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Al-Louzi O, Prasad S, M Mallery R. Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of sellar and parasellar mass lesions. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2018;25(4):274-284.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anterior visual pathway compression is a common feature of sellar region masses. We review the visual pathway neuroanatomy pertaining to sellar and parasellar lesions and describe recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging that have provided a novel quantitative perspective in the evaluation and management of such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Ultrastructural measurements of optic nerve integrity using OCT, namely peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses, have been shown to correlate with visual acuity and visual field deficits on perimetry in patients with compressive sellar region masses. In some cases, OCT can visualize early signs of anterior visual pathway involvement in the absence of clinically evident visual field loss or optic disc pallor. OCT is particularly useful when assessing patients who demonstrate less reliable visual field testing. Furthermore, there is growing awareness that pRNFL and GCIPL thinning preoperatively correlate with worse visual recovery following chiasmal decompression, highlighting the prognostic utility of OCT in this patient population. SUMMARY: OCT provides a complimentary, yet critical, role in quantitatively assessing ultrastructural retinal injury in patients with sellar and parasellar lesions compressing the anterior visual pathway and should be incorporated into routine evaluation.
Roh M, Selivanova A, Shin HJ, Miller JW, Jackson ML. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are two important factors affecting vision-related quality of life in advanced age-related macular degeneration. PLoS One 2018;13(5):e0196481.Abstract
PURPOSE: Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (β = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and β = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and β = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL.
McDermott AM, Baidouri H, Woodward AM, Kam WR, Liu Y, Chen X, Ziemanski JF, Vistisen K, Hazlett LD, Nichols KK, Argüeso P, Sullivan DA. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Profiles of Commonly Used Human Ocular Surface Cell Lines. Curr Eye Res 2018;43(9):1097-1101.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles of several human cell lines commonly used in ocular surface research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Independently DNA was extracted from multiple passages of three human corneal epithelial cell lines, two human conjunctival epithelial cell lines and one meibomian gland cell line, from different laboratories actively involved in ocular surface research. The samples were then subjected to STR analysis on a fee-for-service basis in an academic setting and the data compared against that in available databases. RESULTS: The STR profiles for the human corneal epithelial cells were different among the three cell lines studied and for each line the profiles were identical across the samples provided by three laboratories. Profiles for the human conjunctival epithelial cells were different among the two cell lines studied. Profiles for the meibomian gland cell line were identical across the samples provided by three laboratories. No samples were contaminated by elements of other cell lines such as HeLa. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive study provides verification of STR profiles for commonly used human ocular surface cell lines that can now be used as a reference by others in the field to authenticate the cell lines in use in their own laboratories.
Kang JH, Rosner BA, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. Sex hormone levels and risk of primary open-angle glaucoma in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2018;25(10):1116-1123.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relation of prediagnostic sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS: Among postmenopausal participants of the Nurses' Health Study, POAG cases (n = 189; diagnosed 1990-2008) and controls (n = 189) were matched on age, fasting status, and postmenopausal hormone use at blood draw (1989-1990). Plasma concentrations of estrone sulfate, estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were assessed. The primary outcome was POAG; in secondary analyses, among cases only, we evaluated maximum untreated IOP at diagnosis. Multivariable-adjusted logistic/multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate tertiles (Ts) of biomarker levels and the two outcomes, adjusting for various potential confounders. RESULTS: We observed no significant associations of estrone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with POAG risk or with maximum IOP at glaucoma diagnosis among cases. Suggestive significant associations were observed with highest testosterone and POAG risk (T3 vs T1 multivariable-adjusted odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.02, 3.33; P trend 0.10). Similarly, for maximum IOP at diagnosis among cases only (mean 8 years after blood draw), higher testosterone was significantly associated with higher IOP (multivariable-adjusted difference in IOP T3 vs T1 2.17 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.34, 3.99; P trend 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, plasma sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women were not associated with POAG risk; however, a trend of higher testosterone levels being associated with higher POAG risk and higher IOP at diagnosis was observed and needs confirmation.
Fan BJ, Chen X, Sondhi N, Sharmila FP, Soumittra N, Sripriya S, Sacikala S, Asokan R, Friedman DS, Pasquale LR, Gao RX, Vijaya L, Bailey JC, Vitart V, Macgregor S, Hammond CJ, Khor CC, Haines JL, George R, Wiggs JL, and Consortium MAGGS; IGGC; NEIGHBORHOOD. Family-Based Genome-Wide Association Study of South Indian Pedigrees Supports WNT7B as a Central Corneal Thickness Locus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(6):2495-2502.Abstract
Purpose: To identify genetic risk factors contributing to central corneal thickness (CCT) in individuals from South India, a population with a high prevalence of ocular disorders. Methods: One hundred ninety-five individuals from 15 large South Indian pedigrees were genotyped using the Omni2.5 bead array. Family-based association for CCT was conducted using the score test in MERLIN. Results: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified strongest association for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the first intron of WNT7B and CCT (top SNP rs9330813; β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.78 to -0.36; P = 1.7 × 10-7). We further investigated rs9330813 in a Latino cohort and four independent European cohorts. A meta-analysis of these data sets demonstrated statistically significant association between rs9330813 and CCT (β = -3.94, 95% CI: -5.23 to -2.66; P = 1.7 × 10-9). WNT7B SNPs located in the same genomic region that includes rs9330813 have previously been associated with CCT in Latinos but with other ocular quantitative traits related to myopia (corneal curvature and axial length) in a Japanese population (rs10453441 and rs200329677). To evaluate the specificity of the observed WNT7B association with CCT in the South Indian families, we completed an ocular phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) for the top WNT7B SNPs using 45 ocular traits measured in these same families including corneal curvature and axial length. The ocular PheWAS results indicate that in the South Indian families WNT7B SNPs are primarily associated with CCT. Conclusions: The results indicate robust evidence for association between WNT7B SNPs and CCT in South Indian pedigrees, and suggest that WNT7B SNPs can have population-specific effects on ocular quantitative traits.
Chen D, Sahin A, Kam WR, Liu Y, Rahimi Darabad R, Sullivan DA. Influence of lipopolysaccharide on proinflammatory gene expression in human corneal, conjunctival and meibomian gland epithelial cells. Ocul Surf 2018;16(3):382-389.Abstract
PURPOSE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is known to stimulate leuokotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion by human corneal (HCECs), conjunctival (HConjECs) and meibomian gland (HMGECs) epithelial cells. We hypothesize that this LTB4 effect represents an overall induction of proinflammatory gene expression in these cells. Our objective was to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Immortalized HCECs, HConjECs and HMGECs were cultured in the presence or absence of LPS (15 μg/ml) and ligand binding protein (LBP; 150 ng/ml). Cells were then processed for RNA isolation and the analysis of gene expression by using Illumina BeadChips, background subtraction, cubic spline normalization and GeneSifter software. RESULTS: Our findings show that LPS induces a striking increase in proinflammatory gene expression in HCECs and HConjECs. These cellular reactions are associated with a significant up-regulation of genes associated with inflammatory and immune responses (e.g. IL-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor), including those related to chemokine and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and chemotaxis. In contrast, with the exception of Toll-like signaling and associated innate immunity pathways, almost no proinflammatory ontologies were upregulated by LPS in HMGECs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis that LPS stimulates proinflammatory gene expression in HCECs and HConjECs. However, our findings also show that LPS does not elicit such proinflammatory responses in HMGECs.
Sié A, Diarra A, Millogo O, Zongo A, Lebas E, Bärnighausen T, Chodosh J, Porco TC, Deiner MS, Lietman TM, Keenan JD, Oldenburg CE. Seasonal and Temporal Trends in Childhood Conjunctivitis in Burkina Faso. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018;Abstract
Acute conjunctivitis follows a seasonal pattern. Although its clinical course is typically self-limited, conjunctivitis epidemics incur a substantial economic burden because of missed school and work days. This study investigated seasonal and temporal trends of childhood conjunctivitis in the entire country of Burkina Faso from 2013 to 2016, using routine monthly surveillance from 2,444 government health facilities. A total of 783,314 cases were reported over the 4-year period. Conjunctivitis followed a seasonal pattern throughout the country, with a peak in April. A nationwide conjunctivitis outbreak with a peak in September 2016 was noted ( < 0.001), with an excess number of cases first detected in June 2016. Nationwide passive surveillance was able to detect an epidemic 3 months before its peak, which may aide in allocation of resources for containment and mitigation of transmission in future outbreaks.
Nowak-Sliwinska P, Alitalo K, Allen E, Anisimov A, Aplin AC, Auerbach R, Augustin HG, Bates DO, van Beijnum JR, Bender HRF, Bergers G, Bikfalvi A, Bischoff J, Böck BC, Brooks PC, Bussolino F, Cakir B, Carmeliet P, Castranova D, Cimpean AM, Cleaver O, Coukos G, Davis GE, De Palma M, Dimberg A, Dings RPM, Djonov V, Dudley AC, Dufton NP, Fendt S-M, Ferrara N, Fruttiger M, Fukumura D, Ghesquière B, Gong Y, Griffin RJ, Harris AL, Hughes CCW, Hultgren NW, Iruela-Arispe LM, Irving M, Jain RK, Kalluri R, Kalucka J, Kerbel RS, Kitajewski J, Klaassen I, Kleinmann HK, Koolwijk P, Kuczynski E, Kwak BR, Marien K, Melero-Martin JM, Munn LL, Nicosia RF, Noel A, Nurro J, Olsson A-K, Petrova TV, Pietras K, Pili R, Pollard JW, Post MJ, Quax PHA, Rabinovich GA, Raica M, Randi AM, Ribatti D, Ruegg C, Schlingemann RO, Schulte-Merker S, Smith LEH, Song JW, Stacker SA, Stalin J, Stratman AN, Van de Velde M, van Hinsbergh VWM, Vermeulen PB, Waltenberger J, Weinstein BM, Xin H, Yetkin-Arik B, Yla-Herttuala S, Yoder MC, Griffioen AW. Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays. Angiogenesis 2018;Abstract
The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.
Lee A, Karamichos D, Onochie OE, Hutcheon AEK, Rich CB, Zieske JD, Trinkaus-Randall V. Hypoxia modulates the development of a corneal stromal matrix model. Exp Eye Res 2018;170:127-137.Abstract
Deposition of matrix proteins during development and repair is critical to the transparency of the cornea. While many cells respond to a hypoxic state that can occur in a tumor, the cornea is exposed to hypoxia during development prior to eyelid opening and during the diurnal sleep cycle where oxygen levels can drop from 21% to 8%. In this study, we used 2 three-dimensional (3-D) models to examine how stromal cells respond to periods of acute hypoxic states. The first model, a stromal construct model, is a 3-D stroma-like construct that consists of human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) stimulated by a stable form of ascorbate for 1, 2, and 4 weeks to self-assemble their own extracellular matrix. The second model, a corneal organ culture model, is a corneal wound-healing model, which consists of wounded adult rat corneas that were removed and placed in culture to heal. Both models were exposed to either normoxic or hypoxic conditions for varying time periods, and the expression and/or localization of matrix proteins was assessed. No significant changes were detected in Type V collagen, which is associated with Type I collagen fibrils; however, significant changes were detected in the expression of both the small leucine-rich repeating proteoglycans and the larger heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan. Also, hypoxia decreased both the number of Cuprolinic blue-positive glycosaminoglycan chains along collagen fibrils and Sulfatase 1, which modulates the effect of heparan sulfate by removing the 6-O-sulfate groups. In the stromal construct model, alterations were seen in fibronectin, similar to those that occur in development and after injury. These changes in fibronectin after injury were accompanied by changes in proteoglycans. Together these findings indicate that acute hypoxic changes alter the physiology of the cornea, and these models will allow us to manipulate the conditions in the extracellular environment in order to study corneal development and trauma.
Hua J, Inomata T, Chen Y, Foulsham W, Stevenson W, Shiang T, Bluestone JA, Dana R. Pathological conversion of regulatory T cells is associated with loss of allotolerance. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):7059.Abstract
CD4CD25Foxp3 Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in immune tolerance. The plasticity and functional adaptability of Tregs in an inflammatory microenvironment has been demonstrated in autoimmunity. Here, using a double transgenic mouse model that permits Foxp3 lineage tracing, we investigated the phenotypic plasticity of Foxp3 Tregs in a well-characterized murine model of corneal transplantation. In order to subvert the normal immune privilege of the cornea and foster an inflammatory milieu, host mice were exposed to desiccating stress prior to transplantation. Treg frequencies and function were decreased following desiccating stress, and this corresponded to decreased graft survival. A fraction of Tregs converted to IL-17 or IFNγ 'exFoxp3' T cells that were phenotypically indistinguishable from effector Th17 or Th1 cells, respectively. We investigated how Foxp3 expression is modulated in different Treg subsets, demonstrating that neuropilin-1 peripherally-derived Tregs are particularly susceptible to conversion to IL-17/IFNγ exFoxp3 cells in response to cues from their microenvironment. Finally, we show that IL-6 and IL-23 are implicated in the conversion of Tregs to exFoxp3 cells. This report demonstrates that the pathological conversion of Tregs contributes to the loss of corneal immune privilege.
Costela FM, Sheldon SS, Walker B, Woods RL. People with Hemianopia Report Difficulty with TV, Computer, Cinema Use, and Photography. Optom Vis Sci 2018;95(5):428-434.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: Our survey found that participants with hemianopia report more difficulties watching video in various formats, including television (TV), on computers, and in a movie theater, compared with participants with normal vision (NV). These reported difficulties were not as marked as those reported by people with central vision loss. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to survey the viewing experience (e.g., frequency, difficulty) of viewing video on TV, computers and portable visual display devices, and at the cinema of people with hemianopia and NV. This information may guide vision rehabilitation. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey to investigate the viewing habits of people with hemianopia (n = 91) or NV (n = 192). The survey, consisting of 22 items, was administered either in person or in a telephone interview. Descriptive statistics are reported. RESULTS: There were five major differences between the hemianopia and NV groups. Many participants with hemianopia reported (1) at least "some" difficulty watching TV (39/82); (2) at least "some" difficulty watching video on a computer (16/62); (3) never attending the cinema (30/87); (4) at least some difficulty watching movies in the cinema (20/56), among those who did attend the cinema; and (5) never taking photographs (24/80). Some people with hemianopia reported methods that they used to help them watch video, including video playback and head turn. CONCLUSIONS: Although people with hemianopia report more difficulty with viewing video on TV and at the cinema, we are not aware of any rehabilitation methods specifically designed to assist people with hemianopia to watch video. The results of this survey may guide future vision rehabilitation.
Wong TY, Sun J, Kawasaki R, Ruamviboonsuk P, Gupta N, Lansingh VC, Maia M, Mathenge W, Moreker S, Muqit MMK, Resnikoff S, Verdaguer J, Zhao P, Ferris F, Aiello LP, Taylor HR. Guidelines on Diabetic Eye Care: The International Council of Ophthalmology Recommendations for Screening, Follow-up, Referral, and Treatment Based on Resource Settings. Ophthalmology 2018;125(10):1608-1622.Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global epidemic and affects populations in both developing and developed countries, with differing health care and resource levels. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of DM and a leading cause of vision loss in working middle-aged adults. Vision loss from DR can be prevented with broad-level public health strategies, but these need to be tailored to a country's and population's resource setting. Designing DR screening programs, with appropriate and timely referral to facilities with trained eye care professionals, and using cost-effective treatment for vision-threatening levels of DR can prevent vision loss. The International Council of Ophthalmology Guidelines for Diabetic Eye Care 2017 summarize and offer a comprehensive guide for DR screening, referral and follow-up schedules for DR, and appropriate management of vision-threatening DR, including diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative DR, for countries with high- and low- or intermediate-resource settings. The guidelines include updated evidence on screening and referral criteria, the minimum requirements for a screening vision and retinal examination, follow-up care, and management of DR and DME, including laser photocoagulation and appropriate use of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and, in specific situations, intravitreal corticosteroids. Recommendations for management of DR in patients during pregnancy and with concomitant cataract also are included. The guidelines offer suggestions for monitoring outcomes and indicators of success at a population level.
Rinaldi L, Merabet LB, Vecchi T, Cattaneo Z. The spatial representation of number, time, and serial order following sensory deprivation: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018;90:371-380.Abstract
The spatial representation of numerical and temporal information is thought to be rooted in our multisensory experiences. Accordingly, we may expect visual or auditory deprivation to affect the way we represent numerical magnitude and time spatially. Here, we systematically review recent findings on how blind and deaf individuals represent abstract concepts such as magnitude and time (e.g., past/future, serial order of events) in a spatial format. Interestingly, available evidence suggests that sensory deprivation does not prevent the spatial "re-mapping" of abstract information, but differences compared to normally sighted and hearing individuals may emerge depending on the specific dimension considered (i.e., numerical magnitude, time as past/future, serial order). Herein we discuss how the study of sensory deprived populations may shed light on the specific, and possibly distinct, mechanisms subserving the spatial representation of these concepts. Furthermore, we pinpoint unresolved issues that need to be addressed by future studies to grasp a full understanding of the spatial representation of abstract information associated with visual and auditory deprivation.
Maurer AC, Pacouret S, Cepeda Diaz AK, Blake J, Andres-Mateos E, Vandenberghe LH. The Assembly-Activating Protein Promotes Stability and Interactions between AAV's Viral Proteins to Nucleate Capsid Assembly. Cell Rep 2018;23(6):1817-1830.Abstract
The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a preferred delivery platform for in vivo gene therapy. Natural and engineered variations of the AAV capsid affect a plurality of phenotypes relevant to gene therapy, including vector production and host tropism. Fundamental to these aspects is the mechanism of AAV capsid assembly. Here, the role of the viral co-factor assembly-activating protein (AAP) was evaluated in 12 naturally occurring AAVs and 9 putative ancestral capsid intermediates. The results demonstrate increased capsid protein stability and VP-VP interactions in the presence of AAP. The capsid's dependence on AAP can be partly overcome by strengthening interactions between monomers within the assembly, as illustrated by the transfer of a minimal motif defined by a phenotype-to-phylogeny mapping method. These findings suggest that the emergence of AAP within the Dependovirus genus relaxes structural constraints on AAV assembly in favor of increasing the degrees of freedom for the capsid to evolve.
Johnston T, Van Tyne D, Chen RF, Fawzi NL, Kwon B, Kelso MJ, Gilmore MS, Mylonakis E. Propyl-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbodithioate (HMPC): a new bacteriostatic agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):7062.Abstract
The emergence of Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to 'last resort' antibiotics compels the development of new antimicrobials against this important human pathogen. We found that propyl 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbodithioate (HMPC) shows bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus (MIC = 4 μg/ml) and rescues Caenorhabditis elegans from S. aureus infection. Whole-genome sequencing of S. aureus mutants resistant to the compound, along with screening of a S. aureus promoter-lux reporter array, were used to explore possible mechanisms of action. All mutants resistant to HMPC acquired missense mutations at distinct codon positions in the global transcriptional regulator mgrA, followed by secondary mutations in the phosphatidylglycerol lysyltransferase fmtC/mprF. The S. aureus promoter-lux array treated with HMPC displayed a luminescence profile that was unique but showed similarity to DNA-damaging agents and/or DNA replication inhibitors. Overall, HMPC is a new anti-staphylococcal compound that appears to act via an unknown mechanism linked to the global transcriptional regulator MgrA.

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