Wang M, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ, Boland MV, Wellik SR, De Moraes CG, Myers JS, Wang H, Baniasadi N, Li D, Silva RNE, Bex PJ, Elze T. Reversal of Glaucoma Hemifield Test Results and Visual Field Features in Glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2018;125(3):352-360.Abstract
PURPOSE: To develop a visual field (VF) feature model to predict the reversal of glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) results to within normal limits (WNL) after 2 consecutive outside normal limits (ONL) results. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Visual fields of 44 503 eyes from 26 130 participants. METHODS: Eyes with 3 or more consecutive reliable VFs measured with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard 24-2) were included. Eyes with ONL GHT results for the 2 baseline VFs were selected. We extracted 3 categories of VF features from the baseline tests: (1) VF global indices (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation), (2) mismatch between baseline VFs, and (3) VF loss patterns (archetypes). Logistic regression was applied to predict the GHT results reversal. Cross-validation was applied to evaluate the model on testing data by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We ascertained clinical glaucoma status on a patient subset (n = 97) to determine the usefulness of our model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictive models for GHT results reversal using VF features. RESULTS: For the 16 604 eyes with 2 initial ONL results, the prevalence of a subsequent WNL result increased from 0.1% for MD < -12 dB to 13.8% for MD ≥-3 dB. Compared with models with VF global indices, the AUC of predictive models increased from 0.669 (MD ≥-3 dB) and 0.697 (-6 dB ≤ MD < -3 dB) to 0.770 and 0.820, respectively, by adding VF mismatch features and computationally derived VF archetypes (P < 0.001 for both). The GHT results reversal was associated with a large mismatch between baseline VFs. Moreover, the GHT results reversal was associated more with VF archetypes of nonglaucomatous loss, severe widespread loss, and lens rim artifacts. For a subset of 97 eyes, using our model to predict absence of glaucoma based on clinical evidence after 2 ONL results yielded significantly better prediction accuracy (87.7%; P < 0.001) than predicting GHT results reversal (68.8%) with a prescribed specificity 67.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Using VF features may predict the GHT results reversal to WNL after 2 consecutive ONL results.
Sung YJ, Winkler TW, de Las Fuentes L, Bentley AR, Brown MR, Kraja AT, Schwander K, Ntalla I, Guo X, Franceschini N, Lu Y, Cheng C-Y, Sim X, Vojinovic D, Marten J, Musani SK, Li C, Feitosa MF, Kilpeläinen TO, Richard MA, Noordam R, Aslibekyan S, Aschard H, Bartz TM, Dorajoo R, Liu Y, Manning AK, Rankinen T, Smith AV, Tajuddin SM, Tayo BO, Warren HR, Zhao W, Zhou Y, Matoba N, Sofer T, Alver M, Amini M, Boissel M, Chai JF, Chen X, Divers J, Gandin I, Gao C, Giulianini F, Goel A, Harris SE, Hartwig FP, Horimoto ARVR, Hsu F-C, Jackson AU, Kähönen M, Kasturiratne A, Kühnel B, Leander K, Lee W-J, Lin K-H, Luan J'an, McKenzie CA, Meian H, Nelson CP, Rauramaa R, Schupf N, Scott RA, Sheu WHH, Stančáková A, Takeuchi F, van der Most PJ, Varga TV, Wang H, Wang Y, Ware EB, Weiss S, Wen W, Yanek LR, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Afaq S, Alfred T, Amin N, Arking D, Aung T, Barr GR, Bielak LF, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Braund PS, Brody JA, Broeckel U, Cabrera CP, Cade B, Caizheng Y, Campbell A, Canouil M, Chakravarti A, Chakravarti A, Chauhan G, Christensen K, Cocca M, Cocca M, Collins FS, Connell JM, de Mutsert R, de Silva JH, Debette S, Dörr M, Duan Q, Eaton CB, Ehret G, Evangelou E, Faul JD, Fisher VA, Forouhi NG, Franco OH, Friedlander Y, Gao H, Gao H, Gigante B, Graff M, Gu CC, Gu D, Gupta P, Hagenaars SP, Harris TB, He J, Heikkinen S, Heng C-K, Hirata M, Hofman A, Howard BV, Hunt S, Irvin MR, Jia Y, Joehanes R, Justice AE, Katsuya T, Kaufman J, Kerrison ND, Khor CC, Koh W-P, Koistinen HA, Komulainen P, Kooperberg C, Krieger JE, Kubo M, Kuusisto J, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Launer LJ, Lehne B, Lewis CE, Li Y, Li Y, Lim SH, Lin S, Liu C-T, Liu J, Liu J, Liu K, Liu Y, Loh M, Lohman KK, Long J, Louie T, Mägi R, Mahajan A, Meitinger T, Metspalu A, Milani L, Momozawa Y, Morris AP, Mosley TH, Munson P, Murray AD, Nalls MA, Nasri U, Norris JM, North K, Ogunniyi A, Padmanabhan S, Palmas WR, Palmer ND, Pankow JS, Pedersen NL, Peters A, Peyser PA, Polasek O, Raitakari OT, Renström F, Rice TK, Ridker PM, Robino A, Robinson JG, Rose LM, Rudan I, Sabanayagam C, Salako BL, Sandow K, Schmidt CO, Schreiner PJ, Scott WR, Seshadri S, Sever P, Sitlani CM, Smith JA, Snieder H, Starr JM, Strauch K, Tang H, Taylor KD, Teo YY, Tham YC, Uitterlinden AG, Waldenberger M, Wang L, Wang YX, Wei WB, Williams C, Wilson G, Wojczynski MK, Yao J, Yuan J-M, Zonderman AB, Becker DM, Boehnke M, Bowden DW, Chambers JC, Chen Y-DI, de Faire U, Deary IJ, Esko T, Farrall M, Forrester T, Franks PW, Freedman BI, Froguel P, Gasparini P, Gieger C, Horta BL, Hung Y-J, Jonas JB, Kato N, Kooner JS, Laakso M, Lehtimäki T, Liang K-W, Magnusson PKE, Newman AB, Oldehinkel AJ, Pereira AC, Redline S, Rettig R, Samani NJ, Scott J, Shu X-O, van der Harst P, Wagenknecht LE, Wareham NJ, Watkins H, Weir DR, Wickremasinghe AR, Wu T, Zheng W, Kamatani Y, Laurie CC, Bouchard C, Cooper RS, Evans MK, Gudnason V, Kardia SLR, Kritchevsky SB, Levy D, O'Connell JR, Psaty BM, van Dam RM, Sims M, Arnett DK, Mook-Kanamori DO, Kelly TN, Fox ER, Hayward C, Fornage M, Rotimi CN, Province MA, van Duijn CM, Tai SE, Wong TY, Loos RJF, Reiner AP, Rotter JI, Zhu X, Bierut LJ, Gauderman JW, Caulfield MJ, Elliott P, Rice K, Munroe PB, Morrison AC, Cupples AL, Rao DC, Chasman DI. A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure. Am J Hum Genet 2018;102(3):375-400.Abstract
Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).
Hwang AD, Tuccar-Burak M, Goldstein R, Peli E. Impact of Oncoming Headlight Glare With Cataracts: A Pilot Study. Front Psychol 2018;9:164.Abstract
Oncoming headlight glare (HLG) reduces the visibility of objects on the road and may affect the safety of nighttime driving. With cataracts, the impact of oncoming HLG is expected to be more severe. We used our custom HLG simulator in a driving simulator to measure the impact of HLG on pedestrian detection by normal vision subjects with simulated mild cataracts and by patients with real cataracts.Five normal vision subjects drove nighttime scenarios under two HLG conditions (with and without HLG: HLGY and HLGN, respectively), and three vision conditions (with plano lens, simulated mild cataract, and optically blurred clip-on). Mild cataract was simulated by applying a 0.8 Bangerter diffusion foil to clip-on plano lenses. The visual acuity with the optically blurred lenses was individually chosen to match the visual acuity with the simulated cataract clip-ons under HLGN. Each nighttime driving scenario contains 24 pedestrian encounters, encompassing four pedestrian types; walking along the left side of the road, walking along the right side of the road, crossing the road from left to right, and crossing the road from right to left. Pedestrian detection performances of five patients with mild real cataracts were measured using the same setup. The cataract patients were tested only in HLGY and HLGN conditions. Participants' visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were also measured in the simulator with and without stationary HLG.For normal vision subjects, both the presence of oncoming HLG and wearing the simulated cataract clip-on reduced pedestrian detection performance. The subjects performed worst in events where the pedestrian crossed from the left, followed by events where the pedestrian crossed from the right. Significant interactions between HLG condition and other factors were also found: (1) the impact of oncoming HLG with the simulated cataract clip-on was larger than with the plano lens clip-on, (2) the impact of oncoming HLG was larger with the optically blurred clip-on than with the plano lens clip-on, but smaller than with the simulated cataract clip-on, and (3) the impact was larger for the pedestrians that crossed from the left than those that crossed from the right, and for the pedestrians walking along the left side of the road than walking along the right side of the road, suggesting that the pedestrian proximity to the glare source contributed to the performance reduction. Under HLGN, almost no pedestrians were missed with the plano lens or the simulated cataract clip-on (0 and 0.5%, respectively), but under HLGY, the rate of pedestrian misses increased to 0.5 and 6%, respectively. With the optically blurred clip-on, the percent of missed pedestrians under HLGN and HLGY did not change much (5% and 6%, respectively). Untimely response rate increased under HLGY with the plano lens and simulated cataract clip-ons, but the increase with the simulated cataract clip-on was significantly larger than with the plano lens clip-on. The contrast sensitivity with the simulated cataract clip-on was significantly degraded under HLGY. The visual acuity with the plano lens clip-on was significantly improved under HLGY, possibly due to pupil myosis. The impact of HLG measured for real cataract patients was similar to the impact on performance of normal vision subjects with simulated cataract clip-ons.Even with mild (simulated or real) cataracts, a substantial negative effect of oncoming HLG was measurable in the detection of crossing and walking-along pedestrians. The lowered pedestrian detection rates and longer response times with HLGY demonstrate a possible risk that oncoming HLG poses to patients driving with cataracts.
Nunes S, Alves D, Barreto P, Raimundo M, da Luz Cachulo M, Farinha C, Laíns I, Rodrigues J, Almeida C, Ribeiro L, Figueira J, Santos L, Silva R. Adherence to a mediterranean diet and its association with age-related macular degeneration. The Coimbra Eye Study-Report 4. Nutrition 2018;51-52:6-12.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the association of lifestyle and nutritional risk profiles with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in two subpopulations with differing AMD prevalence. METHODS: This case-control study (n = 1992) included 768 patients with AMD and 1224 age- and sex-matched participants without AMD with a single visit at a primary health care unit. Enrolled participants completed a validated lifestyle and food frequency questionnaire. A score to measure adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mediSCORE; Range, 0-9) was constructed from individual food intakes, which were further analyzed by conversion to nutrient consumption. RESULTS: Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (mediSCORE ≥6) was significantly associated with no AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73; P = 0.009). The subpopulation with lower AMD prevalence presented significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet in relation to all individual food groups that comprised the mediSCORE (P < 0.014) with the exception of cereals. Food group analysis showed significant associations between the increased consumption of vegetables (OR = 0.63; P < 0.001) and fruit and nuts (OR = 0.78; P = 0.010) with no AMD. Nutrient analysis revealed that an increased ingestion of water, fibers, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, vitamins A and C, carotene, alpha-tocopherol, folate, magnesium, iron, and zinc were significantly associated with no AMD (P < 0.0013). Finally, regular physical activity was associated with no AMD (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: High adherence to a Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity seem to be protective factors for AMD in a Portuguese population. The effect of the diet is likely driven by the increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts.
Lin M, Anesi SD, Ma L, Ahmed A, Small K, Foster SC. Characteristics and Visual Outcome of Refractory Retinal Vasculitis Associated With Antineutrophil Cytoplasm Antibody-Associated Vasculitides. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;187:21-33.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, therapies, visual outcomes, and prognoses of patients with retinal vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with retinal vasculitis associated with AAV and at least 6 months of follow-up were included. Demographic data, systemic and ocular features, best-corrected visual acuity at the initial visit and latest visit, fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings, therapy regimen, and outcome were collected from the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution (MERSI) database from 2006 to 2017. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (22 eyes) were identified. Twelve had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and 1 each had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). FA showed that AAV affected small-to-medium-size retinal vessels. Seven cases (50%) had both vein/venule and artery/arteriole involvement. Four cases co-presented with choroidal vasculitis. All of them failed various immunomodulatory therapies prior to referral to MERSI. Six patients received rituximab plus prednisone as their final therapy and 5 of them achieved remission. Four patients who failed cyclophosphamide previously were induced into remission by rituximab. Patients were followed for 33.4 ± 25.5 (range 6-84) months. Nine of 14 patients (64.3%) achieved remission at their latest visit. Seventeen of 22 eyes (77.3%) met the criteria for a good (≥20/40) visual outcome. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients enjoyed a good visual outcome and achieved remission after aggressive treatment. Rituximab should be considered as an initial treatment for patients with refractory retinal vasculitis associated with AAV.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Yoon MK. Dermalive Facial Filler Granulomas Masquerading as Neurofibromas. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(3):e99-e103.Abstract
A 56-year-old woman presented with periocular nodules that were clinically suspected to be neurofibromas. Histopathologic examination of excised nodules revealed a pronounced granulomatous reaction to a foreign material that was composed of glossy polygonal palely eosinophilic fragments. These fragments were outlined in red with Masson trichrome, stained gray with the elastic stain, and were uniformly red with Gomori methenamine silver staining. The histopathologic appearance was consistent with a granulomatous reaction to Dermalive facial filler. Postoperatively the patient admitted that she had filler injections many years earlier in another country, and that nodules appeared 1 year after injection. Treatment with steroids, intralesional immunosuppressive agents and surgery had been previously attempted to eradicate the nodules. The literature pertaining to granulomatous reactions to Dermalive and related hybrid facial fillers is reviewed and treatment options are discussed. This report is the first to illustrate the unique histopathologic staining characteristics of Dermalive, which may be useful to ophthalmic pathologists in identifying this uncommon foreign material.
McLaurin E, Cavet ME, Gomes PJ, Ciolino JB. Brimonidine Ophthalmic Solution 0.025% for Reduction of Ocular Redness: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Optom Vis Sci 2018;95(3):264-271.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine has been reported to induce conjunctival blanching in cataract, strabismus, laser refractive, and filtration procedures. Clinicians are often faced with red eyes with no apparent underlying pathology. Low-dose brimonidine reduced ocular redness in such subjects with efficacy maintained over 1 month and negligible rebound redness. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution 0.025% for the treatment of ocular redness. METHODS: In this single-center, double-masked, phase 3 clinical trial, adult subjects with baseline redness of more than 1 unit in both eyes (0- to 4-unit scale) were randomized 2:1 to brimonidine 0.025% or vehicle. A single dose was administered in-office (day 1); thereafter subjects instilled treatment four times a day for 4 weeks, with clinic visits on days 15, 29, and 36 (7 days post-treatment). Efficacy end points included investigator-evaluated redness 5 to 240 minutes post-instillation on day 1 (primary); investigator-evaluated change from baseline 1, 360, and 480 minutes post-instillation on day 1, and 1 and 5 minutes post-instillation on days 15 and 29; total clearance of redness, and subject-assessed redness. Safety/tolerability measures included adverse events, rebound redness, and drop comfort. RESULTS: Sixty subjects were randomized (n = 40 brimonidine, n = 20 vehicle). Investigator-assessed redness was lower with brimonidine versus vehicle over the 5- to 240-minute post-instillation period (mean [SE], 0.62 [0.076] vs. 1.49 [0.108]; P < .0001) and at each time point within that period (P < .0001). At 1, 360, and 480 minutes post-instillation, respectively, the mean differences (95% confidence interval) between treatments were -0.73 (-1.05 to -0.41), -0.57 (-0.84 to -0.29), and -0.39 (-0.67 to -0.10), respectively. No tachyphylaxis was evident with brimonidine on days 15 and 29, and minimal rebound redness was observed following discontinuation. Adverse events were infrequent, and brimonidine was rated as very comfortable. CONCLUSIONS: Brimonidine 0.025% appeared safe and effective for reduction of ocular redness, with an 8-hour duration of action, no evidence of tachyphylaxis, and negligible rebound redness.
Jampol LM, Glassman AR, Liu D, Aiello LP, Bressler NM, Duh EJ, Quaggin S, Wells JA, Wykoff CC, Wykoff CC. Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentrations after Intravitreous Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema. Ophthalmology 2018;125(7):1054-1063.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A levels after treatment with intravitreous aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab. DESIGN: Comparative-effectiveness trial with participants randomly assigned to 2 mg aflibercept, 1.25 mg bevacizumab, or 0.3 mg ranibizumab after a re-treatment algorithm. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with available plasma samples (N = 436). METHODS: Plasma samples were collected before injections at baseline and 4-week, 52-week, and 104-week visits. In a preplanned secondary analysis, systemic-free VEGF levels from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared across anti-VEGF agents and correlated with systemic side effects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in the natural log (ln) of plasma VEGF levels. RESULTS: Baseline free VEGF levels were similar across all 3 groups. At 4 weeks, mean ln(VEGF) changes were -0.30±0.61 pg/ml, -0.31±0.54 pg/ml, and -0.02±0.44 pg/ml for the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively. The adjusted differences between treatment groups (adjusted confidence interval [CI]; P value) were -0.01 (-0.12 to +0.10; P = 0.89), -0.31 (-0.44 to -0.18; P < 0.001), and -0.30 (-0.43 to -0.18; P < 0.001) for aflibercept-bevacizumab, aflibercept-ranibizumab, and bevacizumab-ranibizumab, respectively. At 52 weeks, a difference in mean VEGF changes between bevacizumab and ranibizumab persisted (-0.23 [-0.38 to -0.09]; P < 0.001); the difference between aflibercept and ranibizumab was -0.12 (P = 0.07) and between aflibercept and bevacizumab was +0.11 (P = 0.07). Treatment group differences at 2 years were similar to 1 year. No apparent treatment differences were detected at 52 or 104 weeks in the cohort of participants not receiving injections within 1 or 2 months before plasma collection. Participants with (N = 9) and without (N = 251) a heart attack or stroke had VEGF levels that appeared similar. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that decreases in plasma free-VEGF levels are greater after treatment with aflibercept or bevacizumab compared with ranibizumab at 4 weeks. At 52 and 104 weeks, a greater decrease was observed in bevacizumab versus ranibizumab. Results from 2 subgroups of participants who did not receive injections within at least 1 month and 2 months before collection suggest similar changes in VEGF levels after stopping injections. It is unknown whether VEGF levels return to normal as the drug is cleared from the system or whether the presence of the drug affects the assay's ability to accurately measure free VEGF. No significant associations between VEGF concentration and systemic factors were noted.
Nudleman E, Yonekawa Y, Prenner JL. Sutureless transscleral fixation of secondary intraocular lenses. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018;29(3):210-216.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The surgical approach to eyes needing a secondary intraocular lens have evolved rapidly in recent years. Here, we will focus on techniques for scleral-fixation of intraocular lenses (IOLs), and will review the evidence for their safety and efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Transscleral fixation of IOLs refers the placement of lens haptics within scleral tunnels to stabilize the lens in eyes that lack adequate capsular support. Various surgical techniques have been reported recently to accomplish this goal. These include the use of a trocar, microvitreoretinal blade, or hypodermic needle to create the scleral tunnels, as well as several methods for placing the haptics through the tunnels. Although long-term data is lacking, each technique has been shown to have good visual outcomes without significant side effects. SUMMARY: Surgical approaches for the transscleral fixation of secondary IOLs provide a safe and effective technique for the management of eyes with insufficient capsular support.
Bourne RRA, Jonas JB, Bron AM, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Friedman DS, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Peto T, Saadine J, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Varma R, Wong TY, Resnikoff S. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;102(5):575-585.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0.26% (0.10-0.46) to 0.15% (0.06-0.26) and from 1.74% (0.76-2.94) to 1.27% (0.55-2.17), respectively. In 2015, the number of individuals affected by blindness, MSVI and mild vision impairment ranged from 70 000, 630 000 and 610 000, respectively, in Australasia to 980 000, 7.46 million and 7.25 million, respectively, in North America and 1.16 million, 9.61 million and 9.47 million, respectively, in Western Europe. In 2015, cataract was the most common cause for blindness, followed by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, uncorrected refractive error, diabetic retinopathy and cornea-related disorders, with declining burden from cataract and AMD over time. Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of MSVI. CONCLUSIONS: While continuing to advance control of cataract and AMD as the leading causes of blindness remains a high priority, overcoming barriers to uptake of refractive error services would address approximately half of the MSVI burden. New data on burden of presbyopia identify this entity as an important public health problem in this population. Additional research on better treatments, better implementation with existing tools and ongoing surveillance of the problem is needed.
Rodriguez Benavente MC, Argüeso P. Glycosylation pathways at the ocular surface. Biochem Soc Trans 2018;46(2):343-350.Abstract
Glycosylation is a major form of enzymatic modification of organic molecules responsible for multiple biological processes in an organism. The biosynthesis of glycans is controlled by a series of glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and glycan-modifying enzymes that collectively assemble and process monosaccharide moieties into a diverse array of structures. Many studies have provided insight into various pathways of glycosylation at the ocular surface, such as those related to the biosynthesis of mucin-type -glycans and -glycans on proteins, but many others still remain largely unknown. This review provides an overview of the different classes of glycans described at the ocular surface focusing on their biosynthetic pathways and biological relevance. A precise understanding of these pathways under physiological and pathological conditions could help identify biomarkers and novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
Ma L, You C, Hernandez M, Maleki A, Lasave A, Schmidt A, Stephenson A, Zhao T, Anesi S, Foster SC. Management of Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid with Intravenous Immunoglobulin Monotherapy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of IVIg monotherapy in patients with recalcitrant ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP). METHODS: A chart review of all OCP patients seen at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution (MERSI) between 2005 and 2015 was completed. Stage was graded by using the Foster grading system. IVIg infusion was 2g/kg/cycle administered in 3 consecutive days monthly. RESULTS: Of 512 OCP patients, 17 patients (34 eyes) treated with IVIg monotherapy were identified. Seven were female and ten were male. The average age at diagnosis was 60.7-year-old. The follow up time ranged from 12 to 140 months. Twenty-six eyes (76.5%) achieved remission. Nine remission eyes received cataract surgeries, and 2 of them had relapse (22.2%). The other 17 eyes did not undergo ocular surgery and remained in remission. IVIg monotherapy showed high efficacy in stage 1 OCP (7/7, 100%). Ocular surgery can be associated with OCP relapse (Table 2). CONCLUSIONS: IVIg monotherapy is an effective and safe therapy in patients with recalcitrant OCP. Ocular surgery can be associated with OCP relapse.
Mueller SK, Freitag SK, Lefebvre DR, Lee NG, Bleier BS. Revision eDCR using a superior pedicled mucosal flap. Orbit 2018;:1-6.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies (eDCRs) show patency rates between 81% and 94%. However, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) failure and the need for revision remain a significant challenge. One of the principal challenges in revision eDCR is the need to surgically identify the correct osteotomy site and maintain long-term patency in the setting of previously instrumented and potentially scarred tissue. At the same time, the surgeon must assume that the blood supply to the commonly described anterior and posteriorly pedicled flaps has been compromised. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to describe a novel flap technique for revision eDCR. METHODS: The superior based mucosal flap is a novel technique that provides a vascularized mucosa preserving technique in revision eDCR despite previous instrumentation of the lacrimal system. This technique provides wide exposure of the revision osteotomy site while simultaneously allowing a viable mucosal flap to be replaced at the conclusion of the procedure, thereby minimizing bone exposure and cicatricial restenosis. RESULTS: The authors have utilized this technique in 13 procedures with 100% positive identification of the lacrimal sac, a 0% complication rate, and a 100% success rate after a mean follow-up of 26.93 ± 10.33 months (range 6-35 months). CONCLUSION: The eDCR using the superior pedicled mucosal flap provides excellent exposure of the maxillary bone and the lacrimal sac. This method preserves vascularity of the flap using a superiorly based pedicle which is typically inviolate during both open and endoscopic primary DCR. The mucosal flap can then be replaced, thereby minimizing bone exposure and optimizing patency.
Kheirkhah A, Coco G, Satitpitakul V, Dana R. Subtarsal Fibrosis Is Associated With Ocular Surface Epitheliopathy in Graft-Versus-Host Disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;189:102-110.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate occurrence of subtarsal fibrosis in patients with graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and to determine its association with ocular surface epitheliopathy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We enrolled 40 patients with moderate or severe dry eye disease, including 20 patients with chronic ocular GVHD and 20 patients without (as the control group). All patients had a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment including evaluation for subtarsal fibrosis, corneal and conjunctival staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer test. Furthermore, meibomian gland drop-out area and densities of epithelial and stromal immune cells were measured using meibography and in vivo confocal microscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Subtarsal fibrosis was not seen in any eye of the non-GVHD group. However, 16 eyes (40%) of 10 patients (50%) in the GVHD group had subtarsal fibrosis (P < .001) with an average involvement of 28.9% ± 13.7% of the tarsal area. Fibrosis was more frequent in the upper lids (35%) than in the lower lids (5%). Regression analyses showed that corneal fluorescein staining was significantly associated with the extent of fibrosis (P < .001, β = 0.14) and TBUT (P < .001, β = -0.53) but not with other clinical or imaging parameters. Conjunctival lissamine green staining also had a statistically significant association with the extent of fibrosis (P = .04, β = 0.12) but not other clinical or imaging parameters. Eyes with subtarsal fibrosis had a more severe ocular surface epitheliopathy compared with eyes without fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Subtarsal fibrosis is present in a significant percentage of patients with chronic ocular GVHD, likely contributing to the ocular surface damage in these patients.