All

Mueller SK, Freitag SK, Lefebvre DR, Bleier BS. Endoscopic DCR using bipedicled interlacing mucosal flaps. Laryngoscope 2018;128(4):794-797.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct is a relatively common condition that affects patients of all ages, races, and sexes. The surgical gold standard for complete nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis is dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). The purpose of this study was to describe a novel, bipedicled interlacing mucosal sparing flap technique for endoscopic DCR (eDCR). METHODS: A posteriorly based mucosal flap over the fundus is combined with a novel, anteriorly based mucosal flap over the intraosseus portion of the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). This exposes a wide area of the maxillary bone, allowing for exposure and identification of the NLD/sac complex in a safer, more inferior position. The interlacing mucosal flaps may be replaced at the conclusion of the procedure, thereby minimizing bone exposure and maintaining excellent long-term patency. RESULTS: The authors have utilized this technique in 55 procedures with 100% positive identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac, 0% complication rate, 100% anatomical patency rate, and 96.4% success rate after a minimal follow-up of 6 months. DISCUSSION: The bipedicled interlacing flap technique for eDCR provides for safe and reproducible identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac while minimizing bone exposure and restenosis rate. CONCLUSION: The bipedicled interlacing flap technique for eDCR provides for safe and reproducible identification of the NLD and lacrimal sac while minimizing bone exposure and restenosis rate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 128:794-797, 2018.
Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Bojovic B. Ellipsoid Smooth Muscle Tumor of the Lower Eyelid: An Exploration of Its Possible Origin. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(1):e6-e10.Abstract
Ocular adnexal smooth muscle masses/neoplasms are extremely rare. Such lesions are comparatively more common in the conjunctiva than in the orbit and are most unusual in the eyelid. A 58-year-old woman slowly developed over 4 months a firm, movable sausage-shaped lesion in the deep lateral half of the right lower eyelid. The lesion ran parallel to and above the orbital rim. At surgery, the lesion was located between the orbicularis muscle and the inferior orbital septum. The term ellipsoid is used descriptively and does not imply any particular biologic behavior. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed smooth muscle actin and desmin positivity. Due to the ubiquity of small blood vessels and the absence of smooth muscle bundles in the potential space between the orbicularis striated muscle and the inferior orbital septum, venular smooth muscle emerges as a highly likely source for the lesion.
Howell DR, OʼBrien MJ, Raghuram A, Shah AS, Meehan WP. Near Point of Convergence and Gait Deficits in Adolescents After Sport-Related Concussion. Clin J Sport Med 2018;28(3):262-267.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine gait characteristics of participants acutely after concussion with and without receded near point of convergence (NPC), compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sports-medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients examined after concussion (n = 33; mean ± SD = 7.2 ± 3.1 days) and a group of uninjured athletes (n = 31) completed a Postconcussion Symptom Scale, underwent NPC testing, and single/dual-task gait assessments. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Near point of convergence was defined as the patient-reported diplopia distance when a fixation target moved toward the nose. Receded NPC was defined as a distance >5 cm from the tip of the nose. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Spatiotemporal gait characteristics in single-task and dual-task conditions were evaluated with analysis of variance; correlations were calculated between NPC and gait measures. RESULTS: Eighteen of 33 (55%) patients with concussion presented with receded NPC. Those with receded NPC exhibited slower gait speed (single-task = 1.06 ± 0.14 m/s vs 1.19 ± 0.15 m/s; dual-task = 0.80 ± 0.13 m/s vs 0.94 ± 0.13 m/s; P = 0.003) and shorter stride lengths (single-task = 1.11 ± 0.10 m vs 1.24 ± 0.11 m; dual-task = 0.97 ± 0.11 m vs 1.09 ± 0.11 m; P = 0.001) than healthy controls. Near point of convergence was moderately correlated with dual-task average walking speed for the normal NPC group (ρ = -0.56; P = 0.05). Postconcussion Symptom Scale scores did not significantly differ between groups (27 ± 18 vs 28 ± 16). CONCLUSIONS: After concussion, adolescents with receded NPC exhibited significant gait-related deficits compared with healthy controls, whereas those with normal NPC did not. Vergence and gross motor system dysfunction may be associated after concussion. Gait and vergence measures may contribute useful information to postconcussion evaluations.
Mueller SK, Freitag SK, Bleier BS. Morphometric Analysis of the Orbital Process of the Palatine Bone and its Relationship to Endoscopic Orbital Apex Surgery. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(3):254-257.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic approaches to the orbit improve the ability to directly access apical lesions while minimizing manipulation of normal structures. Inferomedial orbital access is limited by the orbital process of the palatine bone (OPPB) which prevents dissection and retraction in the inferolateral vector. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric characteristics of the OPPB and quantify the benefit of complete resection to surgical access. METHODS: Morphometric osteologic measurements of the OPPB were performed in 59 human skulls. A radius subtended by the OPPB was calculated to generate a hemispheric dissection corridor achievable by complete resection of the OPPB. Cadaveric and live surgical dissections were then performed on 15 orbits to develop discreet endoscopic surgical landmarks which could be used to both identify the OPPB and verify complete resection. RESULTS: The mean(± SD) radius of the OPPB was 0.47 ± 0.28 cm. Complete OPPB resection provided an additional 0.36 ± 0.42 cm of surgical exposure within the inferomedial apex. Relative to the Caucasian (n = 27) skulls, the radii in the Asian (n = 27) and African (n = 5) skulls were significantly smaller (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: The OPPB significantly limits surgical access to the inferomedial orbital apex during endoscopic approaches. Complete surgical resection of the OPPB improves surgical exposure facilitating retraction of the inferior rectus muscle and circumferential dissection of lesions within this space. Knowledge of the morphology and clinical relevance of this structure provides an opportunity to improve surgical exposure for relevant pathologic assessment and optimize endoscopic surgical outcomes.
Yonekawa Y, Wu W-C, Nitulescu CE, Chan PRV, Thanos A, Thomas BJ, Todorich B, Drenser KA, Trese MT, Capone A. PROGRESSIVE RETINAL DETACHMENT IN INFANTS WITH RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB OR RANIBIZUMAB. Retina 2018;38(6):1079-1083.Abstract
PURPOSE: Fibrovascular contraction and tractional retinal detachment (TRD) are recognized complications associated with the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents in vasoproliferative vitreoretinopathies. The authors characterize TRDs that developed after intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab therapy for vascularly active retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, interventional, retrospective, case series. Thirty-five eyes from 23 infants were included. Inclusion required anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity with progression to TRD. RESULTS: Mean gestational age was 26 ± 2 weeks, and mean birth weight was 873 ± 341 g. Mean postmenstrual age on the day of injection was 35 ± 2 weeks. Retinal detachment was noted a mean of 70 days (median, 34; range, 4-335) after injection. Eleven percent detached within 1 week, 23% within 2 weeks, and 49% within 4 weeks. The highest stage of retinopathy of prematurity noted was 4A in 29%, 4B in 37%, and 5 in 34% of eyes. Time to RD negatively correlated with postmenstrual age at the time of injection (Rho = -0.54; P < 0.01). Three TRD configurations were observed: 1) conventional peripheral elevated ridge or volcano-shaped Stage 5 detachment, 2) midperipheral detachment with tight circumferential vectors, and 3) very posterior detachment with prepapillary contraction. Full or partial reattachment was achieved with surgical intervention in 86% of eyes. CONCLUSION: Progressive atypical TRD may occur after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for retinopathy of prematurity. The configuration of the detachment varies with the extent of primary retinal vascularization present at the time of treatment.
Knezevic A, Yoon MK. Differences in Wait Times for Cosmetic Blepharoplasty by ASOPRS Members. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2018;34(3):222-224.Abstract
PURPOSE: Adequate access to subspecialty care is of concern to patients and physicians alike. One measure of availability is the wait time for cosmetic procedures. The authors investigated geographical differences in wait times for cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members across the country. METHODS: This study surveyed all 533 American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members' practices in the United States based on the publically available contact information (www.asoprs.org). Scripted telephone calls were made requesting self-referred cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Wait times until the first available appointment and time until the first available surgery date were collected. RESULTS: Of the membership, 387 (72.6% response rate) respondents offered appointments for cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Overall, 84.2% of respondents were male. Practice breakdown was 83.4% in private practice and 16.5% in academic practice. Median wait time until the next available appointment was 14 days (mean 21.2 days, 0-205 days; p = 0.145). Private practice wait time was shorter than academic (median 14 vs. 18 days, mean 19.7 vs. 28.9 days; p =0.004). However, there was wide variability based on region. CONCLUSIONS: Patients seeking cosmetic upper eyelid blepharoplasty have good access to care by American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members. There are variabilities based on academic versus private practice. Further study can evaluate whether similar findings exist for medically necessary functional procedures. This information may help assess the need for additional practitioners.
Laíns I, Miller JB, Mukai R, Mach S, Vavvas D, Kim IK, Miller JW, Husain D. HEALTH CONDITIONS LINKED TO AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH DARK ADAPTATION. Retina 2018;38(6):1145-1155.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the association between dark adaption (DA) and different health conditions linked with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study, including patients with AMD and a control group. Age-related macular degeneration was graded according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) classification. We obtained data on medical history, medications, and lifestyle. Dark adaption was assessed with the extended protocol (20 minutes) of AdaptDx (MacuLogix). For analyses, the right eye or the eye with more advanced AMD was selected. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed, accounting for age and AMD stage. RESULTS: Seventy-eight subjects (75.6% AMD; 24.4% controls) were included. Multivariate assessments revealed that body mass index (BMI; β = 0.30, P = 0.045), taking AREDS vitamins (β = 5.51, P < 0.001), and family history of AMD (β = 2.68, P = 0.039) were significantly associated with worse rod intercept times. Abnormal DA (rod intercept time ≥ 6.5 minutes) was significantly associated with family history of AMD (β = 1.84, P = 0.006), taking AREDS supplements (β = 1.67, P = 0.021) and alcohol intake (β = 0.07, P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Besides age and AMD stage, a higher body mass index, higher alcohol intake, and a family history of AMD seem to impair DA. In this cohort, the use of AREDS vitamins was also statistically linked with impaired DA, most likely because of an increased severity of disease in subjects taking them.
Laíns I, Talcott KE, Santos AR, Marques JH, Gil P, Gil J, Figueira J, Husain D, Kim IK, Miller JW, Silva R, Miller JB. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY ASSESSED WITH SWEPT-SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY. Retina 2018;38(1):173-182.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the choroidal thickness (CT) of diabetic eyes (different stages of disease) with controls, using swept-source optical coherence tomography. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study of diabetic and nondiabetic subjects using swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging. Choroidal thickness maps, according to the nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields, were obtained using automated software. Mean CT was calculated as the mean value within the ETDRS grid, and central CT as the mean in the central 1 mm. Diabetic eyes were divided into four groups: no diabetic retinopathy (No DR), nonproliferative DR (NPDR), NPDR with diabetic macular edema (NPDR + DME), and proliferative DR (PDR). Multilevel mixed linear models were performed for analyses. RESULTS: The authors included 50 control and 160 diabetic eyes (n = 27 No DR, n = 51 NPDR, n = 61 NPDR + DME, and n = 21 PDR). Mean CT (ß = -42.9, P = 0.022) and central CT (ß = -50.2, P = 0.013) were statistically significantly thinner in PDR eyes compared with controls, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Controlling for age, DR eyes presented a significantly decreased central CT than diabetic eyes without retinopathy (β = -36.2, P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Swept-source optical coherence tomography demonstrates a significant reduction of CT in PDR compared with controls. In the foveal region, the choroid appears to be thinner in DR eyes than in diabetic eyes without retinopathy.
Lasave AF, You C, Ma L, Abusamra K, Lamba N, Valdes Navarro M, Meese H, Foster SC. LONG-TERM OUTCOMES OF RITUXIMAB THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH NONINFECTIOUS POSTERIOR UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO CONVENTIONAL IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY. Retina 2018;38(2):395-402.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess long-term effectiveness of rituximab therapy for refractory noninfectious uveitis affecting the posterior segment. METHODS: Retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with recalcitrant noninfectious posterior uveitis who were treated with rituximab intravenous infusions between 2010 and 2015 were included. Patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity testing and fluorescein angiography evidence of disk or vascular staining at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Patients had at least 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Eleven patients (21 eyes) with refractory posterior uveitis treated with intravenous rituximab were included. Nine (81.8%) patients were female. Mean follow-up was 29.3 ± 7.8 months. rituximab was administered as complementary therapy because of previous inefficacy of other therapies in 7 (63.7%) patients, and it was the only treatment in four (36.3%) patients who did not tolerate other drugs. Inflammation signs by fluorescein angiography were controlled in nine (81.8%) patients at the end of follow-up. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 20/80 (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution 0.6 ± 0.4), and final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 (0.3 ± 0.5) (P = 0.005). No significant side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: Rituximab therapy was associated with stability and remission of recalcitrant noninfectious posterior uveitis in patients who did not tolerate or did not respond to other therapies.
Torun N, Laviv Y, Jazi KK, Mahadevan A, Bhadelia RA, Matthew A, Strominger M, Kasper EM. Schwannoma of the trochlear nerve-an illustrated case series and a systematic review of management. Neurosurg Rev 2018;41(3):699-711.Abstract
Schwannomas of cranial nerves in the absence of systemic neurofibromatosis are relatively rare. Among these, schwannomas of the trochlear nerve are even less common. They can be found incidentally or when they cause diplopia or other significant neurological deficits. Treatment options include observation only, neuro-ophthalmological intervention, and/or neurosurgical management via resection or sterotactic radiosurgery (SRS). In recent years, the latter has become an attractive therapeutic tool for a number of benign skull base neoplasm including a small number of reports on its successful use for trochlear Schwannomas. However, no treatment algorithm for the management of these tumors has been proposed so far. The goal of this manuscript is to illustrate a case series of this rare entity and to suggest a rational treatment algorithm for trochlear schwannomas, based on our institutional experience of recent cases, and a pertinent review of the literature. Including our series of 5 cases, a total of 85 cases reporting on the management of trochlear schwannomas have been published. Of those reported, less than half (40 %) of patients underwent surgical resection, whereas the remainder were managed conservatively or with SRS. Seventy-six percent (65/85) of the entire cohort presented with diplopia, which was the solitary symptom in over half of the cases (n = 39). All patients who presented with symptoms other than diplopia or headaches as solitary symptoms underwent surgical resection. Patients in the non-surgical group were mostly male (M/F = 3.5:1), presented at an older age and had shorter mean diameter (4.6 vs. 30.4 mm, p < 0.0001) when compared to the surgical group. Twelve patients in the entire cohort were treated with SRS, none of whom had undergone surgical resection before or after radiation treatment. Trochlear schwannoma patients without systemic neurofibromatosis are rare and infrequently reported in the literature. Of those, patients harboring symptomatic trochlear Schwannomas do not form a single homogenous group, but fall into two rather distinct subgroups regarding demographics and clinical characteristics. Among those patients in need of intervention, open microsurgical resection as well as less invasive treatment options exist, which all aim at safe relief of symptoms and prevention of progression. Both open microsurgical removal as well as SRS can achieve good long-term local control. Consequently, a tailored multidisciplinary treatment algorithm, based on the individual presentation and tumor configuration, is proposed.
Kaufman AR, Nosé RM, Lu Y, Pineda R. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation after previous descemetorhexis without endothelial keratoplasty. J Cataract Refract Surg 2017;43(11):1471-1475.Abstract
A 58-year-old woman with bilateral Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy presented with predominantly central guttata in the left eye causing visually significant stromal edema. A 4.0 mm descemetorhexis without endothelial keratoplasty was performed. At the 6-week follow-up, the central cornea had cleared completely and the central endothelial cell density (ECD) was 541 cells/mm2. The central corneal clearing remained stable for 2 years after the procedure; however, vision declined because of a visually significant cataract in the left eye. Uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed with a target refraction of -0.50 diopters. At 1.5 months postoperatively, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 with a manifest refraction of -0.25 -0.25 × 60 and the central ECD was 2373 cells/mm2 (increased from 1471 cells/mm2 prior to phacoemulsification). Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification years after descemetorhexis without endothelial keratoplasty appears to be well-tolerated, with good clinical and predictive refractive outcomes.
Sanguansak T, Morley KE, Morley MG, Thinkhamrop K, Thuanman J, Agarwal I. Two-Way Social Media Messaging in Postoperative Cataract Surgical Patients: Prospective Interventional Study. J Med Internet Res 2017;19(12):e413.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Social media offers a new way to provide education, reminders, and support for patients with a variety of health conditions. Most of these interventions use one-way, provider-patient communication. Incorporating social media tools to improve postoperative (postop) education and follow-up care has only been used in limited situations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of two-way social media messaging to deliver reminders and educational information about postop care to cataract patients. METHODS: A total of 98 patients undergoing their first eye cataract surgery were divided into two groups: a no message group receiving usual pre- and postop care and a message group receiving usual care plus messages in a mobile social media format with standardized content and timing. Each patient in the message group received nine messages about hand and face hygiene, medication and postop visit adherence, and links to patient education videos about postop care. Patients could respond to messages as desired. Main outcome measures included medication adherence, postop visit adherence, clinical outcomes, and patients' subjective assessments of two-way messaging. The number, types, content, and timing of responses by patients to messages were recorded. RESULTS: Medication adherence was better in the message group at postop day 7, with high adherence in 47 patients (96%, 47/49) versus 36 patients (73%, 36/49) in the no message group (P=.004), but no statistically significant differences in medication adherence between the groups were noted at preop and postop day 30. Visit adherence was higher at postop day 30 in the message group (100%, 49/49) versus the no message group (88%, 43/49; P=.03) but was 100% (49/49) in both groups at postop day 1 and 7. Final visual outcomes were similar between groups. A total of 441 standardized messages were sent to the message group. Out of 270 responses generated, 188 (70%) were simple acknowledgments or "thank you," and 82 (30%) responses were questions that were divided into three general categories: administrative, postop care, and clinical issues. Out of the 82 question responses, 31 (11%) were about administrative issues, 28 (10%) about postop care, and 23 (9%) about clinical symptoms. All the messages about symptoms were triaged by nurses or ophthalmologists and only required reassurance or information. Patients expressed satisfaction with messaging. CONCLUSIONS: Two-way social media messaging to deliver postop information to cataract patients is feasible and improves early medication compliance. Further design improvements can streamline work flow to optimize efficiency and patient satisfaction.
Sheppard JD, Foster SC, Toyos MM, Markwardt K, Da Vanzo R, Flynn TE, Kempen JH. Difluprednate 0.05% versus Prednisolone Acetate 1% for Endogenous Anterior Uveitis: Pooled Efficacy Analysis of Two Phase 3 Studies. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017;:1-13.Abstract
PURPOSE: To analyse pooled data from 2 similar phase 3 noninferiority studies comparing difluprednate 0.05% versus prednisolone acetate 1% in patients with endogenous anterior uveitis. METHODS: Patients received difluprednate alternating with vehicle or prednisolone acetate for 14 days (8 drops/day in both groups), followed by tapering from day 14 to 28. All patients were observed until day 42. RESULTS: More patients on difluprednate than on prednisolone acetate were cleared of anterior chamber cells on day twenty one (71.3% vs 54.7%; p = 0.02); results were similar at the other time points. Treatment withdrawals were higher with prednisolone acetate than difluprednate (19.8% vs 7.4%; log-rank p = 0.02). Study discontinuation due to lack of efficacy was also higher with prednisolone acetate than difluprednate (14.0% vs 0%; p = 0.0002 [pre-specified exploratory analysis]). CONCLUSIONS: More difluprednate-treated eyes were quiet following 21 days of treatment, and difluprednate-treated patients were much less likely to be withdrawn from the study because of treatment failure.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Yoon MK. Intratarsal Keratinous Eyelid Cysts in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review and Reappraisal. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
A 38-year-old woman presented with multiple bilateral recurrent eyelid cysts. Her medical history was notable for Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the lesions were intratarsal keratinous cysts. They were similar in appearance to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts and closely resembled odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw. Eyelid cysts occur in up to 40 percent of patients with Gorlin syndrome; however, their description has been cursory and for the most part, outside of the ophthalmic literature. Although ophthalmologists are familiar with the periocular basal cell carcinomas that occur in patients with Gorlin syndrome, up to 10 percent of patients never develop a basal cell carcinoma, but may manifest other ophthalmic findings. Awareness of these other features may contribute to the earlier diagnosis of the syndrome. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features of intratarsal keratinous cysts in Gorlin syndrome, comparing them to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts, other eyelid cysts, and jaw cysts that also characterize this syndrome. We briefly review the ocular and systemic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome and recent genetic and therapeutic developments so that the eyelid cysts may be appreciated within the appropriate context of Gorlin syndrome as a whole.
Welsh MA, Taguchi A, Schaefer K, Van Tyne D, Lebreton F, Gilmore MS, Kahne D, Walker S. Identification of a Functionally Unique Family of Penicillin-Binding Proteins. J Am Chem Soc 2017;139(49):17727-17730.Abstract
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are enzymes involved in the assembly of the bacterial cell wall, a major target for antibiotics. These proteins are classified by mass into high-molecular-weight PBPs, which are transpeptidases that form peptidoglycan cross-links, and low-molecular-weight PBPs, which are typically hydrolases. We report a functionally unique family of low-molecular-weight PBPs that act as transpeptidases rather than hydrolases, but they do not cross-link peptidoglycan. We show that these PBPs can exchange d-amino acids bearing chemical tags or affinity handles into peptidoglycan precursors, including Lipid II, enabling biochemical studies of proteins involved in cell wall assembly. We report that, in two organisms, the PBPs incorporate lysine into cellular peptidoglycan and that, further, the PBPs have the unprecedented ability to transfer the primary ε-amine of lysine to peptidoglycan.

Pages