve area on MR imaging. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was determined by optical coherence tomography. Individual eyes were treated separately; however, bootstrapping was used to account for clustering when appropriate. Correlation coefficients were used to evaluate relationships; receiver operating characteristic curves, to investigate predictive accuracy. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in optic nerve area between patients' affected eyes with optic nerve atrophy (mean, 3.09 ± 1.09 mm), patients' unaffected eyes (mean, 5.27 ± 1.39 mm; = .008), and control eyes (mean, 6.27 ± 2.64 mm; < .001). Optic nerve area ≤ 4.0 mm had a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.83 in predicting the diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy. A significant relationship was found between optic nerve area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness ( = 0.68, < .001). CONCLUSIONS: MR imaging-measured optic nerve area ≤ 4.0 mm has moderately high sensitivity and specificity for predicting optic nerve atrophy, making it a potential diagnostic tool for radiologists.
Saeedi OJ, Elze T, D'Acunto L, Swamy R, Hegde V, Gupta S, Venjara A, Tsai J, Myers JS, Wellik SR, De Moraes CG, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ, Boland MV. Agreement and Predictors of Discordance of 6 Visual Field Progression Algorithms. Ophthalmology 2019;126(6):822-828.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the agreement of 6 established visual field (VF) progression algorithms in a large dataset of VFs from multiple institutions and to determine predictors of discordance among these algorithms. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Visual fields from 5 major eye care institutions in the United States were analyzed, including a subset of eyes with at least 5 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard 24-2 VFs that met our reliability criteria. Of a total of 831 240 VFs, a subset of 90 713 VFs from 13 156 eyes of 8499 patients met the inclusion criteria. METHODS: Six commonly used VF progression algorithms (mean deviation [MD] slope, VF index slope, Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study, Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study, pointwise linear regression, and permutation of pointwise linear regression) were applied to this cohort, and each eye was determined to be stable or progressing using each measure. Agreement between individual algorithms was tested using Cohen's κ coefficient. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of discordance (3 algorithms progressing and 3 algorithms stable). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement and discordance between algorithms. RESULTS: Individual algorithms showed poor to moderate agreement with each other when compared directly (κ range, 0.12-0.52). Based on at least 4 algorithms, 11.7% of eyes progressed. Major predictors of discordance or lack of agreement among algorithms were more depressed initial MD (P < 0.01) and older age at first available VF (P < 0.01). A greater number of VFs (P < 0.01), more years of follow-up (P < 0.01), and eye care institution (P = 0.03) also were associated with discordance. CONCLUSIONS: This extremely large comparative series demonstrated that existing algorithms have limited agreement and that agreement varies with clinical parameters, including institution. These issues underscore the challenges to the clinical use and application of progression algorithms and of applying big-data results to individual practices.
Laíns I, Duarte D, Barros AS, Martins AS, Carneiro TJ, Gil JQ, Miller JB, Marques M, Mesquita TS, Barreto P, Kim IK, da Luz Cachulo M, Vavvas DG, Carreira IM, Murta JN, Silva R, Miller JW, Husain D, Gil AM. Urine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Metabolomics in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Proteome Res 2019;18(3):1278-1288.Abstract
Biofluid biomarkers of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are still lacking, and their identification is challenging. Metabolomics is well-suited to address this need, and urine is a valuable accessible biofluid. This study aimed to characterize the urinary metabolomic signatures of patients with different stages of AMD and a control group (>50 years). It was a prospective, cross-sectional study, where subjects from two cohorts were included: 305 from Coimbra, Portugal (AMD patients n = 252; controls n = 53) and 194 from Boston, United States (AMD patients n = 147; controls n = 47). For all participants, we obtained color fundus photographs (for AMD staging) and fasting urine samples, which were analyzed using H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Our results revealed that in both cohorts, urinary metabolomic profiles differed mostly between controls and late AMD patients, but important differences were also found between controls and subjects with early AMD. Analysis of the metabolites responsible for these separations revealed that, even though distinct features were observed for each cohort, AMD was in general associated with depletion of excreted citrate and selected amino acids at some stage of the disease, suggesting enhanced energy requirements. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics enabled the identification of urinary signals of AMD and its severity stages, which might represent potential metabolomic biomarkers of the disease.
Dana R, Bradley JL, Guerin A, Pivneva I, Stillman IÖ, Evans AM, Schaumberg DA. Estimated Prevalence and Incidence of Dry Eye Disease Based on Coding Analysis of a Large, All-age United States Health Care System. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;202:47-54.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess overall prevalence, annual prevalence, and incidence of dry eye disease (DED) in a large, representative population in the United States. DESIGN: Prevalence and incidence study. METHODS: Retrospective analysis using the Department of Defense (DOD) Military Health System (MHS) data on beneficiary medical claims from United States DOD military and civilian facilities, January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2015. PATIENT POPULATION: Using an algorithm, medical diagnostic codes indicative of DED and prescriptions for cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion identified a DED population from 9.7 million MHS beneficiaries (DOD service members, retirees, and dependents, aged 2-80+ years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: DED overall prevalence (2003-2015), annual prevalence (2005-2012), and annual incidence (2008-2012) stratified by sex, age group, and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Ninth Revision diagnosis code grouping. RESULTS: DED prevalence was 5.28% overall, 7.78% among female beneficiaries, 2.96% among male beneficiaries and increased with age from 0.20% for ages 2-17 years, to 11.66% for individuals aged 50+ years. Annual prevalence increased from 0.8% to 3.0% overall, from 1.4% to 4.5% in female beneficiaries, and from 0.3% to 1.6% in male beneficiaries. Annual prevalence increased across age groups starting at age 18-39, 0.1%-0.6%, to age 50+, 1.8%-6.0%. Annual incidence increased from 0.6% to 0.9% overall, from 0.8% to 1.2% in female beneficiaries, and from 0.3% to 0.6% in male beneficiaries. Across age groups, annual incidence increased starting at age 18-39 (0.2%-0.3%), to age 50+ (1.0%-1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: DED overall prevalence, annual prevalence, and incidence were found to increase over time for all demographics. These findings highlight the continued importance of research and therapeutic development for this common condition.
Bradley JL, Stillman IÖ, Pivneva I, Guerin A, Evans AM, Dana R. Dry eye disease ranking among common reasons for seeking eye care in a large US claims database. Clin Ophthalmol 2019;13:225-232.Abstract
Objectives: Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex multifactorial condition of the ocular surface characterized by symptoms of ocular discomfort, irritation, and visual disturbance. Data previously reported from this study showed an increase in prevalence and incidence of DED with age and over time. The objective of this study was to compare the ranking of DED prevalence among other ocular conditions that led patients to seek eye care. Methods: In this population-based study using the US Department of Defense Military Health System claims database of >9.7 million beneficiaries, indicators of DED and other ocular conditions were analyzed over time. The overall prevalence (2003-2015) and annual incidence (2008-2012) of DED and other ocular conditions were estimated using an algorithm based on two independent indicators derived from selected diagnostic and procedure codes and prescriptions for cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion for DED and diagnostic codes for the indicators of other common ocular conditions. Results: In 2003-2015, the most common ocular conditions were disorders of refraction and accommodation (25.84%), cataracts (17.14%), glaucoma (7.27%), disorders of the conjunctiva (6.76%), other retinal disorders (5.94%), and DED (5.28%). DED was the fifth most prevalent ocular condition in women (7.78%) and ninth most prevalent in men (2.96%). In 2012, DED had the third highest annual incidence (0.87%), behind disorders of refraction/accommodation (1.87%) and cataracts (1.50%). Conclusion: This study provided further epidemiologic evidence for DED as a commonly occurring condition that drives patients to seek treatment.
Singh G, Ismail AM, Lee JY, Ramke M, Lee JS, Dyer DW, Seto D, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Divergent Evolution of E1A CR3 in Human Adenovirus Species D. Viruses 2019;11(2)Abstract
Adenovirus E1A is the first viral protein expressed during infection. E1A controls critical aspects of downstream viral gene expression and cell cycle deregulation, and its function is thought to be highly conserved among adenoviruses. Various bioinformatics analyses of E1A from 38 human adenoviruses of species D (HAdV-D), including likelihood clade model partitioning, provided highly significant evidence of divergence of HAdV-Ds into two distinct groups for the conserved region 3 (CR3), present only in the E1A 13S isoform. This variance within E1A 13S of HAdV-Ds was not found in any other human adenovirus (HAdV) species. By protein sequence and structural analysis, the zinc finger motif of E1A CR3, previously shown as critical for transcriptional activation, showed the greatest differences. Subsequent codon usage bias analysis revealed substantial divergence in E1A 13S between the two groups of HAdV-Ds, suggesting that these two sub-groups of HAdV-D evolved under different cellular conditions. Hence, HAdV-D E1A embodies a previously unappreciated evolutionary divergence among HAdVs.
Peng Y-R, Shekhar K, Yan W, Herrmann D, Sappington A, Bryman GS, van Zyl T, Do MTH, Regev A, Sanes JR. Molecular Classification and Comparative Taxonomics of Foveal and Peripheral Cells in Primate Retina. Cell 2019;176(5):1222-1237.e22.Abstract
High-acuity vision in primates, including humans, is mediated by a small central retinal region called the fovea. As more accessible organisms lack a fovea, its specialized function and its dysfunction in ocular diseases remain poorly understood. We used 165,000 single-cell RNA-seq profiles to generate comprehensive cellular taxonomies of macaque fovea and peripheral retina. More than 80% of >60 cell types match between the two regions but exhibit substantial differences in proportions and gene expression, some of which we relate to functional differences. Comparison of macaque retinal types with those of mice reveals that interneuron types are tightly conserved. In contrast, projection neuron types and programs diverge, despite exhibiting conserved transcription factor codes. Key macaque types are conserved in humans, allowing mapping of cell-type and region-specific expression of >190 genes associated with 7 human retinal diseases. Our work provides a framework for comparative single-cell analysis across tissue regions and species.
Lin SR, Aldave AJ, Chodosh J. Recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 2019;103(9):1204-1208.Abstract
Recurrent corneal erosion syndrome (RCES) is a disorder characterised by a dysfunctional epithelial ecosystem. It often begins after trauma, or in the setting of epithelial basement membrane degeneration or dystrophy. Historically, RCES has been understood as a structural derangement of the anterior corneal architecture. More recently, studies have demonstrated the important role of neuropeptides in corneal homoeostasis. Thus, RCES may also be understood as a disorder of corneal epithelial cell biology. Management of RCES can be challenging, but newer therapies have demonstrated improved efficacy for this condition. This review examines the aetiology and pathogenesis of RCES, and provides an update on current and emerging treatment modalities for the management of this disorder.

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