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Vavvas DG, Small KW, Awh CC, Zanke BW, Tibshirani RJ, Kustra R. CFH and ARMS2 genetic risk determines progression to neovascular age-related macular degeneration after antioxidant and zinc supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018;Abstract
We evaluated the influence of an antioxidant and zinc nutritional supplement [the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation] on delaying or preventing progression to neovascular AMD (NV) in persons with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AREDS subjects (n = 802) with category 3 or 4 AMD at baseline who had been treated with placebo or the AREDS formulation were evaluated for differences in the risk of progression to NV as a function of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genotype groups. We used published genetic grouping: a two-SNP haplotype risk-calling algorithm to assess CFH, and either the single SNP rs10490924 or 372_815del443ins54 to mark ARMS2 risk. Progression risk was determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. Genetics-treatment interaction on NV risk was assessed using a multiiterative bootstrap validation analysis. We identified strong interaction of genetics with AREDS formulation treatment on the development of NV. Individuals with high CFH and no ARMS2 risk alleles and taking the AREDS formulation had increased progression to NV compared with placebo. Those with low CFH risk and high ARMS2 risk had decreased progression risk. Analysis of CFH and ARMS2 genotype groups from a validation dataset reinforces this conclusion. Bootstrapping analysis confirms the presence of a genetics-treatment interaction and suggests that individual treatment response to the AREDS formulation is largely determined by genetics. The AREDS formulation modifies the risk of progression to NV based on individual genetics. Its use should be based on patient-specific genotype.
Liu Y, Kam WR, Fernandes P, Sullivan DA. The Effect of Solithromycin, a Cationic Amphiphilic Drug, on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells. Curr Eye Res 2018;43(6):683-688.Abstract
PURPOSE: We previously discovered that azithromycin (AZM) acts directly on immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells (IHMGECs) to stimulate their lipid and lysosome accumulation and overall differentiation. We hypothesize that this phospholipidosis-like effect is due to AZM's cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) nature. If our hypothesis is correct, then other CADs (e.g., solithromycin [SOL]) should be able to duplicate AZM's action on IHMGECs. Our purpose was to test this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IHMGECs were cultured in the presence of vehicle or SOL (2, 10, or 20 µg/ml) for up to 7 days under proliferating or differentiating conditions. Positive (epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract for proliferation; AZM for differentiation) and negative (vehicle) controls were included with the experiments. IHMGECs were evaluated for cell number, neutral lipid content, and lysosome accumulation. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that SOL induces a rapid and dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of neutral lipids and lysosomes in HMGECs. The lysosomal effects were most prominent with the 10 and 20 µg/ml doses, and occurred earlier (i.e., 1 day) with SOL than with the AZM (10 µg/ml) control. The effects of SOL and AZM on IHMGEC differentiation were essentially the same after 3 days of culture. SOL did not influence the proliferation of HMGECs during a 7-day time period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis that SOL, a CAD, is able to reproduce AZM's impact on lysosome and lipid accumulation, as well as the differentiation, of HMGECs. The effect of SOL on lysosome appearance was faster than that of AZM.
Zhang M, Gilbert AL, Hunter DG. Superior oblique myokymia treated with levobunolol. J AAPOS 2018;22(1):67-69.e2.Abstract
Superior oblique myokymia (SOM) is an uncommon condition of unclear etiology that results in episodes of oscillopsia and diplopia. There is no established treatment protocol for SOM. We present 2 cases of SOM successfully managed with topical levobunolol 0.5%; both patients responded to a short course of medication administration and required minimal ongoing therapy. Case 1 was a 69-year-old woman with left SOM who had previously undergone a left Harada-Ito procedure. Her SOM improved immediately on administration of levobunolol and was maintained at follow-up 1 year later. Case 2 was a 49-year-old man with right SOM that affected his ability to work. After 2 days of topical levobunolol 0.5% nightly in the right eye, SOM episodes ceased; he continues to use drops intermittently for occasional recurrences.
Lundgren P, Athikarisamy SE, Patole S, Lam GC, Smith LE, Simmer K. Duration of anaemia during the first week of life is an independent risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Paediatr 2018;107(5):759-766.Abstract
AIM: This study evaluated the correlation between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), anaemia and blood transfusions in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: We included 227 infants born below 28 weeks of gestation at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Australia, from 2014-2016. Birth characteristics and risk factors for ROP were retrieved, and anaemia and severe anaemia were defined as a haemoglobins of <110 g/L and <80 g/L, respectively. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Retinopathy of prematurity treatment was needed in 11% of cases and the mean number of blood transfusions (p < 0.01), and mean number of weeks of anaemia (p < 0.001) and of severe anaemia (p < 0.05), had positive associations with ROP cases warranting treatment. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the best-fit model of risk factors included anaemic days during first week of life, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46% and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.16-1.83 (p < 0.05), sepsis during the first 4 weeks of life (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.10-9.00, p < 0.05) and days of ventilation (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The duration of anaemia during the first week of life was an independent risk factor for ROP warranting treatment and preventing early anaemia may decrease this risk.
Kines RC, Varsavsky I, Choudhary S, Bhattacharya D, Spring S, McLaughlin R, Kang SJ, Grossniklaus HE, Vavvas D, Monks S, MacDougall JR, de Los Pinos E, Schiller JT. An Infrared Dye-Conjugated Virus-like Particle for the Treatment of Primary Uveal Melanoma. Mol Cancer Ther 2018;17(2):565-574.Abstract
The work outlined herein describes AU-011, a novel recombinant papillomavirus-like particle (VLP) drug conjugate and its initial evaluation as a potential treatment for primary uveal melanoma. The VLP is conjugated with a phthalocyanine photosensitizer, IRDye 700DX, that exerts its cytotoxic effect through photoactivation with a near-infrared laser. We assessed the anticancer properties of AU-011utilizing a panel of human cancer cell lines andusing murine subcutaneous and rabbit orthotopic xenograft models of uveal melanoma. The specificity of VLP binding (tumor targeting), mediated through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), was assessed using HSPG-deficient cells and by inclusion of heparin instudies. Our results provide evidence of potent and selective anticancer activity, bothandAU-011 activity was blocked by inhibiting its association with HSPG using heparin and using cells lacking surface HSPG, indicating that the tumor tropism of the VLP was not affected by dye conjugation and cell association is critical for AU-011-mediated cytotoxicity. Using the uveal melanoma xenograft models, we observed tumor uptake following intravenous (murine) and intravitreal (rabbit) administration and, after photoactivation, potent dose-dependent tumor responses. Furthermore, in the rabbit orthotopic model, which closely models uveal melanoma as it presents in the clinic, tumor treatment spared the retina and adjacent ocular structures. Our results support further clinical development of this novel therapeutic modality that might transform visual outcomes and provide a targeted therapy for the early-stage treatment of patients with this rare and life-threatening disease..
Kaufman AR, Cruzat A, Colby KA. Clinical Outcomes Using Oversized Back Plates in Type I Boston Keratoprosthesis. Eye Contact Lens 2018;44(6):399-404.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine clinical outcomes of oversized titanium back plates in type I Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) implantation. METHODS: Retrospective study of 22 sequential eyes (20 patients) undergoing type I KPro implantation with an oversized titanium back plate (larger than trephined wound diameter by 1.0 mm or more), performed by a single surgeon (K.A.C.) from June 2010 to November 2014. Data were collected regarding preoperative eye characteristics, surgical details, and postoperative clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Mean follow-up time per eye was 24.1±14.9 months. All eyes had improved vision after surgery; 13 eyes (59.1%) maintained visual acuity improvement at last follow-up. Initial KPro's were retained in 19 eyes (86.4%); one eye required KPro replacement. Primary retroprosthetic membrane (RPM) developed in three eyes (13.6%), with similar occurrence in aniridic (14.3%) and nonaniridic eyes (13.3%). Secondary RPM's developed in two eyes (9.1%) after vitritis (one eye) and retinal and choroidal detachment (one eye). Glaucoma was a common comorbidity: 2 of 14 eyes (14.3%) with preoperative glaucoma had glaucoma progression, and 4 of 8 eyes (50.0%) without preoperative glaucoma developed glaucoma postoperatively. Other postoperative complications included retinal detachment (5 eyes, 22.7%) and idiopathic vitritis (3 eyes, 13.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Oversized titanium KPro back plates are associated with a low rate of primary RPM formation and may have particular utility in reducing primary RPM formation in aniridic eyes. Glaucoma remains a challenge in postoperative KPro management. Complex eyes, at increased risk of postoperative complications, require careful management.
Fu Z, Löfqvist CA, Liegl R, Wang Z, Sun Y, Gong Y, Liu C-H, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Arellano I, Chouinard MT, Duran R, Poblete A, Cho SS, Akula JD, Kinter M, Ley D, Hansen Pupp I, Talukdar S, Hellström A, Smith LEH. Photoreceptor glucose metabolism determines normal retinal vascular growth. EMBO Mol Med 2018;10(1):76-90.Abstract
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation. Experimentally in a neonatal mouse model of postnatal hyperglycemia modeling early ROP, hyperglycemia caused photoreceptor dysfunction and delayed neurovascular maturation associated with changes in the APN pathway; recombinant mouse APN or APN receptor agonist AdipoRon treatment normalized vascular growth. APN deficiency decreased retinal mitochondrial metabolic enzyme levels particularly in photoreceptors, suppressed retinal vascular development, and decreased photoreceptor platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfb). APN pathway activation reversed these effects. Blockade of mitochondrial respiration abolished AdipoRon-induced Pdgfb increase in photoreceptors. Photoreceptor knockdown of Pdgfb delayed retinal vascular formation. Stimulation of the APN pathway might prevent hyperglycemia-associated retinal abnormalities and suppress phase I ROP in premature infants.
Maturi RK, Glassman AR, Liu D, Beck RW, Bhavsar AR, Bressler NM, Jampol LM, Melia M, Punjabi OS, Salehi-Had H, Sun JK, Sun JK. Effect of Adding Dexamethasone to Continued Ranibizumab Treatment in Patients With Persistent Diabetic Macular Edema: A DRCR Network Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(1):29-38.Abstract
Importance: Some eyes have persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for DME. Subsequently adding intravitreous corticosteroids to the treatment regimen might result in better outcomes than continued anti-VEGF therapy alone. Objective: To compare continued intravitreous ranibizumab alone with ranibizumab plus intravitreous dexamethasone implant in eyes with persistent DME. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2 multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted at 40 US sites in 129 eyes from 116 adults with diabetes between February 2014 and December 2016. Eyes had persistent DME, with visual acuity of 20/32 to 20/320 after at least 3 anti-VEGF injections before a run-in phase, which included an additional 3 monthly 0.3-mg ranibizumab injections. Data analysis was according to intent to treat. Interventions: Following the run-in phase, study eyes that had persistent DME and were otherwise eligible were randomly assigned to receive 700 μg of dexamethasone (combination group, 65 eyes) or sham treatment (ranibizumab group, 64 eyes) in addition to continued 0.3-mg ranibizumab in both treatment arms as often as every 4 weeks based on a structured re-treatment protocol. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in mean visual acuity letter score at 24 weeks as measured by the electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS). The principal secondary outcome was change in mean central subfield thickness as measured with the use of optical coherence tomography. Results: Of the 116 randomized patients, median age was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 58-71 years); 50.9% were female and 60.3% were white. Mean (SD) improvement in visual acuity from randomization was 2.7 (9.8) letters in the combination group and 3.0 (7.1) letters in the ranibizumab group, with the adjusted treatment group difference (combination minus ranibizumab) of -0.5 letters (95% CI, -3.6 to 2.5; 2-sided P = .73). Mean (SD) change in central subfield thickness in the combination group was -110 (86) μm compared with -62 (97) μm for the ranibizumab group (adjusted difference, -52; 95% CI, -82 to -22; 2-sided P < .001). Nineteen eyes (29%) in the combination group experienced increased intraocular pressure or initiated treatment with antihypertensive eyedrops compared with 0 in the ranibizumab group (2-sided P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Although its use is more likely to reduce retinal thickness and increase intraocular pressure, the addition of intravitreous dexamethasone to continued ranibizumab therapy does not improve visual acuity at 24 weeks more than continued ranibizumab therapy alone among eyes with persistent DME following anti-VEGF therapy. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01945866.
Chwalisz BK, Bouffard MA, Prasad S, Cestari DM. Neuroimaging diagnostic and monitoring approaches in ophthalmology. Curr Opin Neurol 2018;31(1):66-73.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen. OCT-angiography is opening up new avenues to the study of the vasculature of the optic nerve head and its disorders, including ischemic optic neuropathy. Newer technologies in the diagnosis of GCA include vascular ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the extracranial vasculature and PET imaging of the large vessels. SUMMARY: OCT and several of its derivations are advancing diagnosis, and in some cases prognostication, in a variety of inflammatory, ischemic and compressive optic neuropathies. These technologies hold potential in the laboratory as well, yielding insights into the mechanisms of a variety of neurological conditions. In addition, further developments in MRI and ultrasonography techniques are shaping the approach to the diagnosis of GCA.
Alageel SA, Arafat SN, Salvador-Culla B, Kolovou PE, Jahanseir K, Kozak A, Braithwaite GJC, Ciolino JB. Corneal Cross-Linking With Verteporfin and Nonthermal Laser Therapy. Cornea 2018;37(3):362-368.Abstract
PURPOSE: To test whether verteporfin with a nonthermal laser increases corneal mechanical stiffness and resistance to enzymatic degradation ex vivo. METHODS: Thirty human corneas (n = 5 per group) were treated with verteporfin alone (V), irradiated with nonthermal laser therapy (689 nm) alone (NTL), or received combined treatment of verteporfin with nonthermal laser therapy for 1 sequence (V+NTL1) or 6 sequences (V+NTL6) of 1 minute of NTL exposure. Positive controls were pretreated with 0.1% riboflavin/20% dextran every 3 to 5 minutes for 30 minutes and irradiated with ultraviolet light type A (λ = 370 nm, irradiance = 3 mW/cm) for 30 minutes using the Dresden protocol (R+UVA). Untreated corneas were used as negative controls. The corneal biomechanical properties were measured with enzymatic digestion, compression, creep, and tensile strength testing. RESULTS: V+NTL6- and R+UVA-treated corneas acquired higher rigidity and more pronounced curvature than untreated corneas. The stress-strain tests showed that V+NTL6 and R+UVA corneas became significantly stiffer than controls (P < 0.005). The V+NTL6 group seemed to be slightly stiffer than the R+UVA group, although the differences were not statistically significant. V+NTL6 corneas were found to have a significantly lower absolute creep rate (-1.87 vs. -3.46, P < 0.05) and significantly higher maximum stress values (7.67 vs. 3.02 P < 0.05) compared with untreated corneas. CONCLUSIONS: Verteporfin-NTL (V+NTL6) increases corneal mechanical stiffness and resistance to enzymatic collagenase degradation. Although a clinical study is needed, our results suggest that V+NTL6 induces corneal cross-linking and corneal biomechanical changes that are similar to those induced by standard corneal collagen cross-linking.
Shanbhag SS, Saeed HN, Paschalis EI, Chodosh J. Keratolimbal allograft for limbal stem cell deficiency after severe corneal chemical injury: a systematic review. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;102(8):1114-1121.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature on outcomes of keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) for the surgical treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and corneal blindness after severe corneal chemical injury. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, CINAHL, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. Standard systematic review methodology was applied. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eyes with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥20/200 at last follow-up. Other measures of allograft success were also collected. RESULTS: We identified six reports in which KLAL outcomes in the eyes after chemical injury could be distinguished. There were no randomised controlled studies. The outcomes of KLAL in 36 eyes of 33 patients were analysed. One study with seven eyes did not specify KLAL follow-up specific to chemical injury. Median postoperative follow-up for the other 29 eyes in 26 patients was 42 months (range 6.2-114 months). In the same 29 eyes, 69% (20/29) had BCVA ≥20/200 at the last follow-up examination. Eighty-nine per cent of all eyes (32/36) underwent penetrating keratoplasty simultaneous or subsequent to KLAL. CONCLUSIONS: The number of studies where outcomes of KLAL in eyes with severe corneal chemical injury could be discerned was limited, and variability was observed in outcome reporting. The quality of evidence to support the use of KLAL in LSCD in severe chemical corneal burns was low. Standardisation and longer follow-up are needed to better define evidence-based best practice when contemplating surgical intervention for blindness after corneal chemical injury. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017054733.
Callaway NF, Gonzalez MA, Yonekawa Y, Faia LJ, Mandelcorn ED, Khurana RN, Saleh MGA, Lin P, Sobrin L, Albini TA. OUTCOMES OF PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR MACULAR HOLE IN PATIENTS WITH UVEITIS. Retina 2018;38 Suppl 1:S41-S48.Abstract
PURPOSE: Inflammatory macular hole is a rare complication of uveitis, and data on surgical outcomes of closure are scarce. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical and visual outcomes of conventional pars plana vitrectomy for patients with uveitis. METHODS: Noncomparative, interventional, and consecutive case series from 6 vitreoretinal surgical centers from 2007 to 2015. Twenty eyes of 19 patients were included with 4 patients separated as viral retinitis. The primary outcome was change in best-corrected visual acuity at Month 3. Secondary outcomes were closure of the macular hole and postoperative optical coherence tomography characteristics. RESULTS: All eyes underwent conventional three-port pars plana vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. Mean Snellen best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/63 (P = 0.01 for a difference in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) at Month 3. Twelve (75%) of patients achieved 2 or more lines of visual acuity improvement by postoperative Month 3. Surgery resulted in decreased epiretinal membrane (P = 0.002), intraretinal fluid (P < 0.001), subretinal fluid (P = 0.029), central subfield thickness (P < 0.001), and central cube volume (P = 0.041). Surgical intervention achieved anatomical success, as measured by macular hole closure, in 13 (81%) of patients at postoperative Month 3. CONCLUSION: Patients with inflammatory macular hole respond well to conventional surgery, with good anatomical and visual acuity outcomes.
Gaier ED, Gilbert AL, Cestari DM, Miller JB. Optical coherence tomographic angiography identifies peripapillary microvascular dilation and focal non-perfusion in giant cell arteritis. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;102(8):1141-1146.Abstract
AIMS: We set out to determine the optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) characteristics of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) in the context of giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: This is an observational case series of four patients with AAION secondary to GCA, three with unilateral AAION and one with bilateral AAION. We reviewed the charts, fundus photography, visual fields, fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCT-A images for all patients to identify a unifying theme in a range of AAION clinical severity. Imaging of two healthy control eyes from two patients of similar age to the patients in our series were used for comparison. RESULTS: Superficial peripapillary capillary dilation was seen in eyes with acute AAION. It was also noted in the fellow eyes of two patients. Retinal capillary perfusion defects corresponded to visual field loss. Dense optic disc oedema and cotton-wool spots imparted blockage effects. OCT-A laminar analysis did not highlight the choroidal/choriocapillaris perfusion defects seen on FA in two patients. Follow-up OCT-A was obtained in two patients and revealed progression to superficial peripapillary capillary attenuation that corresponded with visual field loss. CONCLUSIONS: There are acute and chronic vascular changes in AAION that are detectable by OCT-A that correspond with visual function. Though the microvascular changes seen in GCA and AAION are not specific, the nearly ubiquitous findings among preclinical and clinically affected eyes in this series of patients with GCA support OCT-A as a potentially useful adjunctive diagnostic test in the work-up of ambiguous cases of suspected ischaemic optic neuropathy.

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