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Busch C, Zur D, Fraser-Bell S, Laíns I, Santos AR, Lupidi M, Cagini C, Gabrielle P-H, Couturier A, Mané-Tauty V, Giancipoli E, Ricci GD'A, Cebeci Z, Rodríguez-Valdés PJ, Chaikitmongkol V, Amphornphruet A, Hindi I, Agrawal K, Chhablani J, Loewenstein A, Iglicki M, Rehak M, Rehak M. Shall we stay, or shall we switch? Continued anti-VEGF therapy versus early switch to dexamethasone implant in refractory diabetic macular edema. Acta Diabetol 2018;55(8):789-796.Abstract
AIMS: To compare functional and anatomical outcomes of continued anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy versus dexamethasone (DEX) implant in eyes with refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) after three initial anti-VEGF injections in a real-world setting. METHODS: To be included in this retrospective multicenter, case-control study, eyes were required: (1) to present with early refractory DME, as defined by visual acuity (VA) gain ≤ 5 letters or reduction in central subfield thickness (CST) ≤ 20%, after a loading phase of anti-VEGF therapy (three monthly injections) and (2) to treat further with (a) anti-VEGF therapy or (b) DEX implant. Main outcome measures were change in visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) at 12 months. Due to imbalanced baseline characteristics, a matched anti-VEGF group was formed by only keeping eyes with similar baseline characteristics as those in the DEX group. RESULTS: A total of 110 eyes from 105 patients were included (anti-VEGF group: 72 eyes, DEX group: 38 eyes). Mean change in VA at 12 months was - 0.4 ± 10.8 letters (anti-VEGF group), and + 6.1 ± 10.6 letters (DEX group) (P = 0.004). Over the same period, mean change in CST was + 18.3 ± 145.9 µm (anti-VEGF group) and - 92.8 ± 173.6 µm (DEX group) (P < 0.001). Eyes in the DEX group were more likely to gain ≥ 10 letters (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.19-11.61, P = 0.024) at month 12. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world setting, eyes with DME considered refractory to anti-VEGF therapy after three monthly injections which were switched to DEX implant and had better visual and anatomical outcomes at 12 months than those that continued treatment with anti-VEGF therapy.
Vajaranant TS, Ray RM, Pasquale LR, Mares JA, Ritch R, Gower EW, Haan MN, Jackson RD, Maki PM. Racial Differences in the Effects of Hormone Therapy on Incident Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Randomized Trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;195:110-120.Abstract
PURPOSE: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test if hormone therapy (HT) altered the risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), and if the risk reduction varied by race. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of randomized controlled trial data. METHODS: We linked Medicare claims data to 25 535 women in the Women's Health Initiative. Women without a uterus were randomized to receive either oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and women with a uterus received oral CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE 0.625 mg/day + MPA 2.5 mg/day) or placebo. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: After exclusion of women with prevalent glaucoma or without claims for eye care provider visits, the final analysis included 8102 women (mean age = 68.5 ± 4.8 years). The OAG incidence was 7.6% (mean follow-up = 11.5 ± 5.2 years; mean HT duration = 4.4 ± 2.3 years). Increased age (P trend = .01) and African-American race (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.13-3.42; white as a reference) were significant risk factors for incident OAG. We found no overall benefit of HT in reducing incident OAG (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.79-1.29 in the CEE trial, and HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.85-1.29 in the CEE + MPA trial). However, race modified the relationship between CEE use and OAG risk (P interaction = .01), and risk was reduced in African-American women treated with CEE (HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.88), compared to placebo. Race did not modify the relation between CEE + MPA use and OAG risk (P interaction = .68). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis suggests that HT containing estrogen, but not a combination of estrogen and progesterone, reduces the risk of incident OAG among African-American women. Further investigation is needed.
Song C, Baharozian CJ, Hatch KM, Talamo JH. Assessment of surgeon experience with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Clin Ophthalmol 2018;12:1373-1377.Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the collective user experience with an image-guided femtosecond laser (FSL) for cataract surgery in a high-volume, multi-surgeon, ambulatory surgical center. Subjects and methods: A detailed online survey was distributed to all surgeons in a single ambulatory surgical center who had performed cataract surgery using a FSL since its acquisition in December 2012. Information collected included the number of cases performed, typical surgical techniques and parameters, satisfaction with individual features of the laser (rated on a scale from 1=completely unsatisfied to 10=extremely satisfied) and commentary on ease of use and suggested improvements. Results: Seventeen of 30 surgeons (56.7%) completed the survey, representing a case volume of 1,967 eyes. Fourteen surgeons (82.4%) felt they required ≤10 cases with the FSL to operate with the same safety and control as in standard phacoemulsification surgery. Satisfaction was highest for capsulotomies, lens fragmentation, lens softening, arcuate incisions and the graphic user interface (mean scores 9.4, 8.7, 8.7, 7.2 and 8.9, respectively). Preferred capsulotomy diameter was 4.8-5.2 mm (64.7% of respondents). About half (52.9%) of respondents centered the capsulotomy on the pupil and the other 47.1% centered the capsulotomy using optical coherence tomography. Most respondents (81.3%) preferred transepithelial arcuate incisions compared to intrastromal incisions. Satisfaction was lowest with FSL-created, main, clear corneal incisions and paracenteses (mean scores 4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Conclusion: Laser-assisted cataract surgery has a short learning curve and a high rate of user satisfaction. Further software and hardware development is warranted to improve user satisfaction with peripheral and clear corneal incisions.
Hudry E, Andres-Mateos E, Lerner EP, Volak A, Cohen O, Hyman BT, Maguire CA, Vandenberghe LH. Efficient Gene Transfer to the Central Nervous System by Single-Stranded Anc80L65. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018;10:197-209.Abstract
Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) have demonstrated potential in applications for neurologic disorders, and the discovery that some AAVs can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after intravenous injection has further expanded these opportunities for non-invasive brain delivery. Anc80L65, a novel AAV capsid designed from reconstruction of the viral evolutionary lineage, has previously demonstrated robust transduction capabilities after local delivery in various tissues such as liver, retina, or cochlea, compared with conventional AAVs. Here, we compared the transduction efficacy of Anc80L65 with conventional AAV9 in the CNS after intravenous, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.), or intraparenchymal injections. Anc80L65 was more potent at targeting the brain and spinal cord after intravenous injection than AAV9, and mostly transduced astrocytes and a wide range of neuronal subpopulations. Although the efficacy of Anc80L65 and AAV9 is similar after direct intraparenchymal injection in the striatum, Anc80L65's diffusion throughout the CNS was more extensive than AAV9 after i.c.v. infusion, leading to widespread expression in the cerebellum. These findings demonstrate that Anc80L65 is a highly efficient gene transfer vector for the murine CNS. Systemic injection of Anc80L65 leads to notable expression in the CNS that does not rely on a self-complementary genome. These data warrant further testing in larger animal models.
Harris DL, Yamaguchi T, Hamrah P. A Novel Murine Model of Radiation Keratopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(10):3889-3896.Abstract
Purpose: Radiation therapy results in severe chronic keratopathy and dry eye disease. We developed a novel mouse model for radiation keratopathy to allow future mechanistic studies. Methods: Six to 8-week-old BALB/c mice underwent sublethal irradiation to the head only from a Cesium-137 irradiator, 2 × 550 rad, 3-hours apart. Irradiated mice were clinically evaluated by corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) at 1, 2, and 3 months, after which corneas were excised and immunofluorescence histochemistry performed with anti-CD45, anti-MHC class II, and anti-β-tubulin antibodies. Results: The survival rate after irradiation was 100%. Mice demonstrated significant CFS and hair loss around the eyes. Corneal nerve density decreased in the central and peripheral corneas (P < 0.01) at 2 and 3 months, respectively. CD45+ immune cell densities increased in the central and peripheral corneas (P < 0.005, P < 0.001) at 2 and 3 months, respectively. MHC class II, a sign of antigen presenting cell activation, significantly increased after irradiation in the central and peripheral corneas at 2 and 3 months (P = 0.02). A strong inverse correlation was noted between decreased corneal nerves and increase in CD45+ cells in the central cornea at 2 (P = 0.04, r = -0.89) and 3 months (P = 0.03, r = -0.91) after irradiation. Conclusions: We present a model of radiation keratopathy and demonstrate significant nerve loss and increase in immune cell influx and activation within months. This model will enable future investigations to understand the effects of radiation therapy on the eye, and to study mechanisms of neuro-immune crosstalk in the cornea.
Zhu Y, Pappas AC, Wang R, Seifert P, Sun D, Jakobs TC. Ultrastructural Morphology of the Optic Nerve Head in Aged and Glaucomatous Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(10):3984-3996.Abstract
Purpose: To study age- and intraocular pressure-induced changes in the glial lamina of the murine optic nerve on the ultrastructural level. Methods: Naïve C57bl/6 mice at various ages spanning the time between early adulthood (3 months) and senescence (30 months) were used in this study. In addition, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was increased in a group of young mice by injection of microbeads into the anterior chamber. The unmyelinated segments of the optic nerve containing the glial lamina were prepared for transmission electron microscopy and imaged at high resolution. Results: Axon packing density decreased slightly with age. Aging nerves contained higher numbers of enlarged and degenerating axons. Mean axonal diameter and in particular the variance of axonal diameter correlated well with age. Axonal mitochondria also showed age-dependent signs of pathology. The mean diameter of axonal mitochondria increased, and aged axons often contained profiles of mitochondria with very few or no cristae. Astrocytic mitochondria remained normal even in very old nerves. Changes to axons and axonal mitochondria in young glaucomatous nerves were comparable with those of 18- to 30-month-old naïve mice. In addition to axons and mitochondria, aged and glaucomatous nerves showed thickening of the blood vessel basement membranes and increased deposition of basement membrane collagen. Conclusions: On the ultrastructural level, the effects of age and elevated IOP are quite similar. One month of elevated IOP seems to have as strongly detrimental effects on the nerve as at least 18 months of normal aging.
Agrawal R, Gunasekeran DV, Agarwal A, Carreño E, Aggarwal K, Gupta B, Raje D, Murthy SI, Westcott M, Chee SP, McCluskey P, Ling HS, Teoh S, Cimino L, Biswas J, Narain S, Agarwal M, Mahendradas P, Khairallah M, Jones N, Tugal-Tutkun I, Babu K, Basu S, Lee R, Al-Dhibi H, Bodaghi B, Invernizzi A, Goldstein DA, Herbort CP, Barisani-Asenbauer T, González-López JJ, Androudi S, Bansal R, Moharana B, Mahajan S, Esposti S, Tasiopoulou A, Nadarajah S, Agarwal M, Abraham S, Vala R, Lord J, Singh R, Sharma A, Sharma K, Zierhut M, Kon OM, Kempen J, Cunningham ET, Rousselot A, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V. The Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS)-1: A Multinational Description of the Spectrum of Choroidal Involvement in 245 Patients with Tubercular Uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018;:1-11.Abstract
PURPOSE: To contribute a global description of the spectrum of choroidal involvement in tubercular uveitis (TBU). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of TBU patients with choroidal involvement from 25 centers between January 2004 and December 2014. Medical records of patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were reviewed. RESULTS: 245 patients were included. The phenotypic variations included serpiginous-like choroiditis (SLC) (46%), tuberculoma (13.5%), multifocal choroiditis (MFC) (9.4%), ampiginous choroiditis (9%), among others. 219 patients were treated with anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) (n = 219/245, 89.38%), 229 patients with steroids (n = 229/245, 93.47%) and 28 patients with immunosuppressive agents (n = 28/245, 11.42%). Treatment failure was noted in 38 patients (n = 38/245, 15.5%). Patients with SLC and ampiginous choroiditis appeared to have superior outcomes on survival analysis (p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive description of choroidal involvement in TBU. Patients with SLC and ampiginous choroiditis may have better clinical outcomes.
Strauss RW, Muñoz B, Ahmed MI, Bittencourt M, Schönbach EM, Michaelides M, Birch D, Zrenner E, Ervin A-M, Charbel Issa P, Kong J, Wolfson Y, Shah M, Bagheri S, West S, Scholl HPN, Scholl HPN. The Progression of the Stargardt Disease Type 4 (ProgStar-4) Study: Design and Baseline Characteristics (ProgStar-4 Report No. 1). Ophthalmic Res 2018;:1-10.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the multicenter, prospective natural history study of Stargardt disease type 4. METHODS: Fifteen eligible patients aged 6 years and older at baseline, harboring disease-causing variants in the PROM1 gene, and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled. They were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6 monthly follow-up visits for a 2-year period including best-corrected ETDRS visual acuity, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), mesopic and scotopic microperimetry (MP). Areas of definitely decreased FAF (DDAF) and questionably decreased FAF were outlined and quantified on FAF images. RESULTS: Amongst the 15 patients (29 eyes) that were enrolled at 5 centers in the USA and Europe, 10 eyes (34.5%) had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 3.2 ± 3.5 mm2 (range 0.36-10.39 mm2) at baseline. The mean retinal sensitivity of the posterior pole derived from mesopic MP was 8.8 ± 5.8 dB. CONCLUSIONS: Data on disease progression in PROM1-related retinopathy from this study will contribute to the characterization of the natural history of disease and the exploration of the utility of several modalities to track progression and therefore to potentially be used in future interventional clinical trials.
Madriz Peralta G, Cestari DM. An update of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018;29(6):495-502.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to provide a comprehensive and updated review on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), including the most current studies and treatment options. Special focus will be put on recent theories about the pathophysiology, and on newer prospective studies on treatment modalities. RECENT FINDINGS: The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) provided evidence supporting acetazolamide as a well tolerated first-line therapy in IIH patients with mild vision loss. Recent studies have shown venous sinus stenting as a well tolerated and effective surgical alternative for patients with refractory IIH. SUMMARY: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a vision-threatening disorder that predominantly affects obese women of childbearing age. This disorder is becoming more prevalent as the obesity epidemic continues to increase. As our understanding of this disorder continues to evolve, diagnosis and management approaches have changed over time. However, the pathogenesis for IIH remains unclear. Several theories have been proposed, including abnormalities in cerebrospinal dynamics, metabolic causes and genetics. The diagnostic criteria are based on the revised Dandy criteria. Traditionally, treatment was based on clinical experiences and retrospective studies. However, a new, prospective, randomized, controlled trial, the IIHTT, provided evidence-based data to help guide medical therapy. Additionally new, prospective studies are underway for the different surgical alternatives to treat IIH.
Jung J-H, Peli E. Field Expansion for Acquired Monocular Vision Using a Multiplexing Prism. Optom Vis Sci 2018;95(9):814-828.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: Acquired monocular vision (AMV) is a common visual field loss. Patients report mobility difficulties in walking due to collisions with objects or other pedestrians on the blind side. PURPOSE: The visual field of people with AMV extends more than 90° temporally on the side of the seeing eye but is restricted to approximately 55° nasally. We developed a novel field expansion device using a multiplexing prism (MxP) that superimposes the see-through and shifted views for true field expansion without apical scotoma. We present various designs of the device that enable customized fitting and improved cosmetics. METHODS: A partial MxP segment is attached (base-in) near the nose bridge. To avoid total internal reflection due to the high angle of incidence at nasal field end (55°), we fit the MxP with serrations facing the eye and tilt the prism base toward the nose. We calculated the width of the MxP (the apex location) needed to prevent apical scotoma and monocular diplopia. We also consider the effect of spectacle prescriptions on these settings. The results are verified perimetrically. RESULTS: We documented the effectivity of various prototype glasses designs with perimetric measurements. With the prototypes, all patients with AMV had field-of-view expansions up to 90° nasally without any loss of seeing field. CONCLUSIONS: The novel and properly mounted MxP in glasses has the potential for meaningful field-of-view expansion up to the size of normal binocular vision in cosmetically acceptable form.
Homer N, Fay A. Management of Long-Standing Flaccid Facial Palsy: Periocular Considerations. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2018;51(6):1107-1118.Abstract
Ineffective eyelid closure can pose a serious risk of injury to the ocular surface and eye. In cases of eyelid paresis, systematic examination of the eye and ocular adnexa will direct appropriate interventions. Specifically, 4 distinct periorbital regions should be independently assessed: eyebrow, upper eyelid, ocular surface, and lower eyelid. Corneal exposure can lead to dehydration, thinning, scarring, infection, perforation, and blindness. Long-term sequelae following facial nerve palsy may also include epiphora, gustatory lacrimation, and synkinesis.
García-Posadas L, Hodges RR, Diebold Y, Dartt DA. Context-Dependent Regulation of Conjunctival Goblet Cell Function by Allergic Mediators. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):12162.Abstract
In the eye, goblet cells responsible for secreting mucins are found in the conjunctiva. When mucin production is not tightly regulated several ocular surface disorders may occur. In this study, the effect of the T helper (Th) 2-type cytokines IL4, IL5, and IL13 on conjunctival goblet cell function was explored. Goblet cells from rat conjunctiva were cultured and characterized. The presence of cytokine receptors was confirmed by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Changes in intracellular [Ca], high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion, and proliferation were measured after stimulation with Th2 cytokines with or without the allergic mediator histamine. We found that IL4 and IL13 enhance cell proliferation and, along with histamine, stimulate goblet cell secretion. We conclude that the high levels of IL4, IL5, and IL13 that characterize allergic conjunctivitis could be the reason for higher numbers of goblet cells and mucin overproduction found in this condition.
Bressler NM, Beaulieu WT, Maguire MG, Glassman AR, Blinder KJ, Bressler SB, Gonzalez VH, Jampol LM, Melia M, Sun JK, Wells JA, Wells JA. Early Response to Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Two-Year Outcomes Among Eyes With Diabetic Macular Edema in Protocol T. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;195:93-100.Abstract
PURPOSE: Assess associations of 2-year visual acuity (VA) outcomes with VA and optical coherence tomography central subfield thickness (CST) after 12 weeks of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for diabetic macular edema in DRCR.net Protocol T. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Setting: Multicenter (89 U.S. sites). PATIENT POPULATION: Eyes with VA and CST data from baseline and 12-week visits (616 of 660 eyes randomized [93.3%]). INTERVENTION: Six monthly injections of 2.0 mg aflibercept, 1.25 mg bevacizumab, or 0.3 mg ranibizumab; subsequent injections and focal/grid laser as needed for stability. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in VA from baseline and VA letter score at 2 years. RESULTS: Twelve-week VA response was associated with 2-year change in VA and 2-year VA letter score for each drug (P < .001) but with substantial individual variability (multivariable R = 0.38, 0.29, and 0.26 for 2-year change with aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab, respectively). Among eyes with less than 5-letter gain at 12 weeks, the percentages of eyes gaining 10 or more letters from baseline at 2 years were 42% (20 of 48), 31% (21 of 68), and 47% (28 of 59), and median 2-year VA was 20/32, 20/32, and 20/25, in the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively. Twelve-week CST response was not strongly associated with 2-year outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: A suboptimal response at 12 weeks did not preclude meaningful vision improvement (ie, ≥ 10-letter gain) in many eyes at 2 years. Eyes with less than 5-letter gain at 12 weeks often had good VA at 2 years without switching therapies.

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