Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Eyelid: a Review. Surv Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive tumor of both epithelial and neuroendocrine origin that carries a mortality rate of up to 40%. MCC tumors typically present as painless, expanding nodules on the sun-exposed skin areas of older, white patients. Eyelid and periocular tumors comprise approximately 2.5% of all cases of MCC and may be mistaken for chalazia or basal cell carcinomas. Immunosuppression is a significant risk factor, particularly in solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and patients with HIV. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is often employed for accurate staging of head and neck MCC. Treatment includes wide-local excision, commonly with the addition of radiotherapy for improved locoregional disease control. Historically, adjuvant chemotherapy had been reserved for metastatic disease, but immunotherapy and targeted chemotherapies are currently being investigated for use in primary disease. The clinical characteristics of all available published cases of eyelid MCC are summarized .