Gaier ED, Wang M, Gilbert AL, Rizzo JF, Cestari DM, Miller JB. Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) corresponds to visual function. PLoS One 2018;13(6):e0199793.Abstract
PURPOSE: Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy in older adults. Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) is an emerging, non-invasive method to study the microvasculature of the posterior pole, including the optic nerve head. The goal of this study was to assess the vascular changes in the optic nerve head and peripapillary area associated with NAION using OCT-A. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. METHODS: We performed OCT-A in 25 eyes (7 acute and 18 non-acute) in 19 patients with NAION. Fellow, unaffected eyes were analyzed for comparison. Patent macro- and microvascular densities were quantified in the papillary and peripapillary regions of unaffected, acutely affected, and non-acutely affected eyes and compared across these groups according to laminar segment and capillary sampling region, and with respect to performance on automated visual field testing. RESULTS: In acutely affected eyes, OCT-A revealed a reduction in the signal from the major retinal vessels and dilation of patent superficial capillaries in the peripapillary area. By contrast, non-acutely affected eyes showed attenuation of patent capillaries. The peripapillary choriocapillaris was obscured by edema in acute cases, but was similar between non-acute and unaffected eyes. The degree of dilation of the superficial microvasculature in the acute phase and attenuation in the non-acute phase each correlated inversely with visual field performance. The region of reduced patent capillary density correlated with the location of visual field defects in 80% of acute cases and 80% of non-acute cases. CONCLUSIONS: OCT-A reveals a dynamic shift in the superficial capillary network of the optic nerve head with strong functional correlates in both the acute and non-acute phases of NAION. Further study may validate OCT-A as a useful adjunctive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of ischemic optic neuropathy.
Wang JC, Rudnisky CJ, Belin MW, Ciolino JB, Group BTKS1. Outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 reimplantation: multicentre study results. Can J Ophthalmol 2018;53(3):284-290.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the visual and anatomical outcomes of Boston keratoprosthesis (Kpro) type 1 reimplantation. DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of multicentre prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 303 eyes that underwent Kpro implantation between January 2003 and July 2008 by 1 of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centres, 13 eyes of 13 patients who underwent reimplantation of Boston Kpro type 1 were compared with 13 eyes of 13 diagnosis-matched patients who underwent initial implantation. METHODS: Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and analyzed. Main outcome measures were Kpro retention and logMAR visual acuity. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 17.1 ± 17.6 months, the retention of both initial and repeat Kpro implantation was 92.3% (12/13 in both groups), and 62% of initial implantation and 58% of repeat implantation eyes achieved visual acuity better than 20/200. Vision worse than 20/200 was often due to glaucoma or posterior segment pathology. Best-recorded logMAR visual acuity was significantly improved postoperatively in both groups (p < 0.001), and there was no statistically significant difference in final logMAR visual acuity between the 2 groups (p = 0.89). Sterile keratolysis (n = 4) and fungal infection (n = 5) were the most common causes of initial Kpro failure in the repeat Kpro group. The single failure in the repeat Kpro implantation group was due to fungal keratitis, and in the control group it was related to Kpro extrusion. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat Kpro implantation is a viable option after failed initial Kpro, with visual and anatomical outcomes comparable to those of initial procedures.
Stern JH, Tian Y, Funderburgh J, Pellegrini G, Zhang K, Goldberg JL, Ali RR, Young M, Xie Y, Temple S. Regenerating Eye Tissues to Preserve and Restore Vision. Cell Stem Cell 2018;22(6):834-849.Abstract
Ocular regenerative therapies are on track to revolutionize treatment of numerous blinding disorders, including corneal disease, cataract, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration. A variety of transplantable products, delivered as cell suspensions or as preformed 3D structures combining cells and natural or artificial substrates, are in the pipeline. Here we review the status of clinical and preclinical studies for stem cell-based repair, covering key eye tissues from front to back, from cornea to retina, and including bioengineering approaches that advance cell product manufacturing. While recognizing the challenges, we look forward to a deep portfolio of sight-restoring, stem cell-based medicine. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Ravindran K, Schmalz P, Torun N, Ronthal M, Chang Y-M, Thomas AJ. Angiographic Findings in the Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome and Resolution after Corticosteroid Treatment. Neuroophthalmology 2018;42(3):159-163.Abstract
The Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by painful opthalmoparesis associated with idiopathic granulomatous inflammation of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus. Historically, this condition was thought to result from arteritic changes in the internal carotid artery and cavernous sinus. Modern digital angiographic techniques were unavailable when THS was initially described, and few reports exist on its high-resolution angiographic findings. Painful ophthalmoparesis, especially of the oculomotor nerve, warrants vascular imaging because of the concern for an underlying aneurysm. Here, we describe angiographic findings of THS which may be useful for clinicians when encountering patients presenting with painful ophthalmoplegia.
Mansouri B, Roznik M, Rizzo JF, Prasad S. Rehabilitation of Visual Loss: Where We Are and Where We Need to Be. J Neuroophthalmol 2018;38(2):223-229.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous recovery of visual loss resulting from injury to the brain is variable. A variety of traditional rehabilitative strategies, including the use of prisms or compensatory saccadic eye movements, have been used successfully to improve visual function and quality-of-life for patients with homonymous hemianopia. More recently, repetitive visual stimulation of the blind area has been reported to be of benefit in expanding the field of vision. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a literature review with main focus on clinical studies spanning from 1963 to 2016, including 52 peer-reviewed articles, relevant cross-referenced citations, editorials, and reviews. RESULTS: Repetitive visual stimulation is reported to expand the visual field, although the interpretation of results is confounded by a variety of methodological factors and conflicting outcomes from different research groups. Many studies used subjective assessments of vision and did not include a sufficient number of subjects or controls. CONCLUSIONS: The available clinical evidence does not strongly support claims of visual restoration using repetitive visual stimulation beyond the time that spontaneous visual recovery might occur. This lack of firm supportive evidence does not preclude the potential of real benefit demonstrated in laboratories. Additional well-designed clinical studies with adequate controls and methods to record ocular fixation are needed.
Ichhpujani P, Thakur S, Kumar S, Singh RB. Juvenile Open Angle Glaucoma With Nonbullous Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma. J Glaucoma 2018;27(11):e180-e182.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Glaucoma in patients with nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NBCIE) is a rare entity that has not been described in a histologically confirmed case. We present a unique case of coexisting glaucoma, ichthyosis, and dwarfism that has not been previously described. METHODS: We present a case of NBCIE with glaucoma and dwarfism that presented to our outpatient department. The patient was referred for watering and photophobia that were due to an epithelial defect that was subsequently managed conservatively. Investigations revealed the existence of a constellation of findings that are presented here. RESULTS: NBCIE, glaucoma, and dwarfism represent a spectrum of diseases that seem to have a syndromic association. More gene linkage-based analysis are, however, needed to further confirm our observations. CONCLUSIONS: NBCIE, glaucoma, and dwarfism can often occur together and need to be assessed and managed individually. Early diagnosis of this spectrum can help improve patient management and quality of life. Dermatologists must get an ocular examination conducted for icthyoses patients.
Dabul ANG, Avaca-Crusca JS, Van Tyne D, Gilmore MS, Camargo ILBC. Resistance in In Vitro Selected Tigecycline-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 5 Is Driven by Mutations in mepR and mepA Genes. Microb Drug Resist 2018;24(5):519-526.Abstract
A tigecycline-susceptible (TGC-S) Sequence Type (ST) 5 clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain was cultured in escalating levels of tigecycline, yielding mutants eightfold more resistant. Their genomes were sequenced to identify genetic alterations, resulting in resistance. Alterations in rpsJ, commonly related to tigecycline resistance, were also investigated. Tigecycline resistance was mediated by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional repressor mepR, resulting in derepression of the efflux pump mepA. Increased levels of resistance were obtained by successive mutations in mepA itself. No alterations in RpsJ were observed in selected strains, but we observed a K57M substitution, previously correlated with resistance, among TGC-S clinical strains. Thus, the pathway to tigecycline resistance in CC5 MRSA in vitro appears to be derepression of mep operon as the result of mepR loss-of-function mutation, followed by alterations in MepA efflux pump. This shows that other evolutionary pathways, besides mutation of rpsJ, are available for evolving tigecycline resistance in CC5 MRSA.
Shoji MK, Saeed HN, Habib LA, Freitag SK. Epibulbar Mass With Upper Eyelid Cleft and Focal Scalp Alopecia in a Neonate: A New Case of Oculoectodermal Syndrome. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(4):e133-e136.Abstract
A female neonate presented with a pedunculated left lateral epibulbar mass protruding through the eyelids that originated from the temporal cornea and superolateral bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva. She had a cleft in the ipsilateral central upper eyelid with horizontal kink of the tarsus lateral to the cleft and focal patches of alopecia on the scalp. Histopathology of the epibulbar mass revealed conjunctival epithelium with underlying connective tissue, cartilage, bone, adipose, and lacrimal gland consistent with epibulbar dermoid. Genetic testing of the surgical specimen was positive for a KRAS mutation at position 146. MRI showed subarachnoid asymmetry around the left temporal lobe and a C1-C2 enhancing lesion. These clinical and molecular findings suggest that this patient has a new clinical variant of oculoectodermal syndrome, a rare disorder associated with somatic KRAS gene mutations and characterized clinically by epibulbar dermoids, alopecia, aplasia cutis, brain anomalies, umbilical hernias, and congenital heart defects.
O'Connell AE, Zhou F, Shah MS, Murphy Q, Rickner H, Kelsen J, Boyle J, Doyle JJ, Gangwani B, Thiagarajah JR, Kamin DS, Goldsmith JD, Richmond C, Breault DT, Agrawal PB. Neonatal-Onset Chronic Diarrhea Caused by Homozygous Nonsense WNT2B Mutations. Am J Hum Genet 2018;103(1):131-137.Abstract
Homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B were identified in three individuals from two unrelated families with severe, neonatal-onset osmotic diarrhea after whole-exome sequencing was performed on trios from the two families. Intestinal biopsy samples from affected individuals were used for histology and immunofluorescence and to generate enteroids ex vivo. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated chronic inflammatory changes in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diminished staining for OLFM4, a marker for intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The enteroids generated from WNT2B-deficient intestinal epithelium could not be expanded and did not survive passage. Addition of CHIR-99021 (a GSK3A and GSK3B inhibitor and activator of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling) could not rescue WNT2B-deficient enteroids. Addition of supplemental recombinant murine WNT2B was able to perpetuate small enteroids for multiple passages but failed to expand their number. Enteroids showed a 10-fold increase in the expression of LEF1 mRNA and a 100-fold reduction in TLR4 expression, compared with controls by quantitative RT-PCR, indicating alterations in canonical WNT and microbial pattern-recognition signaling. In summary, individuals with homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B demonstrate severe intestinal dysregulation associated with decreased ISC number and function, likely explaining their diarrheal phenotype. WNT2B deficiency should be considered for individuals with neonatal-onset diarrhea.
Kumar S, Ichhpujani P, Thakur S, Singh RB. Traumatic corneal perforation with exteriorisation of Ahmed glaucoma valve tube. BMJ Case Rep 2018;2018Abstract
We report a rare case of traumatic corneal perforation with Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) tube. A 5-year-old female child, diagnosed with refractory glaucoma, had undergone AGV implantation, presented with the posterior migration of AGV tube after trauma to the eye. The detailed ocular history, ophthalmic findings, clinical course and surgical management are discussed.
Wallace DK, Dean TW, Hartnett ME, Kong L, Smith LE, Hubbard BG, McGregor ML, Jordan CO, Mantagos IS, Bell EF, Kraker RT, Kraker RT. A Dosing Study of Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: Late Recurrences and Additional Treatments. Ophthalmology 2018;125(12):1961-1966.Abstract
PURPOSE: Intravitreal bevacizumab is increasingly used to treat severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream, and there is concern that it may alter development of other organs. Previously we reported short-term outcomes of 61 infants enrolled in a dose de-escalation study, and we report the late recurrences and additional treatments. DESIGN: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 61 premature infants with type 1 ROP. METHODS: If type 1 ROP was bilateral at enrollment, then the study eye was randomly selected. In the study eye, bevacizumab intravitreal injections were given at de-escalating doses of 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, or 0.031 mg; if needed, fellow eyes received 1 dose level higher: 0.625 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, or 0.063 mg, respectively. After 4 weeks, additional treatment was at the discretion of the investigator. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early and late ROP recurrences, additional treatments, and structural outcomes after 6 months. RESULTS: Of 61 study eyes, 25 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-54%) received additional treatment: 3 (5%; 95% CI, 1%-14%) for early failure (within 4 weeks), 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for late recurrence of ROP (after 4 weeks), and 11 (18%; 95% CI, 9%-30%) for persistent avascular retina. Re-treatment for early failure or late recurrence occurred in 2 of 11 eyes (18%; 95% CI, 2%-52%) treated with 0.25 mg, 4 of 16 eyes (25%; 95% CI, 7%-52%) treated with 0.125 mg, 8 of 24 eyes (33%; 95% CI, 16%-55%) treated with 0.063 mg, and 0 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-31%) of 10 eyes treated with 0.031 mg. By 6 months corrected age, 56 of 61 study eyes had regression of ROP with normal posterior poles, 1 study eye had developed a Stage 5 retinal detachment, and 4 infants had died of preexisting medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal structural outcomes are very good after low-dose bevacizumab treatment for ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment.
Sood AB, O'Keefe G, Bui D, Jain N. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease Associated with Hepatitis B Vaccination. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018;:1-4.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease associated with hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old Caucasian male presented with a three-week history of blurry vision, pain, photophobia, and redness in both eyes. Three days prior to the onset of symptoms, he had received the hepatitis B virus vaccine. Clinical evaluation revealed multifocal placoid lesions in the posterior pole, choroidal thickening, and serous macular detachment. Targeted laboratory investigations were negative for infectious or autoimmune markers. After treatment with oral corticosteroids, the patient had resolution of symptoms with near-total recovery of visual function. The patient later reported systemic findings of hearing loss, tinnitus, and integumentary changes. A diagnosis of VKH disease was made and inflammation was managed with oral corticosteroids followed by methotrexate for long-term disease control. CONCLUSIONS: VKH disease is an inflammatory condition primarily affecting the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer retina. The underlying etiology is unclear, but it can be associated with a viral prodrome suggesting an infectious trigger in a genetically susceptible individual. Our case suggests that hepatitis B vaccination may trigger a similar inflammatory response.
Iglesias AI, Mishra A, Vitart V, Bykhovskaya Y, Höhn R, Springelkamp H, Cuellar-Partida G, Gharahkhani P, Bailey JCN, Willoughby CE, Li X, Yazar S, Nag A, Khawaja AP, Polašek O, Siscovick D, Mitchell P, Tham YC, Haines JL, Kearns LS, Hayward C, Shi Y, van Leeuwen EM, Taylor KD, Taylor KD, Bonnemaijer P, Rotter JI, Martin NG, Zeller T, Mills RA, Staffieri SE, Jonas JB, Schmidtmann I, Boutin T, Kang JH, Lucas SEM, Wong TY, Beutel ME, Wilson JF, Wilson JF, Wilson JF, Uitterlinden AG, Vithana EN, Foster PJ, Hysi PG, Hewitt AW, Khor CC, Pasquale LR, Montgomery GW, Klaver CCW, Aung T, Pfeiffer N, Mackey DA, Hammond CJ, Cheng C-Y, Craig JE, Rabinowitz YS, Wiggs JL, Burdon KP, van Duijn CM, Macgregor S. Cross-ancestry genome-wide association analysis of corneal thickness strengthens link between complex and Mendelian eye diseases. Nat Commun 2018;9(1):1864.Abstract
Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for known connective tissue-related pathways, pathway analyses uncover previously unreported gene sets. Remarkably, >20% of the CCT-loci are near or within Mendelian disorder genes. These included FBN1, ADAMTS2 and TGFB2 which associate with connective tissue disorders (Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos and Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and the LUM-DCN-KERA gene complex involved in myopia, corneal dystrophies and cornea plana. Using index CCT-increasing variants, we find a significant inverse correlation in effect sizes between CCT and keratoconus (r = -0.62, P = 5.30 × 10) but not between CCT and primary open-angle glaucoma (r = -0.17, P = 0.2). Our findings provide evidence for shared genetic influences between CCT and keratoconus, and implicate candidate genes acting in collagen and extracellular matrix regulation.
Di Gioia SA, Shaaban S, Tüysüz B, Elcioglu NH, Chan W-M, Robson CD, Ecklund K, Gilette NM, Hamzaoglu A, Tayfun GA, Traboulsi EI, Engle EC. Recessive MYF5 Mutations Cause External Ophthalmoplegia, Rib, and Vertebral Anomalies. Am J Hum Genet 2018;103(1):115-124.Abstract
MYF5 is member of the Myc-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family and, in cooperation with other myogenic regulatory factors MYOD and MYF5, is a key regulator of early stages of myogenesis. Here, we report three consanguineous families with biallelic homozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYF5 who define a clinical disorder characterized by congenital ophthalmoplegia with scoliosis and vertebral and rib anomalies. The clinical phenotype overlaps strikingly with that reported in several Myf5 knockout mouse models. Affected members of two families share a haploidentical region that contains a homozygous 10 bp frameshift mutation in exon 1 of MYF5 (c.23_32delAGTTCTCACC [p.Gln8Leufs86]) predicted to undergo nonsense-mediated decay. Affected members of the third family harbor a homozygous missense change in exon 1 of MYF5 (c.283C>T [p.Arg95Cys]). Using in vitro assays, we show that this missense mutation acts as a loss-of-function allele by impairing MYF5 DNA binding and nuclear localization. We performed whole-genome sequencing in one affected individual with the frameshift mutation and did not identify additional rare variants in the haploidentical region that might account for differences in severity among the families. These data support the direct role of MYF5 in rib, spine, and extraocular muscle formation in humans.