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Yoon MK, Habib LA. Spheno-Orbital Dermoid Masquerading as Recurrent Orbital Abscess. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021;37(6):e213-e215.Abstract
A 10-month-old girl presented with eyelid edema and erythema that did not improve with systemic antibiotics. Due to a lack of improvement, MRI was performed to avoid ionizing radiation from CT. An orbital abscess was recognized and drained. However, the abscess recurred 2 times. CT scan was performed and a tract in the sphenoid bone helped to diagnose a congenital dural sinus tract with dermoid. Definitive surgery was performed with neurosurgery to remove the entire tract including cutaneous connection. CT scan proved critical to diagnosis and should be considered in infants in select cases despite the concern for ionizing radiation in this vulnerable age group.
Elhusseiny AM, Jabroun M, Rajabi F, Gonzalez E, Alkharashi M. A novel variant in the TSPAN12 gene-presenting as unilateral myopia, pediatric cataract, and heterochromia in a patient with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2021;:11206721211027415.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a case of 16-month-old boy with a novel variant TSPAN12 gene-presenting as unilateral myopia, pediatric cataract, and heterochromia in a patient with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. OBSERVATION: A 16-month-old otherwise healthy boy was referred to Boston Children's Hospital for evaluation of strabismus. Ocular examination revealed intermittent esotropia, left hypotropia, and limited left eye elevation in both adduction and abduction. Full cycloplegic hyperopic correction of +3.50 diopters (D) over both eyes was given to the patient. Over several months, refraction of the right eye showed progressive myopia (-6.00 D) with new onset iris heterochromia. Fundus examination showed there was a large area of chorioretinal atrophy with abrupt ending of the blood vessels; anterior to the ora serrata there were diffuse vitreous bands and veils that reached the lens anteriorly in direct contact with the lenticular opacity. A novel heterozygous nonsense likely pathogenic variant was identified in the TSPAN12 gene (NM_012338.3) c.315T>A (p.Cys105Ter) confirming the diagnosis of FEVR. CONCLUSION AND IMPORTANCE: Asymmetric FEVR rarely present with unilateral axial myopia however association with acquired heterochromia and cataract has never been reported. We report a case of FEVR caused by a novel TSPAN12 likely pathogenic nonsense variant presenting as unilateral progressive myopia, acquired heterochromia, and pediatric cataract.
Yu K, Guo Y, Ge Q-M, Su T, Shi W-Q, Zhang L-J, Shu H-Y, Pan Y-C, Liang R-B, Li Q-Y, Shao Y. Altered spontaneous activity in the frontal gyrus in dry eye: a resting-state functional MRI study. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):12943.Abstract
This study investigated neurologic changes in patients with dry eye (DE) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to used regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis to clarify the relationship between these changes and clinical features of DE. A total of 28 patients with DE and 28 matched healthy control (HC) subjects (10 males and 18 females in each group) were enrolled. fMRI scans were performed in both groups. We carried out ReHo analysis to assess differences in neural activity between the 2 groups, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of ReHo values of specific brain areas in distinguishing DE patients from HCs. The relationship between average ReHo values and clinical characteristics was assessed by correlation analysis. ReHo values of the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus were significantly lower in DE patients compared to HCs. The ROC analysis showed that ReHo value had high accuracy in distinguishing between DE patients and HCs (P < 0.0001). The ReHo values of the middle frontal gyrus and dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus were correlated to disease duration (P < 0.05). Symptoms of ocular surface injury in DE patients are associated with dysfunction in specific brain regions, which may underlie the cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and depressive mood observed in DE patients. The decreased ReHo values of some brain gyri in this study may provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and determination of treatment efficacy.
Hikage F, Lennikov A, Mukwaya A, Lachota M, Ida Y, Utheim TP, Chen DF, Huang H, Ohguro H. NF-κB activation in retinal microglia is involved in the inflammatory and neovascularization signaling in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice. Exp Cell Res 2021;403(1):112581.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate Nuclear Factor NF-κB (NF-κB) signaling on microglia activation, migration, and angiogenesis in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: Nine-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to IMD-0354 treated or untreated groups (5 mice, 10 eyes per group). CNV was induced with a 532-nm laser. Laser spots (power 250 mW, spot size 100 μm, time of exposure 50 ms) were created in each eye using a slit-lamp delivery system. Selective inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (IKK2) inhibitor IMD-0354 (10 μg) was delivered subconjunctivally; vehicle-treated mice were the control. The treatment effect on CNV development was assessed at five days post-CNV induction in vivo in C57BL/6 and Cx3cr1gfp/wt mice by fluorescent angiography, fundus imaging, and ex vivo by retinal flatmounts immunostaining and Western blot analysis of RPE/Choroidal/Scleral complexes (RCSC) lysates. In vitro evaluations of IMD-0354 effects were performed in the BV-2 microglial cell line using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. RESULTS: IMD-0354 caused a significant reduction in the fluorescein leakage and size of the laser spot, as well as a reduction in microglial cell migration and suppression of phospho-IκBα, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2). In vivo and ex vivo observations demonstrated reduced lesion size in mice, CD68, and Allograft inflammatory factor 1 (IBA-1) positive microglia cells migration to the laser injury site in IMD-0354 treated eyes. The data further corroborate with GFP-positive cells infiltration of the CNV site in Cx3cr1wt/gfp mice. In vitro IMD-0354 (10-25 ng/ml) treatment reduced NF-κB activation, expression of COX-2, caused decreased Actin-F presence and organization, resulting in reduced BV-2 cells migration capacity. CONCLUSION: The present data indicate that NF-κB activation in microglia and it's migration capacity is involved in the development of laser CNV in mice. Its suppression by NF-κB inhibition might be a promising therapeutic strategy for wet AMD.
van der Heide C, Goar W, Meyer KJ, Alward WLM, Boese EA, Sears NC, Roos BR, Kwon YH, DeLuca AP, Siggs OM, Gonzaga-Jauregui C, Sheffield VC, Wang K, Stone EM, Mullins RF, Anderson MG, Fan BJ, Ritch R, Craig JE, Wiggs JL, Scheetz TE, Fingert JH. Exome-based investigation of the genetic basis of human pigmentary glaucoma. BMC Genomics 2021;22(1):477.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual disability and blindness. Release of iris pigment within the eye, pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS), can lead to one type of glaucoma known as pigmentary glaucoma. PDS has a genetic component, however, the genes involved with this condition are largely unknown. We sought to discover genes that cause PDS by testing cohorts of patients and controls for mutations using a tiered analysis of exome data. RESULTS: Our primary analysis evaluated melanosome-related genes that cause dispersion of iris pigment in mice (TYRP1, GPNMB, LYST, DCT, and MITF). We identified rare mutations, but they were not statistically enriched in PDS patients. Our secondary analyses examined PMEL (previously linked with PDS), MRAP, and 19 other genes. Four MRAP mutations were identified in PDS cases but not in controls (p = 0.016). Immunohistochemical analysis of human donor eyes revealed abundant MRAP protein in the iris, the source of pigment in PDS. However, analysis of MRAP in additional cohorts (415 cases and 1645 controls) did not support an association with PDS. We also did not confirm a link between PMEL and PDS in our cohorts due to lack of reported mutations and similar frequency of the variants in PDS patients as in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: We did not detect a statistical enrichment of mutations in melanosome-related genes in human PDS patients and we found conflicting data about the likely pathogenicity of MRAP mutations. PDS may have a complex genetic basis that is not easily unraveled with exome analyses.
Schoemaker D, Velilla L, Zuluaga Y, Baena A, Ospina C, Bocanegra Y, Alvarez S, Ochoa-Escudero M, Guzmán-Vélez E, Martinez J, Lopera F, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Quiroz YT. Global Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Cerebrovascular Abnormalities in Presymptomatic Individuals with CADASIL or Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. OBJECTIVE: Studying individuals with autosomal dominant mutations leading to the early onset of dementia, this study examines the effect of the global cardiovascular risk profile on early cognitive and neuroimaging features of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. METHODS: We studied 85 non-demented and stroke-free individuals, including 20 subjects with Presenilin1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation leading to the early onset of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), 20 subjects with NOTCH3 mutations leading to cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and to the early onset of vascular dementia, and 45 non-affected family members (non-carriers). All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations and an MRI. The global cardiovascular risk profile was estimated using the office-based Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Profile (FCRP) score. RESULTS: In individuals with CADASIL, a higher FCRP score was associated with a reduced hippocampal volume (B = -0.06, p <  0.05) and an increased severity of cerebral microbleeds (B = 0.13, p <  0.001), lacunes (B = 0.30, p <  0.001), and perivascular space enlargement in the basal ganglia (B = 0.50, p <  0.05). There was no significant association between the FCRP score and neuroimaging measures in ADAD or non-carrier subjects. While the FCRP score was related to performance in executive function in non-carrier subjects (B = 0.06, p <  0.05), it was not significantly associated with cognitive performance in individuals with CADASIL or ADAD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that individuals with CADASIL and other forms of vascular cognitive impairment might particularly benefit from early interventions aimed at controlling cardiovascular risks.
Shoji MK, Cousins CC, Saini C, Silva RNE, Wang M, Brauner SC, Greenstein SH, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ. Paired Optic Nerve Microvasculature and Nailfold Capillary Measurements in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(7):13.Abstract
Purpose: To assess microvascular beds in the optic nerve head (ONH), peripapillary tissue, and the nailfold in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) versus controls. Methods: Patients with POAG (n = 22) and controls (n = 12) underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography of ophthalmic microvasculature and nailfold video capillaroscopy of the hand. The main outcomes were vessel density (VD) and blood flow of the ONH, the peripapillary and the nailfold microvasculatures. Results: Patients with POAG were younger than controls (63.5 ± 9.4 vs. 69.9 ± 6.5 years, P = 0.03). Deep ONH VD and blood flow were lower in patients with POAG than controls (39.1% ± 3.5% vs. 43.8% ± 5.7%; 37.8% ± 5.3% vs. 46.0% ± 7.8%, respectively, P < 0.02 for both); similar results were observed with peripapillary VD (37.9 ± 2.6%, 43.4 ± 7.6%, respectively, P = 0.03). Nailfold capillary density and blood flow were lower in patients with POAG than controls (8.8 ± 1.0 vs. 9.8 ± 0.9 capillaries/mm; 19.9 ± 9.4 vs. 33.7 ± 9.8 pL/s, respectively; P < 0.009 for both). After adjusting for age and gender, deep ONH VD and blood flow, peripapillary VD, and nailfold capillary blood flow were lower in POAG than controls (β = -0.04, -0.07, -0.05, -13.19, respectively, P ≤ 0.046 for all). Among all participants, there were positive correlations between deep ONH and nailfold capillary blood flow (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.42, P = 0.02), peripapillary and nailfold capillary density (r = 0.43, P = 0.03), and peripapillary and nailfold capillary blood flow (r = 0.49, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with POAG demonstrated morphologic and hemodynamic alterations in both ophthalmic and nailfold microvascular beds compared to controls. Translational Relevance: The concomitant abnormalities in nailfold capillaries and relevant ocular vascular beds in POAG suggest that the microvasculature may be a target for POAG treatment.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Freitag SK. Teprotumumab for the treatment of mild compressive optic neuropathy in thyroid eye disease: A report of two cases. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021;22:101075.Abstract
Purpose: To report two cases of thyroid eye disease (TED) associated compressive optic neuropathy (CON) that resolved after treatment with teprotumumab. Observation: Two patients presented with active TED resulting in mild CON with the typical corresponding visual field (VF) defects. Both patients were initiated on intravenous (IV) corticosteroid therapy but despite treatment had persistent VF defects. Both patients were then treated with teprotumumab and demonstrated marked clinical improvement and complete resolution of TED-CON VF defects early in their infusion course. Conclusions and importance: These cases suggest that teprotumumab can be a rapid and effective treatment for TED-CON, and raises the question of whether it may be superior to IV corticosteroid therapy.
Nguyen HV, Gilbert AL, Fortin E, Vodopivec I, Torun N, Chwalisz BK, Cestari DM, Rizzo JF. Elevated Intracranial Pressure Associated With Exogenous Hormonal Therapy Used for Gender Affirmation. J Neuroophthalmol 2021;41(2):217-223.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Addison disease, corticosteroid withdrawal, and taking synthetic growth hormone have been linked with development of intracranial hypertension, but there is still debate on whether administration of other exogenous hormones plays a role in precipitating elevated pressure. The growing use of hormonal therapy for gender affirmation provides an opportunity to explore this possibility. METHODS: All transgender patients taking exogenous hormones for female-to-male (FTM) and male-to-female (MTF) transitions who were diagnosed with intracranial hypertension at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between August 2014 and November 2018 were included in a retrospective review. Visual acuity, type, and dose of exogenous hormone, visual field testing, clinical exam, results of neuroimaging and lumbar puncture, and treatment modalities were catalogued and analyzed. RESULTS: Six transgender individuals were identified. Five were FTM, with an average hormone treatment time of 18.4 months, and one was MTF who had been treated with hormones for 4 years. The average age of all patients was 23.5 years. The average time between onset of symptoms and presentation was 5 months. Fifty percent of the patients reported pulse-synchronous tinnitus, 83% reported positional headache, 33% reported transient visual obscurations, and 16% reported diplopia. Lumbar punctures performed on 4 of the patients revealed elevated opening pressures and normal cerebrospinal fluid constituents. MRI findings consistent with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) were present in the other 2 patients in whom lumbar puncture was unsuccessful. Four patients were treated with acetazolamide and one was treated with topiramate, with an average follow-up time of 15.7 months. All patients demonstrated bilateral optic disc swelling, and all maintained normal acuity and color vision. Performance on visual field testing was not significantly affected in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest reported series to date of gender-transitioning patients with intracranial hypertension, including one novel MTF conversion. These observations warrant further investigation into the possible link of exogenous hormonal therapy and elevated ICP and any mechanisms or confounders underlying this potential association.
Sobrin L, Susarla G, Stanwyck L, Rouhana JM, Li A, Pollack S, Igo RP, Jensen RA, Li X, Ng MCY, Smith AV, Kuo JZ, Taylor KD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Penman A, Chen CJ, Craig JE, Adler SG, Chew EY, Cotch MF, Yaspan B, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Klein BEK, Wong TY, Rotter JI, Burdon KP, Iyengar SK, Segrè AV. Gene Set Enrichment Analyses Identify Pathways Involved in Genetic Risk for Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify functionally related genes associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk using gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) applied to genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses. METHODS: We analyzed DR GWAS meta-analyses performed on 3,246 Europeans and 2,611 African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Gene sets relevant to five key DR pathophysiology processes were investigated: tissue injury, vascular events, metabolic events and glial dysregulation, neuronal dysfunction, and inflammation. Keywords relevant to these processes were queried in four pathway and ontology databases. Two GSEA methods, Meta-Analysis Gene set Enrichment of variaNT Associations (MAGENTA) and Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA) were used. Gene sets were defined to be enriched for gene associations with DR if the P value corrected for multiple testing (Pcorr) was <.05. RESULTS: Five gene sets were significantly enriched for multiple modest genetic associations with DR in one method (MAGENTA or MAGMA) and also at least nominally significant (uncorrected P <.05) in the other method. These pathways were regulation of the lipid catabolic process (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.014); nitric oxide biosynthesis (1.92-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.022); lipid digestion, mobilization and transport (1.6-fold enrichment, P=.032); apoptosis (1.53-fold enrichment, P=.041); and retinal ganglion cell degeneration (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.049). The interferon gamma (IFNG) gene, previously implicated in DR by protein-protein interactions in our GWAS, was among the top ranked genes in the nitric oxide pathway (best variant P=.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These GSEA indicate that variants in genes involved in oxidative stress, lipid transport and catabolism and cell degeneration are enriched for genes associated with DR risk.
Whitmore HAB, Kim LA. Understanding the Role of Blood Vessels in the Neurologic Manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Am J Pathol 2021;191(11):1946-1954.Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was originally identified as an outbreak in Wuhan, China, toward the end of 2019 and quickly became a global pandemic, with a large death toll. Originally identified as a respiratory disease, similar to previously discovered SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), concern has since been raised about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the vasculature. This viral-vascular involvement is of particular concern with regards to the small vessels present in the brain, with mounting evidence demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Severe symptoms, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), often result in neurologic complications, regardless of patient age. These neurologic complications range from mild to severe across all demographics; however, the long-term repercussions of neurologic involvement on patient health are still unknown.
Whitman MC. Axonal Growth Abnormalities Underlying Ocular Cranial Nerve Disorders. Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021;7:827-850.Abstract
Abnormalities in cranial motor nerve development cause paralytic strabismus syndromes, collectively referred to as congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders, in which patients cannot fully move their eyes. These disorders can arise through one of two mechanisms: (a) defective motor neuron specification, usually by loss of a transcription factor necessary for brainstem patterning, or (b) axon growth and guidance abnormalities of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. This review focuses on our current understanding of axon guidance mechanisms in the cranial motor nerves and how disease-causing mutations disrupt axon targeting. Abnormalities of axon growth and guidance are often limited to a single nerve or subdivision, even when the causative gene is ubiquitously expressed. Additionally, when one nerve is absent, its normal target muscles attract other motor neurons. Study of these disorders highlights the complexities of axon guidance and how each population of neurons uses a unique but overlapping set of axon guidance pathways.
Ashraf M, Rageh A, Gilbert M, Tolls D, Fleming A, Souka A, El-Baha S, Cavallerano JD, Sun JK, Aiello LP, Silva PS. Factors Affecting Predominantly Peripheral Lesion Identification and Grading. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(7):6.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting predominantly peripheral lesion (PPL) grading, such as qualitative versus quantitative assessment, device type, and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in ultrawide field color images (UWF-CIs). Methods: Patients with DR had UWF-CI qualitatively graded for PPL using standardized techniques and had hemorrhages/microaneurysms (H/Mas) individually annotated for quantitative PPL grading on two different ultrawide field devices. Results: Among 791 eyes of 481 patients, 38.2% had mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 34.7% had moderate NPDR, and 27.1% had severe NPDR to proliferative DR (PDR). The overall agreement between qualitative and quantitative PPL grading was moderate (ĸ = 0.423, P < 0.001). Agreement rates were fair in eyes with mild NPDR (ĸ = 0.336, P < 0.001) but moderate in eyes with moderate NPDR (ĸ = 0.525, P < 0.001) and severe NPDR-PDR (ĸ = 0.409, P < 0.001). Increasing thresholds for quantitative PPL determination improved agreement rates, with peak agreements at H/Ma count differences of six for mild NPDR, five for moderate NPDR, and nine for severe NPDR-PDR. Based on ultrawide field device type (California = 412 eyes vs. 200Tx = 379 eyes), agreement between qualitative and quantitative PPL grading was moderate for all DR severities in both devices (ĸ = 0.369-0.526, P < 0.001) except for mild NPDR on the 200Tx, which had poor agreement (ĸ = 0.055, P = 0.478). Conclusions: Determination of PPL varies between standard qualitative and quantitative grading and is dependent on NPDR severity, device type, and magnitude of lesion differences used for quantitative assessment. Translational Relevance: Prior UWF studies have not accounted for imaging and grading factors that affect PPL, such factors need to be reviewed when assessing thresholds for DR progression rates.

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