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Sahu SK, Mittal SK, Foulsham W, Li M, Sangwan VS, Chauhan SK. Mast Cells Initiate the Recruitment of Neutrophils Following Ocular Surface Injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(5):1732-1740.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of mast cells to early neutrophil recruitment during ocular inflammation. Methods: In a murine model of corneal injury, the epithelium and anterior stroma were removed using a handheld motor brush. Cromolyn sodium (2% in PBS) eye drops were administered topically for mast cell inhibition. In vitro, bone marrow-derived mast cells were cultured alone or with corneal tissue. The frequencies of CD45+ inflammatory cells, CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophils, and ckit+FcεR1+ mast cells in the cornea were assessed by flow cytometry. mRNA expression of CXCL2 was evaluated by real-time PCR and protein expression by ELISA. β-Hexosaminidase assays were performed to gauge mast cell activation. Results: Neutrophil infiltration of the cornea was observed within 1 hour of injury, with neutrophil frequencies increasing over subsequent hours. Concurrent expansion of mast cell frequencies at the cornea were observed, with mast cell activation (assessed by β-hexosaminidase levels) peaking at 6 hours after injury. Evaluation of CXCL2 mRNA and protein expression levels demonstrated augmented expression by injured corneal tissue relative to naïve corneal tissue. Mast cells were observed to constitutively express CXCL2, with significantly higher expression of CXCL2 protein compared with naïve corneal tissue. Culture with harvested injured corneas further amplified CXCL2 expression by mast cells. In vivo, mast cell inhibition was observed to decrease CXCL2 expression, limit early neutrophil infiltration, and reduce inflammatory cytokine expression by the cornea. Conclusions: Our data suggest that mast cell activation after corneal injury amplifies their secretion of CXCL2 and promotes the initiation of early neutrophil recruitment.
Park ESY, Rabinowits G, Hamnvik O-PR, Dagi LR. A case of Graves' ophthalmopathy associated with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) therapy. J AAPOS 2018;Abstract
We present the first reported case of Graves' orbitopathy induced by pembrolizumab, a new FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of multiple refractory solid tumors and classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Pembrolizumab elicits T-lymphocyte proliferation; we suspect that thyroid eye disease may result in some cases.
Sveinsdóttir K, Ley D, Hövel H, Fellman V, Hüppi PS, Smith LEH, Hellström A, Hansen Pupp I. Relation of Retinopathy of Prematurity to Brain Volumes at Term Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome at 2 Years of Corrected Age in Very Preterm Infants. Neonatology 2018;114(1):46-52.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major complication of preterm birth and has been associated with later visual and nonvisual impairments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate relationships between any stage of ROP, brain volumes, and developmental outcomes. METHODS: This study included 52 very preterm infants (gestational age [mean ± SD]: 26.4 ± 1.9 weeks). Total brain, gray matter, unmyelinated white matter (UWMV), and cerebellar volumes were estimated in 51 out of 52 infants by magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess developmental outcomes in 49 out of 52 infants at a mean corrected age of 24.6 months. RESULTS: Nineteen out of 52 infants developed any stage of ROP. Infants with ROP had a lower median (IQR) UWMV (173 [156-181] vs. 204 [186-216] mL, p < 0.001) and cerebellar volume (18.3 [16.5-20] vs. 22.3 [20.3-24.7] mL, p < 0.001) than infants without ROP. They also had a lower median (IQR) mental developmental index (72 [56-83] vs. 100 [88-104], p < 0.001) and a lower psychomotor developmental index (80 [60-85] vs. 92 [81-103], p = 0.002). Brain volumes and developmental outcomes did not differ among infants with different stages of ROP. CONCLUSION: Any stage of ROP in preterm infants was associated with a reduced brain volume and an impaired developmental outcome. These results suggest that common pathways may lead to impaired neural and neurovascular development in the brain and retina and that all stages of ROP may be considered in future studies on ROP and development.
Micera A, Di Zazzo A, Esposito G, Longo R, Foulsham W, Sacco R, Sgrulletta R, Bonini S. Age-Related Changes to Human Tear Composition. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018;59(5):2024-2031.Abstract
Purpose: We characterize age-associated alterations in the expression of inflammatory mediators and tissue remodeling factors in human tears. Methods: A total of 75 consecutive volunteers (32 male/44 female; 19-93 years) underwent clinical assessment of ocular surface status, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) grading and tear sampling. The volunteers were categorized into three groups: young (18-40 years), middle-aged (41-60 years), and old (>60 years). Total protein profiles and chip-based protein array evaluations were conducted to investigate the expression of 60 potential candidates, including pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and tissue remodeling factors. Appropriate validations were performed using conventional assays. Multiple comparisons for regression between potential candidates and age were performed, as well as statistical analyses among the three age groups. Nonpooled samples were used for quantifications. Results: Pearson analysis of chip-arrays identified 9 of 60 potential candidates. Specifically, IL-8, IL-6, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; P < 0.0083) protein as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, IL-3, and TNF-α (P < 0.05) correlated positively with aging. MIP-3β showed an opposite tendency. Western blot and ELISA analysis corroborated the array data. OSDI grading did not correlate with aging. Conclusions: Dynamic changes to tear protein profiles occur with aging. Our study identifies the expression of IL-8, IL-6, RANTES, MMP-1, and MIP-3β as increasing with age. These select inflammatory and matrix remodeling factors may be relevant to the development of novel diagnostic tools and therapeutics in the context of age-related ocular surface disease.
Amparo F, Dana R. Web-based longitudinal remote assessment of dry eye symptoms. Ocul Surf 2018;16(2):249-253.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of remote assessment and follow-up of dry eye symptoms using electronic versions of two validated questionnaires. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of consecutive patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients were enrolled during a clinical visit and were explained how to respond electronic versions of the Ocular surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires using a computer in the presence of investigators. A secure link to both questionnaires was sent to each patient every 2 weeks in order to respond and submit their symptoms over a 3-month period. We analyzed the number of patients who responded to both questionnaires, the recurrence, and the symptoms scores reported. RESULTS: A total of 1121 questionnaires were collected; 103 patients (85%) reported their symptoms at least once during the 3-month study duration. The majority of participants who completed the study (71.6%) responded remotely at least once per month during the 3-month duration of the study. The mean OSDI and SANDE scores from the total of remote evaluations were 34.9 ± 21.9 (range 0-97.5) and 50.3 ± 24.9 (range 0-100), respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation between the total scores collected with the two questionnaires (R = 0.67, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients are motivated to report DED symptoms while away from the clinic. Distance-based evaluation of DED symptoms is both feasible and convenient, and can be implemented to follow symptoms in large populations with chronic dry eye.
Sobrin L, Stanwyck LK, Pan W, Hubbard RA, Kempen JH, VanderBeek BL. Association of Hypovitaminosis D With Increased Risk of Uveitis in a Large Health Care Claims Database. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(5):548-552.Abstract
Importance: Understanding the role of vitamin D-which regulates inflammatory responses-in noninfectious uveitis (an inflammatory disease) may provide insight into treatment and prevention of this disease. Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between hypovitaminosis D and incident noninfectious uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective case-control study, data from a health care claims database containing deidentified medical claims from a large private insurer were used to identify 558 adults enrolled from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2016, who received a diagnosis of noninfectious uveitis from an eye care clinician (with receipt of a confirmatory diagnosis within 120 days of the initial diagnosis) and who had a vitamin D level measured within 1 year before the first diagnosis. Exclusion criteria included having systemic disease or receiving medication known to lower vitamin D levels, having undergone intraocular surgery, and having infectious uveitis. Each case patient was matched with 5 controls on the basis of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and index date (2790 controls). The controls had vitamin D level determined either within 1 year before or within 6 months after receiving an eye examination with normal findings. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between hypovitaminosis D and noninfectious uveitis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary, prespecified analysis assessed the association of noninfectious uveitis with hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D level ≤20 ng/mL). Results: The 558 cases and 2790 controls were matched on age, and each group had a mean (SD) age of 58.9 (14.7) years. Among the cohort of 3348 patients, 2526 (75.4%) were female, and the racial/ethnic distribution in the matched samples was 2022 (60.4%) white, 552 (16.5%) black, 402 (12.0%) Hispanic, 162 (4.8%) Asian, and 210 (6.3%) unknown. Patients with normal vitamin D levels had 21% lower odds of having noninfectious uveitis than patients with low vitamin D levels (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62-0.99; P = .04). In a race-stratified analysis, an association between vitamin D and uveitis was found in black patients (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.80; P = .004) and was qualitatively similar but nonsignificant in white patients (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.21; P = .40) and Hispanic patients (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33-1.10; P = .10). Conclusions and Relevance: This and other reports have found an association between hypovitaminosis D and noninfectious uveitis. However, these studies cannot establish a causal relationship. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate whether hypovitaminosis D causes increased risk of uveitis and the role of vitamin D supplementation in prevention and treatment of uveitis.
Lambert SR, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, Hutchinson AK, Wilson LB, Galvin JA, VanderVeen DK. Contact Lens Correction of Aphakia in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2018;125(9):1452-1458.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to assess the visual outcomes and adverse events associated with the 2 most commonly used contact lenses for treating aphakia in children: silicone elastomer (SE) and rigid gas permeable (RGP). METHODS: Literature searches were last conducted in January 2018 in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases with no date or language restrictions. These combined searches yielded 167 citations, 27 of which were reviewed in full text. Of these, 10 articles were deemed appropriate for inclusion in this assessment and subsequently assigned a level of evidence rating by the panel methodologist. RESULTS: The literature search identified 4 level II studies and 6 level III studies. There were insufficient data to compare visual outcomes for eyes treated using SE lenses versus RGP lenses. Silicone elastomer lenses have the advantage that they can be worn on an extended-wear basis, but they were associated with more adverse events than RGP lenses. These adverse events included microbial keratitis, corneal infiltrates, corneal edema, corneal scars, lenses adhering to the cornea, superficial punctate keratopathy, lid swelling, and conjunctival hyperemia. The lens replacement rate was approximately 50% higher for RGP lenses in the only study that directly compared SE and RGP lenses. CONCLUSIONS: Limited evidence was found in the literature on this topic. Silicone elastomer and RGP contact lenses were found to be effective for treating aphakia in children. Silicone elastomer lenses are easier to fit and may be worn on an extended-wear basis. Rigid gas permeable lenses must be removed every night and require a more customized fit, but they are associated with fewer adverse events. The choice of which lens a practitioner prescribes should be based on the particular needs of each patient.
Xie H-T, Li J, Liu Y, Jiang D-L, Shen R-F, Zhang M-C. Cryopreserved limbal lamellar keratoplasty for peripheral corneal and limbal reconstruction. Int J Ophthalmol 2018;11(4):699-702.Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes and described the recovery process of cryopreserved limbal lamellar keratoplasty (CLLK) for peripheral corneal and limbal diseases. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with a mean age of 41±23.9y were included. The average follow-up was 12.1±5.6mo. Stable ocular surface was achieved in all eyes at last follow-up. Epithelialization originated from both recipient and graft in 9 eyes. We conclude that CLLK compensates for the shortage of donor corneas and cryopreserved limbal grafts provide epithelialization sources in ocular surface reconstruction.
Struebing FL, King R, Li Y, Cooke Bailey JN, Wiggs JL, Geisert EE. Genomic loci modulating retinal ganglion cell death following elevated IOP in the mouse. Exp Eye Res 2018;169:61-67.Abstract
The present study was designed to identify genomic loci modulating the susceptibility of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse strain set. IOP was elevated by injecting magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber and blocking the trabecular meshwork using a handheld magnet to impede drainage. The IOP was then measured over the next 21 days. Only animals with IOP greater than 25 mmHg for two consecutive days or an IOP above 30 mmHg on a single day after microsphere-injection were used in this study. On day 21, mice were sacrificed and the optic nerve was processed for histology. Axons were counted for both the injected and the control eye in 49 BXD strains, totaling 181 normal counts and 191 counts associated with elevated IOP. The axon loss for each strain was calculated and the data were entered into genenetwork.org. The average number of normal axons in the optic nerve across all strains was 54,788 ± 16% (SD), which dropped to 49,545 ± 20% in animals with artificially elevated IOP. Interval mapping demonstrated a relatively similar genome-wide map for both conditions with a suggestive Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) on proximal Chromosome 3. When the relative axon loss was used to generate a genome-wide interval map, we identified one significant QTL (p < 0.05) on Chromosome 18 between 53.6 and 57 Mb. Within this region, the best candidate gene for modulating axon loss was Aldh7a1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated ALDH7A1 expression in mouse RGCs. ALDH7A1 variants were not significantly associated with glaucoma in the NEIGHBORHOOD GWAS dataset, but this enzyme was identified as part of the butanoate pathway previously associated with glaucoma risk. Our results suggest that genomic background influences susceptibility to RGC degeneration and death in an inducible glaucoma model.
Wang JC, Jiménez Pérez JC, Friedmann AM, Louissaint A, Freitag SK. Myeloid sarcoma involving the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and additional skeletal sites presenting with unilateral proptosis and fevers. Orbit 2018;:1-4.Abstract
We report a case of myeloid sarcoma with multifocal skeletal involvement, including the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. A 23-month-old boy presented with left-sided proptosis and fevers, and was found to have an infiltrative mass involving the left sphenoid bone on orbital imaging. Full body imaging further demonstrated multiple bony lesions in the pelvis, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, bilateral femura, and left humerus, and biopsies of the humerus were consistent with myeloid sarcoma. The patient was started on a standard chemotherapy regimen and is responding well. Myeloid sarcoma presenting with proptosis due to sphenoid bone involvement with simultaneous multifocal skeletal involvement is very uncommon and highlights the importance of biopsy for establishing a definitive diagnosis.
Singh RB, Thakur S, Ichhpujani P, Kumar S. Ethics of a therapeutic trial: addressing limitations of an active intervention in optic nerve lymphoma. BMJ Case Rep 2018;2018Abstract
We report a unique case of optic nerve lymphoma after completion of chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The uncommon nature of presentation, our therapeutic dilemma and the further course of treatment are reported. In cases with extremely poor prognosis, unnecessary treatment puts additional strain both financially and psychologically on the patients and their family. Therapeutic focus should be on hospice care and family counselling. The decision to not treat is a crucial component of cancer management; however, the ethics of this decision are yet to be suitably addressed by the literature.
Shi L, Zhang N, Liu H, Zhao L, Liu J, Wan J, Wu W, Lei H, Liu R, Han M. Lysyl oxidase inhibition via β-aminoproprionitrile hampers human umbilical vein endothelial cell angiogenesis and migration in vitro. Mol Med Rep 2018;17(4):5029-5036.Abstract
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an enzyme that oxidizes lysine residues in collagens and elastin. It stabilizes or remodels the extracellular matrix and basement membrane of blood vessels. Current oncology studies have revealed that LOX is upregulated in invasive cancer cells and bolstered cell movement, and LOX was observed to promote the angiogenesis and migration of endothelial cells. In the present study, angiogenesis and migration were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Following cell treatment with 0.1-0.4 mM β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN), a specific inhibitor of LOX, angiogenesis was analyzed with a fibrin gel in vitro angiogenesis assay kit and migration was examined via a Boyden Chamber assay. Angiogenesis-associated gene expression was investigated with a microarray assay and confirmed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results showed that HUVEC angiogenesis substantially increased in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In addition, LOX inhibition blocked the angiogenesis stimulated by VEGF bFGF and PMA, and the inhibition of LOX reduced the migration of HUVECs. Furthermore, the microarray and RT-qPCR revealed that BAPN downregulated myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 1, and western blot analysis demonstrated that BAPN decreased the phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt, suggesting that the specific inhibitor of LOX, BAPN, may serve as an alternative strategy for preventing angiogenesis.
Rubinfeld RS, Stulting DR, Gum GG, Talamo JH. Quantitative analysis of corneal stromal riboflavin concentration without epithelial removal. J Cataract Refract Surg 2018;44(2):237-242.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the corneal stromal riboflavin concentration and distribution using 2 transepithelial corneal crosslinking (CXL) systems. SETTING: Absorption Systems, San Diego, California, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: The stromal riboflavin concentration of 2 transepithelial CXL systems was compared in rabbit eyes in vivo. The systems were the Paracel/Vibex Xtra, comprising riboflavin 0.25% solution containing TRIS and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and an isotonic solution of riboflavin 0.25%, (Group 1) and the CXLO system (Group 2). Manufacturers' Instructions For Use were followed. The intensity of riboflavin fluorescence by slitlamp observation 10, 15, and 20 minutes after instillation was graded on a scale of 0 to 5. The animals were humanely killed and the corneal stromal samples analyzed with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The mean riboflavin fluorescence intensity grades in Group 1 (4 eyes) were 3.8, 4.8, and 4.8 at 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively. The mean grades in Group 2 (3 eyes) were 2.0, 2.3, and 2.0, respectively. The riboflavin distribution was uniform in Group 1 but not in Group 2. The mean riboflavin concentration by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was 27.0 μg/g stromal tissue in Group 1 and 6.7 μg/g in Group 2. A stromal riboflavin concentration theoretically adequate for CXL, 15 μg/g, was achieved in all eyes in Group 1 and no eyes in Group 2. Slitlamp grading correlated well with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry concentration (R = 0.940). CONCLUSIONS: The system used in Group 1 produced corneal riboflavin concentrations that were theoretically adequate for effective transepithelial CXL (≥15 μg/g), while the system in Group 2 did not. Slitlamp grading successfully estimated the corneal riboflavin concentration and can be used to ensure an adequate concentration of riboflavin in the cornea for transepithelial CXL.
Yin J, Kheirkhah A, Dohlman T, Saboo U, Dana R. Reduced Efficacy of Low-dose Topical Steroids in Dry Eye Disease Associated With Graft-versus-Host Disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2018;190:17-23.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the response of dry eye disease (DED) to treatment with topical steroid in patients with and without graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a double-masked, randomized clinical trial. METHODS: This single-center study included 42 patients with moderate-to-severe DED associated with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) chronic GVHD. In each group, patients received either loteprednol etabonate 0.5% ophthalmic suspension or artificial tears twice daily for 4 weeks. Clinical data, including Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), conjunctival lissamine green staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer test, were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in signs and symptoms of DED between the groups at baseline. In non-GVHD patients receiving loteprednol treatment, the average OSDI score decreased by 34% from 49.5 ± 5.9 to 32.6 ± 4.8 (mean ± standard error of the mean, P = .001) and the average CFS score decreased by 41% from 5.6 ± 0.6 to 3.3 ± 0.9 (P = .02). On the other hand, loteprednol treatment in GVHD patients resulted in minimal change in OSDI (59.2 ± 6.7 to 61.1 ± 7.1, 3% increase, P = .66) and CFS (5.5 ± 0.5 to 5.3 ± 1.1, 4% decrease, P = .85) scores. Treatment with artificial tears resulted in 22% decrease of OSDI (P = .10) and 32% decrease of CFS (P = .02) scores in non-GVHD patients, and had minimal effect in patients with GVHD. CONCLUSIONS: DED patients with ocular GVHD have a less favorable response to a low-dose topical steroid regimen compared with those without ocular GVHD even with similar baseline disease severity.
Lee CS, Lee AY, Akileswaran L, Stroman D, Najafi-Tagol K, Kleiboeker S, Chodosh J, Magaret A, Wald A, Van Gelder RN, Van Gelder RN. Determinants of Outcomes of Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology 2018;125(9):1344-1353.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine host and pathogen factors predictive of outcomes in a large clinical cohort with keratoconjunctivitis. DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of the clinical and molecular data from a randomized, controlled, masked trial for auricloscene for keratoconjunctivitis (NVC-422 phase IIB, NovaBay; clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01877694). PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred participants from United States, India, Brazil, and Sri Lanka with clinical diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis and positive rapid test results for adenovirus. METHODS: Clinical signs and symptoms and bilateral conjunctival swabs were obtained on days 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was performed to detect and quantify adenovirus in all samples. Regression models were used to evaluate the association of various variables with keratoconjunctivitis outcomes. Time to resolution of each symptom or sign was assessed by adenoviral species with Cox regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The difference in composite scores of clinical signs between days 1 and 18, mean visual acuity change between days 1 and 18, and time to resolution of each symptom or sign. RESULTS: Of 500 participants, 390 (78%) showed evidence of adenovirus by PCR. Among adenovirus-positive participants, adenovirus D species was most common (63% of total cases), but a total of 4 species and 21 different types of adenovirus were detected. Adenovirus D was associated with more severe signs and symptoms, a higher rate of subepithelial infiltrate development, and a slower decline in viral load compared with all other adenovirus species. The clinical courses of all patients with non-adenovirus D species infection and adenovirus-negative keratoconjunctivitis were similar. Mean change in visual acuity between days 1 and 18 was a gain of 1.9 letters; worse visual outcome was associated with older age. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of keratoconjunctivitis is not associated with a detectable adenovirus. The clinical course of those with adenovirus D keratoconjunctivitis is significantly more severe than those with non-adenovirus D species infections or adenovirus-negative keratoconjunctivitis; high viral load at presentation and non-United States origin of participants is associated with poorer clinical outcome.

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