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Chen CL, Clay TH, McLeod S, Peggy Chang H-Y, Gelb AW, Dudley AR. A Revised Estimate of Costs Associated With Routine Preoperative Testing in Medicare Cataract Patients With a Procedure-Specific Indicator. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(3):231-238.Abstract
Importance: Routine preoperative medical testing is not recommended for patients undergoing low-risk surgery, but testing is common before surgery. A 30-day preoperative testing window is conventionally used for study purposes; however, the extent of routine testing that occurs prior to that point is unknown. Objective: To improve on existing cost estimates by identifying all routine preoperative testing that takes place after the decision is made to perform cataract surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study assessed preoperative care in a 50% sample of Medicare beneficiaries older than 66 years who underwent ambulatory cataract surgery in 2011. Data analysis was completed from March 2016 to October 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Using ocular biometry as a procedure-specific indicator to mark the start of the routine preoperative testing window, we measured testing rates in the interval between ocular biometry and cataract surgery and compared this with testing rates in the 6 months preceding biometry. We estimated the total cost of testing that occurred between biometry and cataract surgery. Results: A total of 440 857 patients underwent cataract surgery. A total of 423 710 (96.1%) had an ocular biometry claim before index surgery, of whom 264 514 (60.0%) were female; the mean (SD) age of the cohort was 76.1 (6.2) years. A total of 111 998 (25.4%) underwent surgery more than 30 days after biometry. Among patients with a biometry claim, the mean number of tests/patient/month increased from 1.1 in the baseline period to 1.7 in the interval between biometry and cataract surgery. Although preoperative testing peaked in all patients in the 30 days preceding surgery (1.8 tests/patient/month), the subset of patients with no overlap between postbiometry and presurgery periods experienced increased testing rates to 1.8 tests per patient per month in the 30 days after biometry, regardless of the elapsed time between biometry and surgery. The total estimated cost of routine preoperative testing in the full cohort was $22.7 million; we estimate that routine preoperative testing costs Medicare up to $45.4 million annually. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of Medicare beneficiaries, routine preoperative medical testing occurs more often and is costlier than has been reported previously. Extra costs are attributable to testing that occurs prior to the 30-day window preceding surgery. As a cost-cutting measure, routine preoperative medical testing should be avoided in patients with cataracts throughout the interval between ocular biometry and cataract surgery.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Dryja TP, Lefebvre DR. Mild Complications or Unusual Persistence of Porcine Collagen and Hyaluronic Acid Gel Following Periocular Filler Injections. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe the histopathologic appearance of dermal eyelid fillers that were unexpectedly encountered in ophthalmic plastic surgery samples from patients with mild eyelid disfigurements, and to review eyelid cases with complications that had previously been described in the literature. A retrospective histopathologic study with Alcian blue, elastic, and Masson trichrome stains of 2 cases that were submitted to the Ocular Pathology Department was conducted, and a critical review of previously published cases of the histopathologic characteristics of dermal filler material in the periocular region was also conducted. Two periocular tissue samples were found to contain dermal filler material. In one case, porcine collagen appeared as amorphous or indistinctly microfibrillar aggregates that stained light blue with the Masson trichrome method. In the other case, hyaluronic acid gel appeared as vivid blue amorphous pools of material in extracellular locules after staining with the Alcian blue method. An inflammatory response was not observed in either case. Patients who undergo facial filler procedures may, at a later time, require a surgical excisional procedure from which a specimen is generated. Previously injected dermal filler that the patient neglected to mention may be present in the pathologic sample, potentially perplexing the unsuspecting pathologist. Both ophthalmic plastic surgeons and ocular pathologists should be aware of the histopathologic features of dermal fillers. It is helpful if a surgeon who submits a specimen to the pathology service makes note of any known prior use of facial filler material or is alert to its possible presence when unfamiliar foreign material is discovered in the dermis of the eyelids.
Sun D. Visualizing Astrocytes of the Optic Nerve. Methods Mol Biol 2018;1695:269-286.Abstract
Astrocytes make up approximately 30% of all the cells in the mammalian central nervous system. They are not passive, as once thought, but are integral to brain physiology and perform many functions that are important for normal neuronal development and metabolism, synapse formation, synaptic transmission, and in repair following injury/disease. Astrocytes also communicate with neurons, blood vessels, and other types of glial cells. Astrocytes within the optic nerve head region play a key role in glaucomatous axon degeneration. In this chapter, we describe ways in which astrocytes of the optic nerve head can be visualized, beginning with basic immunohistochemical staining methods, to single-cell dye injections and then to transgenic animals. We will also discuss the pros and cons of each method. Many of the methods were initially developed to visualize brain astrocytes; in some cases, the method has translated well to astrocytes of the optic nerve, and in others, it remains unclear.
M Mallery R, Poolman P, J Thurtell M, Full JM, Ledolter J, Kimbrough D, Frohman EM, Frohman TC, Kardon RH. Visual Fixation Instability in Multiple Sclerosis Measured Using SLO-OCT. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(1):196-201.Abstract
Purpose: Precise measurements of visual fixation and its instability were recorded during optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a marker of neural network dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could be used to monitor disease progression or response to treatment. Methods: A total of 16 MS patients and 26 normal subjects underwent 30 seconds of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based eye tracking during OCT scanning of retinal layer thickness. Study groups consisted of normal eyes, MS eyes without prior optic neuritis (MS wo ON), and MS eyes with prior optic neuritis (MS + ON). Kernel density estimation quantified fixation instability from the distribution of fixation points on the retina. In MS wo ON eyes, fixation instability was compared to other measures of visual and neurologic function. Results: Fixation instability was increased in MS wo ON eyes (0.062 deg2) compared to normal eyes (0.030 deg2, P = 0.015). A further increase was seen for MS + ON eyes (0.11 deg2) compared to MS wo ON (P = 0.04) and normal (P = 0.006) eyes. Fixation instability correlated weakly with ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume and showed no correlation with low-contrast letter acuity, EDSS score, or SDMT score. Conclusions: Fixation instability reflects the integrity of a widespread neural network germane to visual processing and ocular motor control, and is disturbed in MS. Further study of visual fixation, including the contribution of microsaccades to fixation instability, may provide insight into the localization of fixation abnormalities in MS and introduce innovative and easily measured outcomes for monitoring progression and treatment response.
Kheirkhah A, Satitpitakul V, Syed ZA, Müller R, Goyal S, Tu EY, Dana R. Factors Influencing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Laser-Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy for Acanthamoeba Keratitis. Cornea 2018;37(7):818-823.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the factors that influence the sensitivity and specificity of laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) for diagnosing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). METHODS: This retrospective, controlled study included 28 eyes of 27 patients with AK and 34 eyes of 34 patients with bacterial keratitis (as the control group). All patients had undergone corneal imaging with a laser-scanning IVCM (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 with the Rostock Cornea Module). The IVCM images were independently evaluated by 2 experienced and 2 inexperienced masked observers. Sensitivity and specificity of IVCM for diagnosing AK and the effects of various clinical and imaging parameters on the sensitivity were then investigated. RESULTS: Overall, IVCM had average sensitivity and specificity of 69.7% ± 2.5% and 97.1% ± 4.2% for experienced observers and 59.0% ± 7.6% and 92.7% ± 10.4% for inexperienced observers, respectively. However, the sensitivity did not show any significant association with the duration of disease, size of ulcer, depth of involvement, culture results, or cyst morphology. Although interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.60, P < 0.001) for the experienced observers, it was only at a moderate level (κ = 0.48, P < 0.001) for the inexperienced observers. CONCLUSIONS: IVCM has a moderate sensitivity and a high specificity for diagnosis of AK. Although clinical parameters do not affect this diagnostic accuracy, a higher sensitivity is seen when images are interpreted by experienced observers.
Feinstein M, Moussa K, Han Y. Ab Interno Tube Occlusion for Postoperative Hypotony in a Patient With an Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Device. J Glaucoma 2018;27(3):e61-e63.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a case of Ahmed glaucoma valve-induced hypotony that was successfully managed with postoperative intraluminal stenting of the aqueous shunt tube. PATIENT AND METHODS: We describe a 68-year-old man with advanced uveitic glaucoma with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 25 mm Hg in the left eye. The patient initially responded well to an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant, but at 10 weeks postimplantation, the patient underwent cataract surgery and developed persistent hypotony, choroidal folds, and decreased vision. RESULTS: Before partial occlusion of the aqueous shunt tube, the patient had an IOP of 3 mm Hg and a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/60. Following intraluminal stenting of the aqueous shunt tube with 4-0 polypropylene suture (Prolene; Ethican), IOP rose from 7 to 10 mm Hg, BCVA improved to 20/30, and the choroidal folds resolved; IOP and BCVA remained stable through 1 year of follow-up and no additional surgical or pharmacological interventions were required. CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous shunt-induced hypotony can be successfully managed with intraluminal stenting and should be considered before tubal ligation or shunt removal.
Chou JC, Cousins CC, Miller JB, Song BJ, Shen LQ, Kass MA, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. Fundus Densitometry Findings Suggest Optic Disc Hemorrhages in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Have an Arterial Origin. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;187:108-116.Abstract
PURPOSE: To analyze optic disc hemorrhages (DH) associated with primary open-angle glaucoma by quantifying their geometric profile and comparing their densitometry with hemorrhages from retinal vein occlusions (RVO) and retinal macroaneurysms (MA), which have venous and arterial sources of bleeding, respectively. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Setting: Massachusetts Eye & Ear. POPULATION: Fundus images of DH (n = 40), MA (n = 14), and RVO (n = 25) were identified. Patient clinical backgrounds and demographics were obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Grayscale pixel intensity units of hemorrhages and adjacent arteriole and venule over the same background tissue were measured. Densitometry differentials (arteriole or venule minus hemorrhage [ΔA and ΔV, respectively]) were calculated. The ratios of length (radial) to midpoint width for DH were calculated. Mean ΔA and ΔV between groups were compared with t tests. Multiple linear regression assessed the relation of retinal hemorrhage diagnosis to ΔA and ΔV and of DH shape to ΔA and ΔV. RESULTS: Mean (± standard deviation) ΔA and ΔV for DH (6.9 ± 7.1 and -4.7 ± 8.0 pixel intensity units, respectively) and MA (5.3 ± 5.9 and -6.0 ± 4.6, respectively) were comparable (P ≥ .43). Mean ΔA (14.6 ± 7.7) and ΔV (6.4 ± 6.3) for RVO were significantly higher compared to DH and MA (P < .0001) and remained significant in multivariable analyses. A unit increase in DH length-to-width ratio was associated with 1.2 (0.5) and 1.3 (0.5) pixel intensity unit (standard error) decrease in ΔA and ΔV, respectively (P ≤ .014). CONCLUSIONS: DH have densitometry profiles comparable to MA and different from RVO, suggesting that DH in glaucoma have an arterial origin.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Yoon MK. Gelatin-Based Hemostatic Agents: Histopathologic Differences. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To delineate the histopathologic appearance of gelatin-based hemostatic agents, Surgiflo, Gelfoam, and Floseal, which are used by ophthalmic plastic surgeons, and which may incidentally be found as foreign materials in histopathologic tissue samples. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis was performed with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Masson trichrome, and elastin staining on tissue samples in which gelatin-based agents were found. To better characterize these materials, similar analyses were performed on in vitro samples of commonly used gelatin-based hemostatic agents. RESULTS: Surgiflo and Gelfoam are composed of small stellate pieces of gelatin with a smooth, homogeneous quality. In tissues, they are faintly positive with periodic acid-Schiff staining, amphophilic with Masson trichrome staining, and ink-black with elastin staining. Floseal has a distinctly different morphology of large rectangular sheets, yet almost identical in vitro staining properties. DISCUSSION: While the morphology of the gelatin-based hemostatic agents is consistent under various conditions, the staining properties of these materials differ based on whether they have been in contact with human tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Gelatin-derived hemostatic agents are best identified based on their morphologic characteristics. Elastin staining highlights these materials prominently within tissue samples and may be helpful in distinguishing them from other foreign materials.
Tauqeer Z, Jakobiec FA, Freitag SK, Yoon MK, Wolkow N. Orbital Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma Following Radiotherapy: A Report of 2 Cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;Abstract
PURPOSE: To present 2 patients in whom orbital radiation preceded the development of periorbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma by more than a decade and to investigate the likelihood of this representing irradiation-induced malignancy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and histopathologic study with immunohistochemistry of 2 cases. RESULTS: The first patient was a 58-year-old woman who developed an orbital mass within the vicinity of the lateral rectus muscle 17 years after external beam proton radiation therapy for an inferotemporal choroidal melanoma. The second patient was a 32-year-old woman who developed a mass in the right lacrimal gland 12 years after external beam photon radiation therapy for chronic inflammatory dacryoadenitis. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies confirmed orbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma in both cases. Retrospective review of older histopathologic slides from the second patient revealed underlying immunoglobulin G4-related disease. DISCUSSION: The unusual sequence of events in these 2 cases raises the question of whether orbital radiation may in rare instances promote the development of orbital extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. The literature pertaining to irradiation-induced secondary malignancy in the orbit is reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider the possibility of a secondary malignancy when evaluating a patient with an orbital mass and a history of prior local radiation exposure.
Kosmidou C, Efstathiou NE, Hoang MV, Notomi S, Konstantinou EK, Hirano M, Takahashi K, Maidana DE, Tsoka P, Young L, Gragoudas ES, Olsen TW, Morizane Y, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. Issues with the Specificity of Immunological Reagents for NLRP3: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration. Sci Rep 2018;8(1):461.Abstract
Contradictory data have been presented regarding the implication of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the Western world. Recognizing that antibody specificity may explain this discrepancy and in line with recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines requiring authentication of key biological resources, the specificity of anti-NLRP3 antibodies was assessed to elucidate whether non-immune RPE cells express NLRP3. Using validated resources, NLRP3 was not detected in human primary or human established RPE cell lines under multiple inflammasome-priming conditions, including purported NLRP3 stimuli in RPE such as DICER1 deletion and Alu RNA transfection. Furthermore, NLRP3 was below detection limits in ex vivo macular RPE from AMD patients, as well as in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE from patients with overactive NLRP3 syndrome (Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articulate, CINCA syndrome). Evidence presented in this study provides new data regarding the interpretation of published results reporting NLRP3 expression and upregulation in RPE and addresses the role that this inflammasome plays in AMD pathogenesis.
Ferrara M, Eggenschwiler L, Stephenson A, Montieth A, Nakhoul N, Araùjo-Miranda R, Foster SC. The Challenge of Pediatric Uveitis: Tertiary Referral Center Experience in the United States. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the distribution, clinical findings, visual outcomes, treatment, and complications of children with uveitis at a tertiary referral ophthalmic center. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the medical records of all patients ≤16 years with uveitis referred to Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution from March 2005 to July 2016. RESULTS: Of 286 included children, 62.24% were female. Mean age of onset was 8.4 years. The uveitis was mainly anterior (61.9%), recurrent (68.53%), bilateral (81.82%), and noninfectious (96.5%). Idiopathic cases accounted for 51.4%. The most frequent systemic association was juvenile idiopathic arthritis (34.96%). The majority of patients (78.32%) experienced complications. All patients, except one, needed systemic therapy. CONCLUSION: Pediatric uveitis is challenging to diagnose and manage, with frequent and potentially severe complications. Most cases were bilateral, recurrent, and idiopathic. Prompt referral to uveitis-specialized centers and an appropriate systemic therapy are mandatory for good visual outcomes.
Dudek AM, Pillay S, Puschnik AS, Nagamine CM, Cheng F, Qiu J, Carette JE, Vandenberghe LH. An Alternate Route for Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Entry Independent of AAV Receptor. J Virol 2018;92(7)Abstract
Determinants and mechanisms of cell attachment and entry steer adeno-associated virus (AAV) in its utility as a gene therapy vector. Thus far, a systematic assessment of how diverse AAV serotypes engage their proteinaceous receptor AAVR (KIAA0319L) to establish transduction has been lacking, despite potential implications for cell and tissue tropism. Here, a large set of human and simian AAVs as well as -reconstructed ancestral AAV capsids were interrogated for AAVR usage. We identified a distinct AAV capsid lineage comprised of AAV4 and AAVrh32.33 that can bind and transduce cells in the absence of AAVR, independent of the multiplicity of infection. Virus overlay assays and rescue experiments in nonpermissive cells demonstrate that these AAVs are unable to bind to or use the AAVR protein for entry. Further evidence for a distinct entry pathway was observed , as AAVR knockout mice were equally as permissive to transduction by AAVrh32.33 as wild-type mice upon systemic injection. We interestingly observe that some AAV capsids undergo a low level of transduction in the absence of AAVR, both and , suggesting that some capsids may have a multimodal entry pathway. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that AAVR usage is conserved among all primate AAVs except for those of the AAV4 lineage, and a non-AAVR pathway may be available to other serotypes. This work furthers our understanding of the entry of AAV, a vector system of broad utility in gene therapy. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic virus that is used as a vehicle for gene delivery. Here, we have identified several situations in which transduction is retained in both cell lines and a mouse model in the absence of a previously defined entry receptor, AAVR. Defining the molecular determinants of the infectious pathway of this highly relevant viral vector system can help refine future applications and therapies with this vector.
Vavvas DG, Small KW, Awh CC, Zanke BW, Tibshirani RJ, Kustra R. CFH and ARMS2 genetic risk determines progression to neovascular age-related macular degeneration after antioxidant and zinc supplementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018;Abstract
We evaluated the influence of an antioxidant and zinc nutritional supplement [the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation] on delaying or preventing progression to neovascular AMD (NV) in persons with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AREDS subjects (n = 802) with category 3 or 4 AMD at baseline who had been treated with placebo or the AREDS formulation were evaluated for differences in the risk of progression to NV as a function of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) genotype groups. We used published genetic grouping: a two-SNP haplotype risk-calling algorithm to assess CFH, and either the single SNP rs10490924 or 372_815del443ins54 to mark ARMS2 risk. Progression risk was determined using the Cox proportional hazard model. Genetics-treatment interaction on NV risk was assessed using a multiiterative bootstrap validation analysis. We identified strong interaction of genetics with AREDS formulation treatment on the development of NV. Individuals with high CFH and no ARMS2 risk alleles and taking the AREDS formulation had increased progression to NV compared with placebo. Those with low CFH risk and high ARMS2 risk had decreased progression risk. Analysis of CFH and ARMS2 genotype groups from a validation dataset reinforces this conclusion. Bootstrapping analysis confirms the presence of a genetics-treatment interaction and suggests that individual treatment response to the AREDS formulation is largely determined by genetics. The AREDS formulation modifies the risk of progression to NV based on individual genetics. Its use should be based on patient-specific genotype.

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