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Chang TC, Celestin L, Hodapp EA, Grajewski AL, Junk A, Rothman AL, Duerr ERH, Swaminathan SS, Gedde SJ, Young TL, Wiggs J, Olivier MMG, Quintanilla R, Arrieta E, Savatovsky EJ, Vanner EA, Parrish RK. Glaucoma Cascade Screening in a High Risk Afro-Caribbean Haitian Population: A Pilot Study. J Glaucoma 2022;31(7):584-589.Abstract
PRCIS: Glaucoma cascade screening in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of young Haitian glaucoma patients had high yield for diagnosing manifest and suspected glaucoma in 30.8% of those screened despite modest participation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of glaucoma cascade screening in FDRs (parents, siblings, and offspring) of Haitian juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive index patients (Haitians with JOAG) were identified, and the number/type of FDRs residing in South Florida were recorded. These FDRs were invited for free glaucoma screening, which included a comprehensive ophthalmic exam, gonioscopy, automated visual field testing and optical coherence tomographic analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layers. FDR characteristics and clinical findings from screening are reported. RESULTS: A total of 77 FDRs were invited, 26 (33.8%) agreed to undergo screening (18 females, 9 males), which revealed 2 (7.7%) with manifest glaucoma (mean age 77.5 y; one of whom was previously unaware of his glaucoma diagnosis), 6 (23.1%) with suspected glaucoma (mean age 29.8±18.3 y), and 18 (69.2%) without manifest or suspected glaucoma (mean age 37.2±21.8 y). Siblings of index patients were least likely to participate in cascade glaucoma screening when compared with index patients' parents or offspring. FDR eyes with manifest glaucoma had significantly worse best-corrected visual acuities, higher intraocular pressures, thinner central corneal thicknesses, and thinner circumferential papillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses than those without glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma cascade screening of Haitian JOAG patients' FDRs revealed that 30.8% had suspected or manifest glaucoma. Future efforts centered on provider-initiated recruitment and improving public glaucoma awareness and education may increase screening participation.
Armstrong GW, Miller JB. Telemedicine for the Diagnosis and Management of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review. J Clin Med 2022;11(3)Abstract
Use of ophthalmic telemedicine for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has shown remarkable advances over recent years. The recent COVID pandemic accelerated this transition since in-person evaluation of elderly patients at high risk for advanced AMD and severe vision loss were also at higher risk for complications from COVID infection. To date, ophthalmic telemedicine has been successfully used in remote retinal consultation by general ophthalmologists for AMD management, hybrid testing visits with both in-office testing and remote evaluation, as well as early successes in home-based remote monitoring of patients with high-risk AMD. We therefore review the current literature and evidence base related to ophthalmic telemedicine for AMD.
Chen SP, Azad AD, Pershing S. Reply. Ophthalmology 2022;129(2):e33-e35.
Scelfo C, ElSheikh RH, Shamim MM, Abbasian J, Ghaffarieh A, Elhusseiny AM. Ocular Surface Disease in Glaucoma Patients. Curr Eye Res 2022;:1-36.Abstract
Over the last several years, several studies have demonstrated the changes to the ocular surface in the setting of glaucoma, the best tests for markers of dry eye, and how management can be altered to help address ocular surface disease routinely or in preparation for glaucoma surgery. This review aims to summarize the most recent studies in the literature regarding the ocular surface in glaucoma patients and treatment options aimed to reduce ocular surface disease in this population.
Maleki A, Colombo A, Manhapra A, Foster SC. Authors' response. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(3):880-882.
Lains I, Mendez KM, Gil JQ, Miller JB, Kelly RS, Barreto P, Kim IK, Vavvas DG, Murta JN, Liang L, Silva R, Miller JW, Lasky-Su J, Husain D. Urinary Mass Spectrometry Profiles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Clin Med 2022;11(4)Abstract
We and others have shown that patients with different severity stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have distinct plasma metabolomic profiles compared to controls. Urine is a biofluid that can be obtained non-invasively and, in other fields, urine metabolomics has been proposed as a feasible alternative to plasma biomarkers. However, no studies have applied urinary mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomics to AMD. This study aimed to assess urinary metabolomic profiles of patients with different stages of AMD and a control group. We included two prospectively designed, multicenter, cross-sectional study cohorts: Boston, US (n = 185) and Coimbra, Portugal (n = 299). We collected fasting urine samples, which were used for metabolomic profiling (Ultrahigh Performance Liquid chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Multivariable logistic and ordinal logistic regression models were used for analysis, accounting for gender, age, body mass index and use of AREDS supplementation. Results from both cohorts were then meta-analyzed. No significant differences in urine metabolites were seen when comparing patients with AMD and controls. When disease severity was considered as an outcome, six urinary metabolites differed significantly (p < 0.01). In particular, two of the metabolites identified have been previously shown by our group to also differ in the plasma of patients of AMD compared to controls and across severity stages. While there are fewer urinary metabolites associated with AMD than plasma metabolites, this study identified some differences across stages of disease that support previous work performed with plasma, thus highlighting the potential of these metabolites as future biomarkers for AMD.
Beining MW, Magno M, Moschowits E, Olafsson J, Vehof J, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. In-office thermal systems for the treatment of dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
Dry eye disease affects millions of people worldwide, causing pain, vision disturbance, and reduced productivity. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), a major cause of dry eye, is characterized by chronic glandular inflammation, thickening of the meibum, obstruction of terminal ducts, and glandular atrophy. Treatment of MGD can utilize heat and pressure applied to the meibomian glands, increasing meibum expression. With self-treatments, however, not all patients achieve lasting improvement, and compliance is often low. In-office thermal systems offer a second line of treatment and could be a much-needed addition for patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. We critically evaluated the efficacy and safety of LipiFlow, iLux and TearCare based on existing literature. While the studies found a single in-office thermal treatment to be safe and effective in improving short-term signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye, long-term efficacy needs to be further studied. Thus, well-controlled, long-term efficacy studies are warranted to draw clear conclusions. The treatment seemed to provide rapid relief of symptoms that may last up to one year, but at a considerably higher cost than the at-home treatments. The choice of treatment depends on cost, compliance with at-home treatment, and personal preference.
Huang S, Liu C-H, Wang Z, Fu Z, Britton WR, Blomfield AK, Kamenecka TM, Dunaief JL, Solt LA, Chen J. REV-ERBα regulates age-related and oxidative stress-induced degeneration in retinal pigment epithelium via NRF2. Redox Biol 2022;51:102261.Abstract
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and atrophy occur in dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), often leading to photoreceptor degeneration and vision loss. Accumulated oxidative stress during aging contributes to RPE dysfunction and degeneration. Here we show that the nuclear receptor REV-ERBα, a redox sensitive transcription factor, protects RPE from age-related degeneration and oxidative stress-induced damage. Genetic deficiency of REV-ERBα leads to accumulated oxidative stress, dysfunction and degeneration of RPE, and AMD-like ocular pathologies in aging mice. Loss of REV-ERBα exacerbates chemical-induced RPE damage, and pharmacological activation of REV-ERBα protects RPE from oxidative damage both in vivo and in vitro. REV-ERBα directly regulates transcription of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its downstream antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase to counter oxidative damage. Moreover, aged mice with RPE specific knockout of REV-ERBα also exhibit accumulated oxidative stress and fundus and RPE pathologies. Together, our results suggest that REV-ERBα is a novel intrinsic protector of the RPE against age-dependent oxidative stress and a new molecular target for developing potential therapies to treat age-related retinal degeneration.
Fenwick EK, Roldan AM, Halawa OA, Meshkin RS, Zebardast N, Popov V, Lis P, Friedman DS, Lamoureux EL. Implementation of an Online Glaucoma-Specific Quality of Life Computerized Adaptive Test System in a US Glaucoma Hospital. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022;11(2):24.Abstract
Purpose: The feasibility of implementing a computerized adaptive test (CAT) system in routine clinical care in ophthalmology has not been assessed. We evaluated the implementation of a glaucoma-specific CAT (GlauCAT) in outpatients at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute. Methods: In this implementation study (July 2020-April 2021), 216 adults (mean ± SD age 64.8 ± 15.3 years; 56.0% women) completed six adaptive GlauCAT quality of life (QOL) tests on an internet-enabled tablet at the clinic. A real-time printable report summarizing domain scores was shared with physicians prior to consultation. The implementation was evaluated using Proctor's outcomes: acceptability (patient satisfaction); appropriateness (independent complete rate [%]); feasibility (acceptance rate [%]; completion time); and fidelity (percentage of patients discussing GlauCAT results with their physician). Physician barriers/facilitators were explored using open-ended questions. Results: Patients' mean ± SD satisfaction score was 3.5 ± 0.5 of 4, with >95% of patients willing to recommend it to others. Of the 216 (89.2%) patients accepting to participate, 173 (80%) completed GlauCAT independently. Patients took 8 minutes and 5 seconds (median) to complete all 6 GlauCAT tests. Almost two-thirds (n = 136/216) of the patients reported discussing their GlauCAT results with their doctor. Physicians described the GlauCAT summary report as helpful and user-friendly, although lack of time and uncertainty about how to action information were reported. Conclusions: Pilot implementation of six GlauCAT QOL tests in glaucoma outpatient clinics was feasible and acceptable. Integration of GlauCAT with electronic medical records (EMRs) and evaluation of long-term implementation outcomes are needed. Translational Relevance: GlauCAT's multiple outcomes and low test-taking burden makes it attractive for measuring glaucoma-specific QOL in routine clinical care.
Bispo PJM, Sahm DF, Asbell PA. A Systematic Review of Multi-decade Antibiotic Resistance Data for Ocular Bacterial Pathogens in the United States. Ophthalmol Ther 2022;11(2):503-520.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Since 2009, the Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) surveillance study has been assessing in vitro antibiotic resistance for bacterial isolates sourced from ocular infections in the US. The main goal of this systematic review was to compare in vitro resistance data for ocular pathogens from published US studies with the most recently published data from the ARMOR study (2009-2018) and, where possible, to evaluate trends in bacterial resistance over time over all studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE®, BIOSIS Previews®, and EMBASE® databases (1/1/1995-6/30/2021). Data were extracted from relevant studies and antibiotic susceptibility rates for common ocular pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci [CoNS], Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Haemophilus influenzae), longitudinal changes in susceptibility, and multidrug resistance (MDR) were compared descriptively. RESULTS: Thirty-two relevant studies were identified. High in vitro resistance was found among S. aureus and CoNS to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and methicillin/oxacillin across studies, with high rates of MDR noted, specifically among methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Data from studies pre-dating or overlapping the early years of ARMOR reflected increasing rates of S. aureus resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, methicillin/oxacillin, and aminoglycosides, while the ARMOR data suggested slight decreases in resistance to these classes between 2009 and 2018. Overall, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence peaked from 2005 to 2015 with a possible decreasing trend in more recent years. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Data from local and regional US datasets were generally consistent with data from the national ARMOR surveillance study. Continued surveillance of ocular bacterial pathogens is needed to track trends such as methicillin resistance and MDR prevalence and any new emerging antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Susceptibility data from ARMOR can inform initial choice of therapy, especially in practice areas where local antibiograms are unavailable.
Zampaglione E, Maher M, Place EM, Wagner NE, DiTroia S, Chao KR, England E, Cmg B, Catomeris A, Nassiri S, Himes S, Pagliarulo J, Ferguson C, Galdikaité-Braziené E, Cole B, Pierce EA, Bujakowska KM. The importance of automation in genetic diagnosis: Lessons from analyzing an inherited retinal degeneration cohort with the Mendelian Analysis Toolkit (MATK). Genet Med 2022;24(2):332-343.Abstract
PURPOSE: In Mendelian disease diagnosis, variant analysis is a repetitive, error-prone, and time consuming process. To address this, we have developed the Mendelian Analysis Toolkit (MATK), a configurable, automated variant ranking program. METHODS: MATK aggregates variant information from multiple annotation sources and uses expert-designed rules with parameterized weights to produce a ranked list of potentially causal solutions. MATK performance was measured by a comparison between MATK-aided and human-domain expert analyses of 1060 families with inherited retinal degeneration (IRD), analyzed using an IRD-specific gene panel (589 individuals) and exome sequencing (471 families). RESULTS: When comparing MATK-assisted analysis with expert curation in both the IRD-specific gene panel and exome sequencing (1060 subjects), 97.3% of potential solutions found by experts were also identified by the MATK-assisted analysis (541 solutions identified with MATK of 556 solutions found by conventional analysis). Furthermore, MATK-assisted analysis identified 114 additional potential solutions from the 504 cases unsolved by conventional analysis. CONCLUSION: MATK expedites the process of identification of likely solving variants in Mendelian traits, and reduces variability stemming from human error and researcher bias. MATK facilitates data reanalysis to keep up with the constantly improving annotation sources and next-generation sequencing processing pipelines. The software is open source and available at https://gitlab.com/matthew_maher/mendelanalysis.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Yoon MK. Shewanella algae Causing Pediatric Orbital Abscess With Leptomeningitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(4):e101-e104.Abstract
A 13-year-old boy presented with 3 days of left-sided periorbital pain, swelling, mucoid discharge, and fever to 103°F, with onset 1 day after swimming in the ocean. Within 12 hours, he experienced rapid clinical deterioration with formation of a superomedial subperiosteal abscess and an epidural abscess with leptomeningitis despite treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The patient underwent urgent left orbitotomy with abscess drainage and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative cultures grew Shewanella algae and Escherichia coli . The patient showed marked clinical improvement following surgical intervention and tailored antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of orbital abscess with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to infection with Shewanella algae .

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