Cheng Y, Yin Y, Zhang A, Bernstein AM, Kawaguchi R, Gao K, Potter K, Gilbert H-Y, Ao Y, Ou J, Fricano-Kugler CJ, Goldberg JL, He Z, Woolf CJ, Sofroniew MV, Benowitz LI, Geschwind DH. Transcription factor network analysis identifies REST/NRSF as an intrinsic regulator of CNS regeneration in mice. Nat Commun 2022;13(1):4418.Abstract
The inability of neurons to regenerate long axons within the CNS is a major impediment to improving outcome after spinal cord injury, stroke, and other CNS insults. Recent advances have uncovered an intrinsic program that involves coordinate regulation by multiple transcription factors that can be manipulated to enhance growth in the peripheral nervous system. Here, we use a systems genomics approach to characterize regulatory relationships of regeneration-associated transcription factors, identifying RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor (REST; Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor, NRSF) as a predicted upstream suppressor of a pro-regenerative gene program associated with axon regeneration in the CNS. We validate our predictions using multiple paradigms, showing that mature mice bearing cell type-specific deletions of REST or expressing dominant-negative mutant REST show improved regeneration of the corticospinal tract and optic nerve after spinal cord injury and optic nerve crush, which is accompanied by upregulation of regeneration-associated genes in cortical motor neurons and retinal ganglion cells, respectively. These analyses identify a role for REST as an upstream suppressor of the intrinsic regenerative program in the CNS and demonstrate the utility of a systems biology approach involving integrative genomics and bio-informatics to prioritize hypotheses relevant to CNS repair.
Xu J, Baliutaviciute V, Swan G, Bowers AR. Driving With Hemianopia X: Effects of Cross Traffic on Gaze Behaviors and Pedestrian Responses at Intersections. Front Hum Neurosci 2022;16:938140.Abstract
Purpose: We conducted a driving simulator study to investigate the effects of monitoring intersection cross traffic on gaze behaviors and responses to pedestrians by drivers with hemianopic field loss (HFL). Methods: Sixteen HFL and sixteen normal vision (NV) participants completed two drives in an urban environment. At 30 intersections, a pedestrian ran across the road when the participant entered the intersection, requiring a braking response to avoid a collision. Intersections with these pedestrian events had either (1) no cross traffic, (2) one approaching car from the side opposite the pedestrian location, or (3) two approaching cars, one from each side at the same time. Results: Overall, HFL drivers made more (p < 0.001) and larger (p = 0.016) blind- than seeing-side scans and looked at the majority (>80%) of cross-traffic on both the blind and seeing sides. They made more numerous and larger gaze scans (p < 0.001) when they fixated cars on both sides (compared to one or no cars) and had lower rates of unsafe responses to blind- but not seeing-side pedestrians (interaction, p = 0.037). They were more likely to demonstrate compensatory blind-side fixation behaviors (faster time to fixate and longer fixation durations) when there was no car on the seeing side. Fixation behaviors and unsafe response rates were most similar to those of NV drivers when cars were fixated on both sides. Conclusion: For HFL participants, making more scans, larger scans and safer responses to pedestrians crossing from the blind side were associated with looking at cross traffic from both directions. Thus, cross traffic might serve as a reminder to scan and provide a reference point to guide blind-side scanning of drivers with HFL. Proactively checking for cross-traffic cars from both sides could be an important safety practice for drivers with HFL.
Hoyek S, Wang M, Berrocal AM, Wong A, Place EM, Mason-Suares H, Lin AE, Mukai S, Patel NA. Combined X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity phenotype in an infant with mosaic turner syndrome with ring X chromosome. Ophthalmic Genet 2022;:1-6.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) are two distinct pathologies of retinal angiogenesis with overlapping clinical features. METHODS: Examination, multimodal imaging, and genetic testing were used to guide diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: We report a combined phenotype of X-linked FEVR and ROP in a 4-month-old girl with mosaic Turner syndrome with ring X chromosome born at 26 weeks gestational age. She was initially diagnosed with atypical ROP with a vitreous band causing a localized traction retinal detachment, inferotemporal to the macula in the right eye, vessels to posterior zone 2 with no clear ridge temporally in the left eye, and fluorescein leakage in both eyes. Due to the suspicion of concurrent FEVR, genetic testing using a vitreoretinopathy panel was performed which revealed a mosaic Turner syndrome associated with 45,X/46,X,r(X), subsequently confirmed by chromosome analysis. The deleted region in the ring X chromosome included the NDP and RS1 genes. The patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the peripheral avascular retina and sub-Tenon's triamcinolone injection in both eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the left eye, and pars plicata vitrectomy in the right eye. CONCLUSIONS: In premature neonates with atypical ROP, a clinical suspicion of concurrent FEVR or similar vasculopathy is important and genetic testing may elucidate a genetic etiology, which could influence management and prognosis. Turner syndrome can be connected with co-occurring Mendelian gene disorders, particularly in individuals with mosaicism. The concurrence of FEVR and ROP appears to result in atypical and possibly more severe phenotypes.
Fickweiler W, Park H, Park K, Mitzner MG, Chokshi T, Boumenna T, Gautier J, Zaitsu Y, Wu I-H, Cavallerano J, Aiello LP, Sun JK, King GL. Elevated Retinol Binding Protein 3 Concentrations Are Associated With Decreased Vitreous Inflammatory Cytokines, VEGF, and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2022;45(9):2159-2162.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To correlate inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitreous and plasma with vitreous retinol binding protein 3 (RBP3), diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity, and DR worsening in a population with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: RBP3, VEGF, and inflammatory cytokines were measured in plasma and vitreous samples (n = 205) from subjects of the Joslin Medalist Study and Beetham Eye Institute. RESULTS: Higher vitreous RBP3 concentrations were associated with less severe DR (P < 0.0001) and a reduced risk of developing proliferative DR (PDR) (P < 0.0001). Higher RBP3 correlated with increased photoreceptor segment thickness and lower vitreous interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and TNF-β (P < 0.05). PDR was associated with lower vitreous interferon-γ and IL-10 and higher VEGF, IL-6, and IL-15 (P < 0.05), but was not associated with their plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Higher vitreous RBP3 concentrations are associated with less severe DR and slower rates of progression to PDR, supporting its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic agent for preventing DR worsening, possibly by lowering retinal VEGF and inflammatory cytokines.
Moos WH, Faller DV, Glavas IP, Harpp DN, Kamperi N, Kanara I, Kodukula K, Mavrakis AN, Pernokas J, Pernokas M, Pinkert CA, Powers WR, Sampani K, Steliou K, Tamvakopoulos C, Vavvas DG, Zamboni RJ, Chen XH. Treatment and prevention of pathological mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal degeneration and in photoreceptor injury. Biochem Pharmacol 2022;203:115168.Abstract
Pathological deterioration of mitochondrial function is increasingly linked with multiple degenerative illnesses as a mediator of a wide range of neurologic and age-related chronic diseases, including those of genetic origin. Several of these diseases are rare, typically defined in the United States as an illness affecting fewer than 200,000 people in the U.S. population, or about one in 1600 individuals. Vision impairment due to mitochondrial dysfunction in the eye is a prominent feature evident in numerous primary mitochondrial diseases and is common to the pathophysiology of many of the familiar ophthalmic disorders, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and retinopathy of prematurity - a collection of syndromes, diseases and disorders with significant unmet medical needs. Focusing on metabolic mitochondrial pathway mechanisms, including the possible roles of cuproptosis and ferroptosis in retinal mitochondrial dysfunction, we shed light on the potential of α-lipoyl-L-carnitine in treating eye diseases. α-Lipoyl-L-carnitine is a bioavailable mitochondria-targeting lipoic acid prodrug that has shown potential in protecting against retinal degeneration and photoreceptor cell loss in ophthalmic indications.
Gong Y, Tomita Y, Edin ML, Ren A, Ko M, Yang J, Bull E, Zeldin DC, Hellström A, Fu Z, Smith LEH. Cytochrome P450 oxidase 2J inhibition suppresses choroidal neovascularization in mice. Metabolism 2022;134:155266.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to blindness. It has been widely reported that increased intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) diets reduce CNV. Of the three major pathways metabolizing ω-3 (and ω-6 LCPUFA), the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways generally produce pro-angiogenic metabolites from ω-6 LCPUFA and anti-angiogenic ones from ω-3 LCPUFA. Howevehr, cytochrome P450 oxidase (CPY) 2C produces pro-angiogenic metabolites from both ω-6 and ω-3 LCPUFA. The effects of CYP2J2 products on ocular neovascularization are still unknown. Understanding how each metabolic pathway affects the protective effect of ω-3 LCPUFA on retinal neovascularization may lead to therapeutic interventions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of LCPUFA metabolites through CYP2J2 pathway and CYP2J2 regulation on CNV both in vivo and ex vivo. METHODS: The impact of CYP2J2 overexpression and inhibition on neovascularization in the laser-induced CNV mouse model was assessed. The plasma levels of CYP2J2 metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy. The choroidal explant sprouting assay was used to investigate the effects of CYP2J2 inhibition and specific LCPUFA CYP2J2 metabolites on angiogenesis ex vivo. RESULTS: CNV was exacerbated in Tie2-Cre CYP2J2-overexpressing mice and was associated with increased levels of plasma docosahexaenoic acids. Inhibiting CYP2J2 activity with flunarizine decreased CNV in both ω-6 and ω-3 LCPUFA-fed wild-type mice. In Tie2-Cre CYP2J2-overexpressing mice, flunarizine suppressed CNV by 33 % and 36 % in ω-6, ω-3 LCPUFA diets, respectively, and reduced plasma levels of CYP2J2 metabolites. The pro-angiogenic role of CYP2J2 was corroborated in the choroidal explant sprouting assay. Flunarizine attenuated ex vivo choroidal sprouting, and 19,20-EDP, a ω-3 LCPUFA CYP2J2 metabolite, increased sprouting. The combined inhibition of CYP2J2 with flunarizine and CYP2C8 with montelukast further enhanced CNV suppression via tumor necrosis factor-α suppression. CONCLUSIONS: CYP2J2 inhibition augmented the inhibitory effect of ω-3 LCPUFA on CNV. Flunarizine suppressed pathological choroidal angiogenesis, and co-treatment with montelukast inhibiting CYP2C8 further enhanced the effect. CYP2 inhibition might be a viable approach to suppress CNV in AMD.
Singhal S, Patel G, Singh RB, Goyal A, Avgush K, Koka J. Atezolizumab-induced autoimmune diabetes mellitus presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. BMJ Case Rep 2022;15(7)Abstract
Atezolizumab is a humanised monoclonal IgG1 antibody that is used in treating many solid malignancies. Endocrinopathies are known but a rare adverse event of these immunotherapeutic drugs. Autoimmune diabetes induced by atezolizumab has been rarely reported in the literature. We report the case of a woman in her eighth decade with no known history of diabetes who developed new-onset autoimmune diabetes and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to the adverse effects of atezolizumab therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. We also review the characteristics and outcomes of cases previously reported in the literature.
Yousefi S, Pasquale LR, Boland MV, Johnson CA. Machine-identified Patterns of Visual Field Loss and An Association with Rapid Progression in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify patterns of visual field (VF) loss based on unsupervised machine learning and to identify patterns that are associated with rapid progression. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2231 abnormal VFs from 205 eyes of 176 OHTS participants followed over approximately 16 years. METHODS: VFs were assessed by an unsupervised deep archetypal analysis algorithm as well as an OHTS certified VF reader to identify prevalent patterns of VF loss. Machine-identified patterns of glaucoma damage were compared against those patterns previously identified (expert-identified) in the OHTS in 2003. Based on the longitudinal VFs of each eye, VF loss patterns that were strongly associated with rapid glaucoma progression were identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Machine-expert correspondence and type of patterns of VF loss associated with rapid progression. RESULTS: The average VF mean deviation (MD) at conversion to glaucoma was -2.7 dB (Standard Deviation (SD) = 2.4 dB) while the average MD of the eyes at the last visit was -5.2 dB (SD = 5.5 dB). Fifty out of 205 eyes had MD rate of -1 dB/year or worse and were considered rapid progressors. Eighteen machine-identified patterns of VF loss were compared with expert-identified patterns in which 13 patterns of VF loss were similar. The most prevalent expert-identified patterns included partial arcuate, paracentral, and nasal step defects, and the most prevalent machine-identified patterns included temporal wedge, partial arcuate, nasal step, and paracentral VF defects. One of the machine-identified patterns of VF loss predicted future rapid VF progression after adjustment for age, sex, and initial MD. CONCLUSIONS: An automated machine learning system can identify patterns of VF loss and could provide objective, and reproducible nomenclature for characterizing early signs of visual defects and rapid progression in patients with glaucoma.
Master CL, Bacal D, Grady MF, Hertle R, Shah AS, Strominger M, Whitecross S, Bradford GE, Lum F, Donahue SP. Vision and Concussion: Symptoms, Signs, Evaluation, and Treatment. Pediatrics 2022;Abstract
Visual symptoms are common after concussion in children and adolescents, making it essential for clinicians to understand how to screen, identify, and initiate clinical management of visual symptoms in pediatric patients after this common childhood injury. Although most children and adolescents with visual symptoms after concussion will recover on their own by 4 weeks, for a subset who do not have spontaneous recovery, referral to a specialist with experience in comprehensive concussion management (eg, sports medicine, neurology, neuropsychology, physiatry, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology) for additional assessment and treatment may be necessary. A vision-specific history and a thorough visual system examination are warranted, including an assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment in all positions of gaze, smooth pursuit (visual tracking of a moving object), saccades (visual fixation shifting between stationary targets), vestibulo-ocular reflex (maintaining image focus during movement), near point of convergence (focusing with both eyes at near and accommodation (focusing with one eye at near because any of these functions may be disturbed after concussion. These deficits may contribute to difficulty with returning to both play and the learning setting at school, making the identification of these problems early after injury important for the clinician to provide relevant learning accommodations, such as larger font, preprinted notes, and temporary use of audio books. Early identification and appropriate management of visual symptoms, such as convergence insufficiency or accommodative insufficiency, may mitigate the negative effects of concussion on children and adolescents and their quality of life.
Joseph S, Rajan RP, Sundar B, Venkatachalam S, Kempen JH, Kim R. Validation of diagnostic accuracy of retinal image grading by trained non-ophthalmologist grader for detecting diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Eye (Lond) 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To validate the fundus image grading results by a trained grader (Non-ophthalmologist) and an ophthalmologist grader for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO) against fundus examination by a retina specialist (gold standard). METHODS: A prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted using 2002 non-mydriatic colour fundus images from 1001 patients aged ≥40 years. Using the Aravind Diabetic Retinopathy Evaluation Software (ADRES) images were graded by both a trained non-ophthalmologist grader (grader-1) and an ophthalmologist (grader-2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated for grader-1 and grader-2 against the grading results by an independent retina specialist who performed dilated fundus examination for every study participant. RESULTS: Out of 1001 patients included, 42% were women and the mean ± (SD) age was 55.8 (8.39) years. For moderate or worse DR, the sensitivity and specificity for grading by grader-1 with respect to the gold standard was 66.9% and 91.0% respectively and the same for the ophthalmologist was 83.6% and 80.3% respectively. For referable DMO, grader-1 and grader-2 had a sensitivity of 74.6% and 85.6% respectively and a specificity of 83.7% and 79.8% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate good level of accuracy for the fundus image grading performed by a trained non-ophthalmologist which was comparable with the grading by an ophthalmologist. Engaging trained non-ophthalmologists potentially can enhance the efficiency of DR diagnosis using fundus images. Further study with multiple non-ophthalmologist graders is needed to verify the results and strategies to improve agreement for DMO diagnosis are needed.
Bothun ED, Shainberg MJ, Christiansen SP, VanderVeen DK, Neely DE, Kruger SJ, Cotsonis G, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Long-term strabismus outcomes after unilateral infantile cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize long-term strabismus outcomes in children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of long-term ocular alignment characteristics of children aged 10.5 years who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating aphakic management after unilateral cataract surgery between 1 and 6 months of age. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 96 of 109 children (88%) developed strabismus through age 10.5 years. Half of the 20 children who were orthophoric at distance through age 5 years maintained orthophoria at distance fixation at 10.5 years. Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus prior to age 5 years (56/109 [51%]), whereas exotropia (49/109 [45%]) was the most common type of strabismus at 10.5 years (esotropia, 21%; isolated hypertropia, 17%). Strabismus surgery had been performed on 52 children (48%), with 18 of these (35%) achieving microtropia <10Δ. Strabismus was equally prevalent in children randomized to contact lens care compared with those randomized to primary intraocular lens implantation (45/54 [83%] vs 45/55 [82%]; P = 0.8). Median visual acuity in the study eye was 0.56 logMAR (20/72) for children with orthotropia or microtropia <10Δ versus 1.30 logMAR (20/400) for strabismus ≥10Δ (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus-in particular, exotropia-is common irrespective of aphakia management 10 years following infant monocular cataract surgery. The delayed emergence of exotropia with longer follow-up indicates a need for caution in managing early esotropia in these children. Children with better visual acuity at 10 years of age are more likely to have better ocular alignment.
Susarla G, Rizza AN, Li A, Han S, Khan R, Chan W, Lains I, Apivatthakakul A, Brustoski K, Khetan V, Raman R, Igo RP, Iyengar SK, Mathavan S, Sobrin L. Younger Age and Albuminuria are Associated with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema in the South Indian GeNetics of DiAbeTic Retinopathy (SIGNATR) Study. Curr Eye Res 2022;47(10):1389-1396.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of the South Indian GeNetics of DiAbeTic Retinopathy (SIGNATR) Study is to identify non-genetic and genetic risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). This report examines the non-genetic risk factors for DR in South Indian patients.Methods: Participants with South Indian ancestry and type 2 diabetes (T2D) were included from two sources: the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy and Molecular Genetics Study (SN-DREAMS) and prospective recruitment at Sankara Nethralaya affiliates. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were obtained on participants. Fundus images were graded for DR severity and OCTs were graded for center-involved diabetic macular edema (ciDME). Multivariate analyses were performed using stepwise logistic regression to assess effects of the demographic and clinical factors on proliferative DR (PDR) and DME.Results: Among the 2941 participants with DR grading, participants with PDR were more likely to be younger [odds ratio (OR)=0.95], men (OR = 1.83), have a longer duration of diabetes (OR = 1.10), have a higher hemoglobin A1c (OR = 1.12), have albuminuria (OR = 5.83), have hypertension (OR = 1.69), have a higher HDL (OR = 1.02) and a lower total cholesterol (OR = 0.99) (all p < 0.05). Among the 483 participants with gradable OCT scans, participants who had ciDME were more likely to be younger (OR = 0.97), men (OR = 2.80), have a longer duration of diabetes (OR = 1.06), have lower triglycerides (OR = 0.99), and have albuminuria (OR = 3.12) (all p < 0.05).Conclusions: Younger age, male sex, longer duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c, and presence of albuminuria were identified as risk factors for PDR and DME in a South Indian population with T2D.
Ciociola EC, Yang S-A, Hall N, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Friedman DS, Boland MV, Elze T, Zebardast N, Zebardast N. Effectiveness of Trabeculectomy and Tube Shunt With Versus Without Concurrent Phacoemulsification: IRIS Registry Longitudinal Analysis. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery performed with concurrent phacoemulsification compared to stand-alone procedures. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients in the IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) who underwent trabeculectomy or GDD from 2013 through 2019. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine reoperation rates. Reoperation was defined as any subsequent glaucoma surgery occurring 1 month to 3 years after the initial procedure. Multivariable cox proportional hazard models were used to determine reoperation risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reoperation rate, IOP, visual acuity, reoperation procedure type, postoperative complications, and predictors of surgical failure. RESULTS: A total of 117,697 eyes receiving glaucoma surgery alone and 35,657 eyes receiving surgery with phacoemulsification were included. The cumulative reoperation rate for trabeculectomy alone was 4.9% and 11.5% vs 3.0% and 7.3% for trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. The reoperation rates for GDD alone were 3.8% and 7.8% vs 2.1% and 5.4% for GDD with phacoemulsification (p<0.001) at postoperative one and three years, respectively. Stand-alone procedures achieved greater IOP reduction by percentage change from baseline (trabeculectomy alone 35.3% vs trabeculectomy with phacoemulsification 23.1%, p<0.001, and GDD alone 36.1% vs GDD with phacoemulsification 29.3%, p<0.001). Visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR (95% CI 0.11 - 0.12) and 0.10 logMAR (0.08 - 0.11) following trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification and declined by 0.15 logMAR (0.14 - 0.15) and 0.12 logMAR (0.11 - 0.12) following stand-alone trabeculectomy and GDD. The overall documented complication rate was 2.9% for GDD and 1.4% for trabeculectomy. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical failure risk. The most common reoperation procedure was GDD. CONCLUSIONS: Reoperation rates within the first three years following trabeculectomy and GDD with and without phacoemulsification were low. Trabeculectomy and GDD with phacoemulsification had lower reoperation rates compared to stand-alone procedures. However, stand-alone procedures resulted in greater IOP reduction compared to combined procedures. Postoperative complications were uncommon overall. Patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline IOP, and glaucoma diagnosis and severity were associated with surgical success.
Bharti K, den Hollander AI, Lakkaraju A, Sinha D, Williams DS, Finnemann SC, Bowes-Rickman C, Malek G, D'Amore PA. Cell culture models to study retinal pigment epithelium-related pathogenesis in age-related macular degeneration. Exp Eye Res 2022;222:109170.Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that affects the macula - the central part of the retina. It is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. AMD onset is marked by the presence of lipid- and protein-rich extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of polarized, pigmented epithelial cells located between the photoreceptors and the choroidal blood supply. Progression of AMD to the late nonexudative "dry" stage of AMD, also called geographic atrophy, is linked to progressive loss of areas of the RPE, photoreceptors, and underlying choriocapillaris leading to a severe decline in patients' vision. Differential susceptibility of macular RPE in AMD and the lack of an anatomical macula in most lab animal models has promoted the use of in vitro models of the RPE. In addition, the need for high throughput platforms to test potential therapies has driven the creation and characterization of in vitro model systems that recapitulate morphologic and functional abnormalities associated with human AMD. These models range from spontaneously formed cell line ARPE19, immortalized cell lines such as hTERT-RPE1, RPE-J, and D407, to primary human (fetal or adult) or animal (mouse and pig) RPE cells, and embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived RPE. Hallmark RPE phenotypes, such as cobblestone morphology, pigmentation, and polarization, vary significantly betweendifferent models and culture conditions used in different labs, which would directly impact their usability for investigating different aspects of AMD biology. Here the AMD Disease Models task group of the Ryan Initiative for Macular Research (RIMR) provides a summary of several currently used in vitro RPE models, historical aspects of their development, RPE phenotypes that are attainable in these models, their ability to model different aspects of AMD pathophysiology, and pros/cons for their use in the RPE and AMD fields. In addition, due to the burgeoning use of iPSC derived RPE cells, the critical need for developing standards for differentiating and rigorously characterizing RPE cell appearance, morphology, and function are discussed.
Singh RB, Yuksel E, Sinha S, Wang S, Taketani Y, Luznik Z, Yin J, Dohlman TH, Dana R. Prevalence of neurotrophic keratopathy in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease. Ocul Surf 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors associated with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We performed a chart review of patients diagnosed with chronic oGVHD between January 2015 and December 2018 at a single academic institution and recorded demographic data, systemic and ocular comorbidities, history of hematologic malignancy, transplant characteristics, oGVHD severity scores, and adnexal and ocular examination findings. We determined the prevalence of NK and clinical characteristics associated with NK in these patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors associated with NK in these patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of NK in chronic oGVHD. RESULTS: We identified 213 patients diagnosed with chronic oGVHD following hematopoietic stem cell or bone marrow transplantation from our electronic patient database, and the prevalence of NK was 14%. The mean age of oGVHD patients with NK was 62.6 ± 12.9 years; 48% were women, 19 had unilateral NK, and ten had bilateral NK. In the cohort, 56%, 20%, and 24% eyes of the patients had grades 1, 2, and 3 of NK, respectively. The mean time to diagnose NK after transplantation was 52.9 ± 45.4 months. oGVHD patients diagnosed with NK had a significantly higher NIH oGVHD severity score (p = 0.04) and a lower corneal sensation score (p = 0.0001) than those without NK. Our analyses showed a significantly higher CFS score (p = 0.01) and a trend toward lower Schirmer test scores (p = 0.16) and tear break-up times (p = 0.08) in oGVHD patients with NK. Additionally, we observed a significantly higher prevalence of persistent epithelial defect (p = 0.0001), corneal ulceration (p = 0.0001), and corneal perforation (p = 0.005) in oGVHD patients diagnosed with NK. A logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with NK showed that a higher NIH oGVHD score (odds ratio [OR] = 2.03, p = 0.026) and history of cataract surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 5.03, p = 0.001) are significant risk factors for NK in oGVHD patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NK in chronic oGVHD patients was 14% during the study period. Our analysis shows that oGVHD patients with a higher NIH oGVHD severity score and previous history of cataract surgery are at a higher risk of developing NK and may develop severe sequelae such as persistent epithelial defect or corneal ulceration.