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Adil MY, Xiao J, Olafsson J, Chen X, Lagali NS, Ræder S, Utheim ØA, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. Meibomian Gland Morphology Is a Sensitive Early Indicator of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;200:16-25.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between meibomian gland (MG) morphology and clinical dry eye tests in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Total 538 MGD patients and 21 healthy controls. METHODS: MG loss on meibography images of upper (UL) and lower lids (LL) was graded on a scale of 0 (lowest degree of MG loss) to 3. MG length, thickness, and interglandular space in the UL were measured. Clinical tests included meibum expression and quality, tear film break-up time, ocular staining, osmolarity, Schirmer I, blink interval timing, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean UL and LL meibogrades were significantly higher in MGD patients compared to controls (P < .001 for UL and LL). The sensitivity and specificity of the meibograde as a diagnostic parameter for MGD was 96.7% and 85%, respectively. Schirmer I was significantly increased in MGD patients with meibograde 1 compared to patients with meibograde 0, 2, and 3 in the UL (P < .05). MG thickness increased with higher meibograde (P < .001). MG morphology correlated significantly but weakly with several clinical parameters (P < .05). OSDI did not correlate with any MG morphologic parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Grading of MG loss using meibograde effectively diagnoses MGD. Compensatory mechanisms such as increased aqueous tear production and dilation of MGs make early detection of MGD difficult by standard clinical measures of dry eye, whereas morphologic analysis of MGs reveals an early stage of MGD, and therefore represents a complementary clinical parameter with diagnostic potential.
VanderVeen DK, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, Hutchinson AK, Wilson LB, Galvin JA, Lambert SR. Use of Orthokeratology for the Prevention of Myopic Progression in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):623-636.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published evidence to evaluate the ability of orthokeratology (Ortho-K) treatment to reduce myopic progression in children and adolescents compared with the use of spectacles or daytime contact lenses for standard refractive correction. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed database, the Cochrane Library, and the databases of clinical trials were last conducted on August 21, 2018, with no date restrictions but limited to articles published in English. These searches yielded 162 citations, of which 13 were deemed clinically relevant for full-text review and inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to the selected studies. RESULTS: The 13 articles selected for inclusion include 3 prospective, randomized clinical trials; 7 nonrandomized, prospective comparative studies; and 3 retrospective case series. One study provided level I evidence, 11 studies provided level II evidence, and 1 study provided level III evidence. Most studies were performed in populations of Asian ethnicity. Change in axial length was the primary outcome for 10 of 13 studies and change in refraction was the primary outcome for 3 of 13 studies. In these studies, Ortho-K typically reduced axial elongation by approximately 50% over a 2-year study period. This corresponds to average axial length change values of approximately 0.3 mm for Ortho-K patients compared with 0.6 mm for control patients, which corresponds to a typical difference in refraction of approximately 0.5 diopters (D). Younger age groups and individuals with larger than average pupil size may have a greater effect with Ortho-K. Rebound can occur after discontinuation or change to alternative refractive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Orthokeratology may be effective in slowing myopic progression for children and adolescents, with a potentially greater effect when initiated at an early age (6-8 years). Safety remains a concern because of the risk of potentially blinding microbial keratitis from contact lens wear.
Pollack S, Igo RP, Jensen RA, Christiansen M, Li X, Cheng C-Y, Ng MCY, Smith AV, Rossin EJ, Segrè AV, Davoudi S, Tan GS, Chen Y-DI, Kuo JZ, Dimitrov LM, Stanwyck LK, Meng W, Hosseini MS, Imamura M, Nousome D, Kim J, Hai Y, Jia Y, Ahn J, Leong A, Shah K, Park KH, Guo X, Ipp E, Taylor KD, Adler SG, Sedor JR, Freedman BI, Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes-Eye Research Group DCCT/EDICRG, Lee I-T, Sheu WH-H, Kubo M, Takahashi A, Hadjadj S, Marre M, Tregouet D-A, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, McCarthy MI, Groop L, Ahlqvist E, Lyssenko V, Agardh E, Morris A, Doney ASF, Colhoun HM, Toppila I, Sandholm N, Groop P-H, Maeda S, Hanis CL, Penman A, Chen CJ, Hancock H, Mitchell P, Craig JE, Chew EY, Paterson AD, Grassi MA, Palmer C, Bowden DW, Yaspan BL, Siscovick D, Cotch MF, Wang JJ, Burdon KP, Wong TY, Klein BEK, Klein R, Rotter JI, Iyengar SK, Price AL, Sobrin L. Multiethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Liability Threshold Modeling of Duration of Diabetes and Glycemic Control. Diabetes 2019;68(2):441-456.Abstract
To identify genetic variants associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR), we performed a large multiethnic genome-wide association study. Discovery included eight European cohorts ( = 3,246) and seven African American cohorts ( = 2,611). We meta-analyzed across cohorts using inverse-variance weighting, with and without liability threshold modeling of glycemic control and duration of diabetes. Variants with a value <1 × 10 were investigated in replication cohorts that included 18,545 European, 16,453 Asian, and 2,710 Hispanic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, the C allele of rs142293996 in an intron of nuclear VCP-like () was associated with DR in European discovery cohorts ( = 2.1 × 10), but did not reach genome-wide significance after meta-analysis with replication cohorts. We applied the Disease Association Protein-Protein Link Evaluator (DAPPLE) to our discovery results to test for evidence of risk being spread across underlying molecular pathways. One protein-protein interaction network built from genes in regions associated with proliferative DR was found to have significant connectivity ( = 0.0009) and corroborated with gene set enrichment analyses. These findings suggest that genetic variation in as well as variation within a protein-protein interaction network that includes genes implicated in inflammation, may influence risk for DR.
Woodward AM, Lehoux S, Mantelli F, Di Zazzo A, Brockhausen I, Bonini S, Argüeso P. Inflammatory Stress Causes N-Glycan Processing Deficiency in Ocular Autoimmune Disease. Am J Pathol 2019;189(2):283-294.Abstract
High levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with a loss of tissue function in ocular autoimmune diseases, but the basis for this relationship remains poorly understood. Here we investigate a new role for tumor necrosis factor α in promoting N-glycan-processing deficiency at the surface of the eye through inhibition of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase expression in the Golgi. Using mass spectrometry, complex-type biantennary oligosaccharides were identified as major N-glycan structures in differentiated human corneal epithelial cells. Remarkably, significant differences were detected between the efficacies of cytokines in regulating the expression of glycogenes involved in the biosynthesis of N-glycans. Tumor necrosis factor α but not IL-1β had a profound effect in suppressing the expression of enzymes involved in the Golgi branching pathway, including N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases 1 and 2, which are required for the formation of biantennary structures. This decrease in gene expression was correlated with a reduction in enzymatic activity and impaired N-glycan branching. Moreover, patients with ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid were characterized by marginal N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase expression and decreased N-glycan branching in the conjunctiva. Together, these data indicate that proinflammatory cytokines differentially influence the expression of N-glycan-processing enzymes in the Golgi and set the stage for future studies to explore the pathophysiology of ocular autoimmune diseases.
Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia. Br J Ophthalmol 2019;103(7):871-877.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia. METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.
Yin J, Jacobs DS. Long-term outcome of using Prosthetic Replacement of Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) as a drug delivery system for bevacizumab in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. Ocul Surf 2019;17(1):134-141.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcome of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) for delivery of bevacizumab in the treatment of corneal neovascularization (KNV). METHODS: Retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series of 13 sequential patients treated for KNV at the BostonSight between 2006 and 2017. In all cases, PROSE treatment was initiated for management of ocular surface disease and patients wore PROSE consistently on a daily wear basis prior to bevacizumab treatment. Patients applied a drop of 1% preservative free bevacizumab to the reservoir of PROSE device twice daily. Patients continued with daily wear of the device during treatment and afterwards. RESULTS: 13 patients (8 female and mean age of 45 years) are included with a mean follow-up of 5.1 years (range 6 months-11 years). Underlying ocular diagnoses included Stevens-Johnson syndrome (7), ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (2), corneal transplant (2), contact lens-related corneal ulcer and limbal stem cell deficiency (1), and familial dysautonomia (1). Median duration of bevacizumab use was 6 months (range 3 months-10 years). Twelve cases (92%) had regression of KNV and 10 cases (77%) had improved best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with treatment. Median BCVA improved from -1.1 (LogMAR) at baseline, to -0.66 at end of bevacizumab treatment, and remained -0.63 at last follow-up (P = 0.047). KNV progressed in one eye after discontinuation of bevacizumab. There were no ophthalmic or systemic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Topical bevacizumab used in PROSE is effective in treating KNV and improving vision. Long-term follow-up reveals durable response and no complications.
Sun JK, Wang P-W, Taylor S, Haskova Z. Durability of Diabetic Retinopathy Improvement with As-Needed Ranibizumab: Open-Label Extension of RIDE and RISE Studies. Ophthalmology 2019;126(5):712-720.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the durability of diabetic retinopathy (DR) improvements after a change in ranibizumab dosing from monthly to individualized pro re nata (PRN) therapy. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of the open-label extension (OLE) of RIDE and RISE (clinicaltrials.gov identifiers, NCT00473382 and NCT00473330) patients with DR and diabetic macular edema (DME). PARTICIPANTS: Patients who completed 36-month participation in RIDE and RISE and entered the OLE. METHODS: In RIDE and RISE, patients (n = 759) were randomized 1:1:1 to ranibizumab 0.3 mg monthly, 0.5 mg monthly, or monthly sham injections with rescue macular laser available after 6 months, per protocol-specified criteria. After 24 months, sham patients crossed over to ranibizumab 0.5 mg monthly. After 36 months in the core studies, patients in the OLE (n = 500) could receive ranibizumab 0.5 mg PRN based on predefined DME re-treatment criteria. Diabetic retinopathy severity was evaluated photographically using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study DR severity scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in DR severity from months 36 to 48 by re-treatment status. RESULTS: Among patients who entered the OLE, 121 of 500 (24%) did not require additional ranibizumab injections. Overall, 367 patients had evaluable DR at months 36 and 48. Among patients not requiring ranibizumab re-treatment from months 36 to 48 (88/367), 57% to 78%, 0% to 7%, and 22% to 36% experienced DR severity stability, 2-step or more improvement, and 2-step or more worsening, respectively. Among patients requiring ranibizumab re-treatment (279/367), 84% to 94%, 2%, and 3% to 14% experienced DR severity stability, 2-step or more improvement, and 2-step or more worsening, respectively. On average, vision improvements were maintained during the OLE regardless of change in DR severity. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic retinopathy severity improvements with ranibizumab were maintained in over 70% of OLE patients after switching from ranibizumab monthly to an individualized ranibizumab 0.5 mg PRN dosing regimen. Because approximately one third of OLE patients experienced DR worsening, careful monitoring should be part of the long-term management of patients with DR.
Gupta A, El-Rami H, Barham R, Fleming A, van Hemert J, Sun JK, Silva PS, Aiello LP. Effect of phase-plate adjustment on retinal image sharpness and visible retinal area on ultrawide field imaging. Eye (Lond) 2019;33(4):587-591.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in image sharpness across ultrawide field (UWF) images and the effect of phase-plate adjustment on image contrast and extent of visible retinal area (VRA). METHODS: This was a single site evaluation of 200° UWF images acquired with phase-plate adjustment (California, Optos, plc) and without (200TX, Optos, plc). Images were acquired using standardized protocol. VRA was manually outlined on each image and quantified using customized software. Mean image sharpness was evaluated using an automated method within the full VRA of each image and within the peripheral region of the VRA. The VRA and image sharpness were evaluated and compared between the two devices. RESULTS: Twenty eyes of 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Devices with and without phase-plate adjustment produced a similar extent of VRA. Eye steering increased VRA in devices with and without phase-plate adjustment by 39.3% and 34.3%, respectively. Regardless of gaze direction, mean sharpness of the full VRA was reduced in peripheral area with or without phase-plate adjustment. Compared to images without phase-plate adjustment, use of phase-plate adjustment reduced the loss of peripheral image sharpness in all fields (-4.2 to -26.0%; p < 0.001 all fields). The sharpness of the peripheral area for on-axis images was 61.5% higher with phase-plate adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The use of phase-plate adjustment does not alter the extent of VRA. However, for on-axis images the loss of sharpness in the periphery is 4.5-fold less with phase-plate adjustment, potentially reducing the need to steer images and improving lesion detection in these areas.
Barros EM, Martin MJ, Selleck EM, Lebreton F, Sampaio JLM, Gilmore MS. Daptomycin Resistance and Tolerance Due to Loss of Function in Staphylococcus aureus dsp1 and asp23. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019;63(1)Abstract
Lipopeptide daptomycin is a last-line cell-membrane-targeting antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Alarmingly, daptomycin-resistant isolates have emerged. The mechanisms underlying daptomycin resistance are diverse and share similarities with resistances to cationic antimicrobial peptides and other lipopeptides, but they remain to be fully elucidated. We selected mutants with increased resistance to daptomycin from a library of transposon insertions in sequent type 8 (ST8) HG003. Insertions conferring increased daptomycin resistance were localized to two genes, one coding for a hypothetical lipoprotein (SAOUHSC_00362, Dsp1), and the other for an alkaline shock protein (SAOUHSC_02441, Asp23). Markerless loss-of-function mutants were then generated for comparison. All transposon mutants and knockout strains exhibited increased daptomycin resistance compared to those of wild-type and complemented strains. Null and transposon insertion mutants also exhibited increased resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, the mutant also showed increased resistance to vancomycin, a cell-wall-targeting drug with a different mode of action. Null mutations in both and resulted in increased tolerance as reflected by reduced killing to both daptomycin and vancomycin, as well as an increased tolerance to surfactant (Triton X-100). Neither mutant exhibited increased resistance to lysostaphin, a cell-wall-targeting endopeptidase. These findings identified two genes core to the species that make previously uncharacterized contributions to antimicrobial resistance and tolerance in .
Ley D, Hallberg B, Hansen-Pupp I, Dani C, Ramenghi LA, Marlow N, Beardsall K, Bhatti F, Dunger D, Higginson JD, Mahaveer A, Mezu-Ndubuisi OJ, Reynolds P, Giannantonio C, van Weissenbruch M, Barton N, Tocoian A, Hamdani M, Jochim E, Mangili A, Chung J-K, Turner MA, Smith LEH, Hellström A, Hellström A. rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 in Preterm Infants: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr 2019;206:56-65.e8.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 complexed with its binding protein (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other complications of prematurity among extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This phase 2 trial was conducted from September 2014 to March 2016. Infants born at a gestational age of 23 weeks to 27 weeks were randomly allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 (250 µg/kg/ 24 hours, continuous intravenous infusion from <24 hours of birth to postmenstrual age 29 weeks) or standard neonatal care, with follow-up to a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Target exposure was ≥70% IGF-1 measurements within 28-109 µg/L and ≥70% intended therapy duration. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of ROP. Secondary endpoints included time to discharge from neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and growth measures. RESULTS: Overall, 61 infants were allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3, 60 to standard care (full analysis set); 24 of 61 treated infants achieved target exposure (evaluable set). rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not decrease ROP severity or ROP occurrence. There was, however, a 53% decrease in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the full analysis set (21.3% treated vs 44.9% standard care), and an 89% decrease in the evaluable set (4.8% vs 44.9%; P = .04 and P = .02, respectively) for severity distribution between groups. There was also a nonsignificant trend toward decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage in the full analysis set (13.1% vs 23.3%) and in the evaluable set (8.3% vs 23.3%). Fatal serious adverse events were reported in 19.7% of treated infants (12/61) and 11.7% of control infants (7/60). No effect was observed on time to discharge from neonatal care/growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not affect development of ROP, but decreased the occurrence of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, with a nonsignificant decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01096784.
Hoguet A, Chen PP, Junk AK, Mruthyunjaya P, Nouri-Mahdavi K, Radhakrishnan S, Takusagawa HL, Chen TC. The Effect of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents on Intraocular Pressure and Glaucoma: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):611-622.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents on immediate and long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and glaucoma. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane databases, last conducted in April 2018, yielded 253 unique citations. Of these, 41 met the inclusion criteria and were rated according to the strength of evidence. Two articles were rated level I, 17 were rated level II, and 15 were rated level III; an additional 7 were excluded because of poor study design and lack of relevance to the topic under evaluation. RESULTS: The studies that reported on short-term IOP elevation (i.e., between 0 and 60 minutes) showed that an immediate increase in IOP is seen in all patients when measured between 0 and 30 minutes of intravitreal injection and that the IOP elevation decreases over time. The data on long-term IOP elevation were mixed; 7 studies reported that between 4% and 15% of patients developed sustained elevation of IOP at 9 to 24 months after injection, whereas 6 studies found no long-term change in IOP from 1 to 36 months after injection. Pretreatment with glaucoma medications, anterior chamber tap, vitreous reflux, longer intervals between injections, and longer axial lengths were associated with lower IOP elevations after injection. Data were mixed on the relationship between IOP increase and the type of intravitreal injection, number of intravitreal injections, preexisting glaucoma, and globe decompression before injection. There were no data on the onset or progression of glaucoma in the studies reviewed in this assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF agents results in an immediate and transient increase in IOP. A long-term increase in IOP also may be seen, and further studies are needed to determine at-risk populations. Although there is some suggestion in the literature, there is currently insufficient data to determine the impact of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections on glaucoma progression. Although pretreatment with glaucoma medications, performing anterior chamber paracentesis, or increasing the interval between injections may reduce the impact of transient IOP elevation, the clinical significance and associated risks of these interventions are unknown.
Nanji KC, Fain B, Morley MG, Bayes J. In Response. Anesth Analg 2019;128(1):e11-e12.
Bernstein CA, Nir R-R, Noseda R, Fulton AB, Huntington S, Lee AJ, Bertisch SM, Hovaguimian A, Buettner C, Borsook D, Burstein R. The migraine eye: distinct rod-driven retinal pathways' response to dim light challenges the visual cortex hyperexcitability theory. Pain 2019;160(3):569-578.Abstract
Migraine-type photophobia, most commonly described as exacerbation of headache by light, affects nearly 90% of the patients. It is the most bothersome symptom accompanying an attack. Using subjective psychophysical assessments, we showed that migraine patients are more sensitive to all colors of light during ictal than during interictal phase and that control subjects do not experience pain when exposed to different colors of light. Based on these findings, we suggested that color preference is unique to migraineurs (as it was not found in control subjects) rather than migraine phase (as it was found in both phases). To identify the origin of this photophobia in migraineurs, we compared the electrical waveforms that were generated in the retina and visual cortex of 46 interictal migraineurs to those generated in 42 healthy controls using color-based electroretinography and visual-evoked potential paradigms. Unexpectedly, it was the amplitude of the retinal rod-driven b wave, which was consistently larger (by 14%-19% in the light-adapted and 18%-34% in the dark-adapted flash ERG) in the migraineurs than in the controls, rather than the retinal cone-driven a wave or the visual-evoked potentials that differs most strikingly between the 2 groups. Mechanistically, these findings suggest that the inherent hypersensitivity to light among migraine patients may originate in the retinal rods rather than retinal cones or the visual cortex. Clinically, the findings may explain why migraineurs complain that the light is too bright even when it is dim to the extent that nonmigraineurs feel as if they are in a cave.
, Holmes JM, Manny RE, Lazar EL, Birch EE, Kelly KR, Summers AI, Martinson SR, Raghuram A, Colburn JD, Law C, Marsh JD, Bitner DP, Kraker RT, Wallace DK. A Randomized Trial of Binocular Dig Rush Game Treatment for Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years. Ophthalmology 2019;126(3):456-466.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game plus continued spectacle correction vs. continued spectacle correction alone. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-eight participants aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia (33-72 letters, i.e., approximately 20/200 to 20/40) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were required to have at least 16 weeks of optical treatment in spectacles if needed or demonstrate no improvement in amblyopic-eye visual acuity (VA) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. METHODS: Eligible participants (mean age 9.6 years, mean baseline VA of 59.6 letters, history of prior amblyopia treatment other than spectacles in 96%) were randomly assigned to treatment for 8 weeks with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game (prescribed for 1 hour per day 5 days per week) plus spectacle wear if needed (n = 69) or continued spectacle correction alone if needed (n = 69). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 4 weeks, assessed by a masked examiner. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA letter score improved from baseline by 1.3 (2-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-2.6; 0.026 logMAR) with binocular treatment and by 1.7 (2-sided 95% CI: 0.4-3.0; 0.034 logMAR) with continued spectacle correction alone. After adjusment for baseline VA, the letter score difference between groups (binocular minus control) was -0.3 (95% CI: -2.2 to 1.5, P = 0.71, difference of -0.006 logMAR). No difference in letter scores was observed between groups when the analysis was repeated after 8 weeks of treatment (adjusted mean: -0.1, 98.3% CI: -2.4 to 2.1). For the binocular group, adherence data from the iPad indicated that slightly more than half of the participants (58% and 56%) completed >75% of prescribed treatment by the 4- and 8-week visits, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In children aged 7 to 12 years who have received previous treatment for amblyopia other than spectacles, there was no benefit to VA or stereoacuity from 4 or 8 weeks of treatment with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game.

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