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Schoemaker D, Quiroz YT, Torrico-Teave H, Arboleda-Velasquez JF. Clinical and research applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the study of CADASIL. Neurosci Lett 2019;698:173-179.Abstract
Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small vessel disease that leads to early cerebrovascular events and functional disability. It is the most common single-gene disorder leading to stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a central component of the diagnosis and monitoring of CADASIL. Here we provide a descriptive review of the literature on three important aspects pertaining to the use of MRI in CADASIL. First, we review past research exploring MRI markers for this disease. Secondly, we describe results from studies investigating associations between neuroimaging abnormalities and neuropathology in CADASIL. Finally, we discuss previous findings relating MRI markers to clinical symptoms. This review thus provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding the use of MRI in CADASIL as well as suggestions for future research.
Lee JS, Ismail AM, Lee JY, Zhou X, Materne EC, Chodosh J, Rajaiya J. Impact of dynamin 2 on adenovirus nuclear entry. Virology 2019;529:43-56.Abstract
The large GTPase dynamin 2 controls both endosomal fission and microtubule acetylation. Here we report that dynamin 2 alters microtubules and regulates the trafficking of human adenovirus type 37. Dynamin 2 knockdown by siRNA in infected cells resulted in accumulation of acetylated tubulin, repositioning of microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) closer to cell nuclei, increased virus in the cytosol (with a compensatory decrease in endosomal virus), reduced proinflammatory cytokine induction, and increased binding of virus to the nucleoporin, Nup358. These events led to increased viral DNA nuclear entry and viral replication. Overexpression of dynamin 2 generated opposite effects. Therefore, dynamin 2 inhibits adenovirus replication and promotes innate immune responses by the infected cell. MTOC transposition in dynamin 2 knockdown promotes a closer association with nuclear pore complexes to facilitate viral DNA delivery. Dynamin 2 plays a key role in adenoviral trafficking and influences host responses to infection.
Selivanova A, Fenwick E, Man R, Seiple W, Jackson ML. Outcomes After Comprehensive Vision Rehabilitation Using Vision-related Quality of Life Questionnaires: Impact of Vision Impairment and National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire. Optom Vis Sci 2019;96(2):87-94.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: This research is significant because, although vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) is improved after vision rehabilitation (VR), patients with certain characteristics respond less positively on VRQoL measures, and this should inform future care. PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate how two VRQoL questionnaires compare in measuring change in patient-reported outcomes after VR and to determine if patient characteristics or occupational therapy (OT) predict higher scores after rehabilitation. METHODS: In a prospective clinical cohort study, 109 patients with low vision completed the Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) and the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) before and after VR. Comprehensive VR included consultation with an ophthalmologist and OT if required. The relationships of six baseline characteristics (age, sex, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, field loss, diagnosis) and OT were assessed with VRQoL scores using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 68.5 (19.2) years, and 61 (56%) were female. After rehabilitation, increases in scores were observed in all IVI subscales (reading [P < .001], mobility [P = .002], well-being [P = .0003]) and all NEI VFQ-25 subscales (functional [P = .01], socioemotional [P = .003]). Those who were referred to OT but did not attend and those who had hemianopia/field loss were less likely to have higher VRQoL in IVI mobility and well-being. Those attending OT for more than 3 hours were less likely to have better scores in emotional NEI VFQ. Men were less likely to have increased scores in functional and emotional NEI VFQ, whereas those with diagnoses of nonmacular diseases had higher odds of having increased scores on the emotional NEI VFQ (all, P < .05). CONCLUSION: Both the IVI and the NEI VFQ-25 detected change in patients' VRQoL after rehabilitation. Most of the patient characteristics we considered predicted a lower likelihood of increased scores in VRQoL.
Madhavan R, Bansal AK, Madsen JR, Golby AJ, Tierney TS, Eskandar EN, Anderson WS, Kreiman G. Neural Interactions Underlying Visuomotor Associations in the Human Brain. Cereb Cortex 2019;29(11):4551-4567.Abstract
Rapid and flexible learning during behavioral choices is critical to our daily endeavors and constitutes a hallmark of dynamic reasoning. An important paradigm to examine flexible behavior involves learning new arbitrary associations mapping visual inputs to motor outputs. We conjectured that visuomotor rules are instantiated by translating visual signals into actions through dynamic interactions between visual, frontal and motor cortex. We evaluated the neural representation of such visuomotor rules by performing intracranial field potential recordings in epilepsy subjects during a rule-learning delayed match-to-behavior task. Learning new visuomotor mappings led to the emergence of specific responses associating visual signals with motor outputs in 3 anatomical clusters in frontal, anteroventral temporal and posterior parietal cortex. After learning, mapping selective signals during the delay period showed interactions with visual and motor signals. These observations provide initial steps towards elucidating the dynamic circuits underlying flexible behavior and how communication between subregions of frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex leads to rapid learning of task-relevant choices.
Tiedemann D, Mouhammad ZA, Utheim TP, Dartt DA, Heegaard S, Petrovski G, Kolko M. Conjunctival Goblet Cells, the Overlooked Cells in Glaucoma Treatment. J Glaucoma 2019;28(4):325-333.Abstract
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Although no definitive cure exists, lowering of the intraocular pressure decreases the rate of progression in the majority of patients with glaucoma. Antiglaucomatous treatment modalities consist predominantly of chronic use of eye drops. It has become increasingly evident that long-term exposure to eye drops has a significant impact on the ocular surface, and thereby on patient compliance and quality of life. Maintenance of the ocular surface is highly dependent on a stable tear film. Conjunctival goblet cells (GCs) of the ocular surface play an important role in providing the innermost mucin layer of the tear film and are essential for maintaining the ocular surface homeostasis. Recent studies have reported severe side effects of antiglaucomatous drops on GCs. In particular, a preservative containing antiglaucomatous drops have been shown to affect the viability and functions of the GCs. Furthermore, GC density has been suggested as a potential predictor of surgical outcome after filtration surgery. The present review provides an overview of the current literature on the impact of antiglaucomatous eye drops on GCs as well as the impact on the ocular surface. Moreover, the existing evidence of a possible association between GC density and glaucoma filtration surgery outcome is summarized. We conclude that prostaglandin analogs spare the conjunctival GCs more compared with other antiglaucomatous drops and that GCs may be a good predictor of surgical outcome after filtration surgery. Overall, given the multiple functions of GCs in the ocular surface homeostasis, dedicated strategies should be adopted to preserve this cell population during the course of glaucoma.
Chi Z-L, Adini A, Birsner AE, Bazinet L, Akula JD, D'Amato RJ. PR1P ameliorates neurodegeneration through activation of VEGF signaling pathway and remodeling of the extracellular environment. Neuropharmacology 2019;148:96-106.Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide. Optic neuropathies are the most commonly occurring neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. We recently reported that Prominin-1, a protein found on the surface of stem cells, interacts with VEGF and enhances its activity. VEGF is known to have various protective roles in the nervous system. Subsequently, we have developed a 12-mer peptide derived from Prominin-1, named PR1P, and investigated its effects on neuronal survival of damaged RGCs in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). PR1P prevented RGC apoptosis resulting in improvement of retinal function in the rat ONC model. PR1P treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of ERK and AKT and expression its downstream proteins c-fos and Egr-1 in the retina. Additionally, PR1P beneficially increased the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio and promoted glial activation in the retina of ONC rats. Thus, PR1P displayed neuroprotective effects through enhanced VEGF-driven neuronal survival and reconstruction of the extracellular environment in ONC model. Our data indicate that PR1P may be a promising new clinical candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Kaye R, Botten N, Lippestad M, Li D, Hodges RR, Utheim TP, Serhan CN, Dartt DA. Resolvin D1, but not resolvin E1, transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor to increase intracellular calcium and glycoconjugate secretion in rat and human conjunctival goblet cells. Exp Eye Res 2019;180:53-62.Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify interactions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the pro-resolving mediator receptors for RvD1 and RvE1 to stimulate an increase in intracellular [Ca] ([Ca]) and mucin secretion from cultured human and rat conjunctival goblet cells. METHODS: Goblet cells from human and rat conjunctiva were grown in culture using RPMI media. Cultured goblet cells were pre-incubated with inhibitors, and then stimulated with RvD1, RvE1, EGF or the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch). Increase in [Ca] was measured using fura-2/AM. Goblet cell secretion was measured using an enzyme-linked lectin assay with UEA-1. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against AKT and ERK 1/2. RESULTS: In cultured human conjunctival goblet cells RvE1 -stimulated an increase in [Ca]. RvD1-, but not the RvE1-, stimulated increase in [Ca] and mucin secretion was blocked by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and siRNA for the EGFR. RvD1-, but not RvE1-stimulated an increase in [Ca] that was also inhibited by TAPI-1, an inhibitor of the matrix metalloprotease ADAM 17. Inhibition of the EGFR also blocked RvD1-stimulated increase in AKT activity and both RvD1-and RvE1-stimulated increase in ERK 1/2 activity. Pretreatment with either RvD1 or RvE1 did not block the EGFR-stimulated increase in [Ca]. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in cultured rat and human conjunctival goblet cells, RvD1 activates the EGFR, increases [Ca], activates AKT and ERK1/2 to stimulate mucin secretion. RvE1 does not transactivate the EGFR to increase [Ca] and stimulate mucin secretion, but does interact with the receptor to increase ERK 1/2 activity.
Raghuram A, Hunter DG, Gowrisankaran S, Waber DP. Self-reported visual symptoms in children with developmental dyslexia. Vision Res 2019;155:11-16.Abstract
Although there are many anecdotal reports of children with developmental dyslexia complaining of vision symptoms when reading, empirical studies are lacking. The primary aim of the present study was to document self-reported vision-related symptoms in children with developmental dyslexia and typically reading peers. We also explored whether vision symptoms were correlated with sensorimotor measures of vergence, accommodation and ocular motor tracking skills. Using a prospective group comparison observational design, we assessed 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and 33 typically reading children (TR) 7-11 years of age. Participants completed psychoeducational testing, a comprehensive sensorimotor eye examination, and the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS), which includes 9 items pertaining to vision-related symptoms (CISS-V) and 6 that could have cognitive influence (CISS-C). CISS-V were significantly greater in DD than TR children. Ocular motor tracking, assessed by an infra-red limbal eye tracker while reading text, was most clearly associated with the visual symptoms, but only within the DD group. Vision-related symptom surveys followed by a comprehensive eye examination with detailed evaluation of sensorimotor functioning for those who report a high prevalence of symptoms may be clinically relevant for children with DD.
Storey PP, Tauqeer Z, Yonekawa Y, Todorich B, Wolfe JD, Shah SP, Shah AR, Koto T, Abbey AM, Morizane Y, Sharma P, Wood EH, Morizane-Hosokawa M, Pendri P, Pancholy M, Harkey S, Jeng-Miller KW, Obeid A, Borkar DS, Chen E, Williams P, Okada AA, Inoue M, Shiraga F, Hirakata A, Shah CP, Prenner J, Garg S, Garg S. The Impact of Prefilled Syringes on Endophthalmitis Following Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;199:200-208.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the rates of infectious endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of ranibizumab using prefilled syringes vs conventional preparation. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. METHODS: All eyes receiving intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg ranibizumab for retinal vascular diseases at 10 retina practices across the United States (2016 to 2017) and Japan (2009 to 2017) were included. The total numbers of eyes and injections were determined from billing codes. Endophthalmitis cases were determined from billing records and evaluated with chart review. Primary outcome was the rate of postinjection acute endophthalmitis. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and microbial spectrum. RESULTS: A total of 243 754 intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab injections (165 347 conventional and 78 407 prefilled) were administered to 43 132 unique patients during the study period. In the conventional ranibizumab group, a total of 43 cases of suspected endophthalmitis occurred (0.026%; 1 in 3845 injections) and 22 cases of culture-positive endophthalmitis occurred (0.013%; 1 in 7516 injections). In the prefilled ranibizumab group, 12 cases of suspected endophthalmitis occurred (0.015%; 1 in 6534 injections) and 2 cases of culture-positive endophthalmitis occurred (0.0026%; 1 in 39 204 injections). Prefilled syringes were associated with a trend toward decreased risk of suspected endophthalmitis (odds ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.31-1.12; P = .10) and a statistically significant decreased risk of culture-positive endophthalmitis (odds ratio 0.19; 95% confidence interval 0.045-0.82; P = .025). Average logMAR vision loss at final follow-up was significantly worse for eyes that developed endophthalmitis from the conventional ranibizumab preparation compared to the prefilled syringe group (4.45 lines lost from baseline acuity vs 0.38 lines lost; P = .0062). Oral-associated flora was found in 27.3% (6/22) of conventional ranibizumab culture-positive endophthalmitis cases (3 cases of Streptococcus viridans, 3 cases of Enterococcus faecalis) compared to 0 cases in the prefilled ranibizumab group. CONCLUSION: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study the use of prefilled syringes during intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was associated with a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis, including from oral flora, as well as with improved visual acuity outcomes.
Paschalis EI, Lei F, Zhou C, Chen XN, Kapoulea V, Hui P-C, Dana R, Chodosh J, Vavvas DG, Dohlman CH. Microglia Regulate Neuroglia Remodeling in Various Ocular and Retinal Injuries. J Immunol 2019;202(2):539-549.Abstract
Reactive microglia and infiltrating peripheral monocytes have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and CNS. However, their specific contribution in retinal degeneration remains unclear. We recently showed that peripheral monocytes that infiltrate the retina after ocular injury in mice become permanently engrafted into the tissue, establishing a proinflammatory phenotype that promotes neurodegeneration. In this study, we show that microglia regulate the process of neuroglia remodeling during ocular injury, and their depletion results in marked upregulation of inflammatory markers, such as , , and in the retina, and abnormal engraftment of peripheral CCR2 CX3CR1 monocytes into the retina, which is associated with increased retinal ganglion cell loss, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, and pigmentation onto the retinal surface. Furthermore, we show that other types of ocular injuries, such as penetrating corneal trauma and ocular hypertension also cause similar changes. However, optic nerve crush injury-mediated retinal ganglion cell loss evokes neither peripheral monocyte response in the retina nor pigmentation, although peripheral CX3CR1 and CCR2 monocytes infiltrate the optic nerve injury site and remain present for months. Our study suggests that microglia are key regulators of peripheral monocyte infiltration and retinal pigment epithelium migration, and their depletion results in abnormal neuroglia remodeling that exacerbates neuroretinal tissue damage. This mechanism of retinal damage through neuroglia remodeling may be clinically important for the treatment of patients with ocular injuries, including surgical traumas.
Lahola-Chomiak AA, Footz T, Nguyen-Phuoc K, Neil GJ, Fan BJ, Allen KF, Greenfield DS, Parrish RK, Linkroum K, Pasquale LR, Leonhardt RM, Ritch R, Javadiyan S, Craig JE, Allison WT, Lehmann OJ, Walter MA, Wiggs JL. Non-Synonymous variants in premelanosome protein (PMEL) cause ocular pigment dispersion and pigmentary glaucoma. Hum Mol Genet 2019;28(8):1298-1311.Abstract
Pigmentary glaucoma (PG) is a common glaucoma subtype that results from release of pigment from the iris, called pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS), and its deposition throughout the anterior chamber of the eye. Although PG has a substantial heritable component, no causative genes have yet been identified. We used whole exome sequencing of two independent pedigrees to identify two premelanosome protein (PMEL) variants associated with heritable PDS/PG. PMEL encodes a key component of the melanosome, the organelle essential for melanin synthesis, storage and transport. Targeted screening of PMEL in three independent cohorts (n = 394) identified seven additional PDS/PG-associated non-synonymous variants. Five of the nine variants exhibited defective processing of the PMEL protein. In addition, analysis of PDS/PG-associated PMEL variants expressed in HeLa cells revealed structural changes to pseudomelanosomes indicating altered amyloid fibril formation in five of the nine variants. Introduction of 11-base pair deletions to the homologous pmela in zebrafish by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 method caused profound pigmentation defects and enlarged anterior segments in the eye, further supporting PMEL's role in ocular pigmentation and function. Taken together, these data support a model in which missense PMEL variants represent dominant negative mutations that impair the ability of PMEL to form functional amyloid fibrils. While PMEL mutations have previously been shown to cause pigmentation and ocular defects in animals, this research is the first report of mutations in PMEL causing human disease.
Hård A-L, Nilsson AK, Lund A-M, Hansen-Pupp I, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Review shows that donor milk does not promote the growth and development of preterm infants as well as maternal milk. Acta Paediatr 2019;108(6):998-1007.Abstract
AIM: This nonsystematic review examined differences in the composition of raw maternal breastmilk and pasteurised donor milk and possible health effects on preterm infants. METHODS: We searched PubMed up to July 2018 for studies published in English that focused on four comparisons as follows: raw maternal milk versus donor milk, human milk before and after Holder pasteurisation, milk from mothers who delivered preterm and at term and milk collected during early and late lactation. We also searched for possible effects of the milk components, as well as the effects of maternal and donor milk on preterm infants' health. RESULTS: Raw maternal milk contained factors involved in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defence, gut microbiome establishment and the maturation of immune defences, food tolerability and metabolism. Many of these factors were reduced or abolished in processed donor milk. Both maternal milk and donor milk have been associated with a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis. High-dose feeding with maternal milk during the neonatal period reportedly reduced the risk of other morbidities and promoted growth and neurodevelopment. CONCLUSION: Many of the components in raw maternal breastmilk were lacking in pasteurised donor milk, which was inferior in promoting the growth and development of very preterm infants.

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