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Silva PS, Gupta A, Ajlan RS, Schlossman DK, Tolson AM, Cavallerano JD, Aiello LP. Ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging of lipemia retinalis. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristic retinal features of lipemia retinalis when using ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. MAIN POINTS: We report a case series of three subjects with ultrawide field retinal images showing cream discoloration of the fundus, light salmon-coloured posterior retinal vessels and greyish pink peripheral vasculature. On green-only imaging, many of the vessels appear light rather than typically dark. CONCLUSION: Lipemia retinalis is readily apparent on ultrawide field imaging and illustrates the alterations that systemic diseases may induce in the posterior and peripheral retinal vasculature. Ultrawide field imaging highlights the disparate vascular appearance of the posterior pole and retinal periphery in this condition.
Telegrafi A, Webb BD, Robbins SM, Speck-Martins CE, FitzPatrick D, Fleming L, Redett R, Dufke A, Houge G, van Harssel JJT, Verloes A, Robles A, Manoli I, Engle EC, Engle EC, Jabs EW, Valle D, Carey J, Hoover-Fong JE, Sobreira NLM. Identification of STAC3 variants in non-Native American families with overlapping features of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome and Moebius syndrome. Am J Med Genet A 2017;173(10):2763-2771.Abstract
Horstick et al. (2013) previously reported a homozygous p.Trp284Ser variant in STAC3 as the cause of Native American myopathy (NAM) in 5 Lumbee Native American families with congenital hypotonia and weakness, cleft palate, short stature, ptosis, kyphoscoliosis, talipes deformities, and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH). Here we present two non-Native American families, who were found to have STAC3 pathogenic variants. The first proband and her affected older sister are from a consanguineous Qatari family with a suspected clinical diagnosis of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome (CFZS) based on features of hypotonia, myopathic facies with generalized weakness, ptosis, normal extraocular movements, cleft palate, growth delay, and kyphoscoliosis. We identified the homozygous c.851G>C;p.Trp284Ser variant in STAC3 in both sisters. The second proband and his affected sister are from a non-consanguineous, Puerto Rican family who was evaluated for a possible diagnosis of Moebius syndrome (MBS). His features included facial and generalized weakness, minimal limitation of horizontal gaze, cleft palate, and hypotonia, and he has a history of MH. The siblings were identified to be compound heterozygous for STAC3 variants c.851G>C;p.Trp284Ser and c.763_766delCTCT;p.Leu255IlefsX58. Given the phenotypic overlap of individuals with CFZS, MBS, and NAM, we screened STAC3 in 12 individuals diagnosed with CFZS and in 50 individuals diagnosed with MBS or a congenital facial weakness disorder. We did not identify any rare coding variants in STAC3. NAM should be considered in patients presenting with facial and generalized weakness, normal or mildly abnormal extraocular movement, hypotonia, cleft palate, and scoliosis, particularly if there is a history of MH.
Fu Z, Liegl R, Wang Z, Gong Y, Liu C-H, Sun Y, Cakir B, Burnim SB, Meng SS, Löfqvist C, SanGiovanni JP, Hellström A, Smith LEH. Adiponectin Mediates Dietary Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Protection Against Choroidal Neovascularization in Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(10):3862-3870.Abstract
Purpose: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly. Diets with omega3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid (ω3-LCPUFA) correlate with a decreased risk of AMD. Dietary ω3-LCPUFA versus ω6-LCPUFA inhibits mouse ocular neovascularization, but the underlying mechanism needs further exploration. The aim of this study was to investigate if adiponectin (APN) mediated ω3-LCPUFA suppression of neovessels in AMD. Methods: The mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model was used to mimic some of the inflammatory aspect of AMD. CNV was compared between wild-type (WT) and Apn-/- mice fed either otherwise matched diets with 2% ω3 or 2% ω6-LCPUFAs. Vldlr-/- mice were used to mimic some of the metabolic aspects of AMD. Choroid assay ex vivo and human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) proliferation assay in vitro was used to investigate the APN pathway in angiogenesis. Western blot for p-AMPKα/AMPKα and qPCR for Apn, Mmps, and IL-10 were used to define mechanism. Results: ω3-LCPUFA intake suppressed laser-induced CNV in WT mice; suppression was abolished with APN deficiency. ω3-LCPUFA, mediated by APN, decreased mouse Mmps expression. APN deficiency decreased AMPKα phosphorylation in vivo and exacerbated choroid-sprouting ex vivo. APN pathway activation inhibited HRMEC proliferation and decreased Mmps. In Vldlr-/- mice, ω3-LCPUFA increased retinal AdipoR1 and inhibited NV. ω3-LCPUFA decreased IL-10 but did not affect Mmps in Vldlr-/- retinas. Conclusions: APN in part mediated ω3-LCPUFA inhibition of neovascularization in two mouse models of AMD. Modulating the APN pathway in conjunction with a ω3-LCPUFA-enriched-diet may augment the beneficial effects of ω3-LCPUFA in AMD patients.
Maleki A, Swan RT, Lasave AF, Ma L, Foster SC. Reply. Ophthalmology 2017;124(8):e64-e65.
Al-Moujahed A, Brodowska K, Stryjewski TP, Efstathiou NE, Vasilikos I, Cichy J, Miller JW, Gragoudas E, Vavvas DG. Verteporfin inhibits growth of human glioma in vitro without light activation. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):7602.Abstract
Verteporfin (VP), a light-activated drug used in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of choroidal neovascular membranes, has also been shown to be an effective inhibitor of malignant cells. Recently, studies have demonstrated that, even without photo-activation, VP may still inhibit certain tumor cell lines, including ovarian cancer, hepatocarcinoma and retinoblastoma, through the inhibition of the YAP-TEAD complex. In this study, we examined the effects of VP without light activation on human glioma cell lines (LN229 and SNB19). Through western blot analysis, we identified that human glioma cells that were exposed to VP without light activation demonstrated a downregulation of YAP-TEAD-associated downstream signaling molecules, including c-myc, axl, CTGF, cyr61 and survivin and upregulation of the tumor growth inhibitor molecule p38 MAPK. In addition, we observed that expression of VEGFA and the pluripotent marker Oct-4 were also decreased. Verteporfin did not alter the Akt survival pathway or the mTor pathway but there was a modest increase in LC3-IIB, a marker of autophagosome biogenesis. This study suggests that verteporfin should be further explored as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of glioblastoma.
Chun BY, Cestari DM. Advances in experimental optic nerve regeneration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017;28(6):558-563.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in experimental studies of optic nerve regeneration to better understand the pathophysiology of axon regrowth and provide insights into the future treatment of numerous optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and cannot regenerate if injured. There are several steps that regenerating axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) must take following optic nerve injury that include: maximizing the intrinsic growth capacity of RGCs, overcoming the extrinsic growth-inhibitory environment of the optic nerve, and optimizing the reinnervation of regenerated axons to their targets in the brain. Recently, some degree of experimental optic nerve regeneration has been achieved by factors associated with inducing intraocular inflammation, providing exogenous neurotrophic factors, reactivating intrinsic growth capacity of mature RGCs, or by modifying the extrinsic growth-inhibitory environment of the optic nerve. In some experiments, regenerating axons have been shown to reinnervate their central targets in the brain. SUMMARY: Further approaches to the combination of aforementioned treatments will be necessary to develop future therapeutic strategy to promote ultimate regeneration of the optic nerve and functional vision recovery after optic nerve injury.
Amarnani D, Machuca-Parra AI, Wong LL, Marko CK, Stefater JA, Stryjewski TP, Eliott D, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Kim LA. Effect of Methotrexate on an In Vitro Patient-Derived Model of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(10):3940-3949.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a method for isolating, culturing, and characterizing cells from patient-derived membranes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) to be used for drug testing. Methods: PVR membranes were obtained from six patients with grade C PVR. Membrane fragments were analyzed by gross evaluation, fixed for immunohistologic studies to establish cell identity, or digested with collagenase II to obtain single cell suspensions for culture. PVR-derived primary cultures were used to examine the effects of methotrexate (MTX) on proliferation, migration, and cell death. Results: Gross analysis of PVR membranes showed presence of pigmented cells, indicative of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry identified cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, Bestrophin-1, and F4/80, suggesting the presence of multiple cell types in PVR. Robust PVR primary cultures (C-PVR) were successfully obtained from human membranes, and these cells retained the expression of cell identity markers in culture. C-PVR cultures formed membranes and band-like structures in culture reminiscent of the human condition. MTX significantly reduced the proliferation and band formation of C-PVR, whereas it had no significant effect on cell migration. MTX also induced regulated cell death within C-PVR as assessed by increased expression of caspase-3/7. Conclusions: PVR cells obtained from human membranes can be successfully isolated, cultured, and profiled in vitro. Using these primary cultures, we identified MTX as capable of significantly reducing growth and inducing cell death of PVR cells in vitro.
Craig JP, Nelson DJ, Azar DT, Belmonte C, Bron AJ, Chauhan SK, de Paiva CS, Gomes JAP, Hammitt KM, Jones L, Nichols JJ, Nichols KK, Novack GD, Stapleton FJ, Willcox MDP, Wolffsohn JS, Sullivan DA. TFOS DEWS II Report Executive Summary. Ocul Surf 2017;15(4):802-812.Abstract
This article presents an Executive Summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the 10-chapter TFOS DEWS II report. The entire TFOS DEWS II report was published in the July 2017 issue of The Ocular Surface. A downloadable version of the document and additional material, including videos of diagnostic and management techniques, are available on the TFOS website: www.TearFilm.org.
Sullivan DA, Rocha EM, Aragona P, Clayton JA, Ding J, Golebiowski B, Hampel U, McDermott AM, Schaumberg DA, Srinivasan S, Versura P, Willcox MDP. TFOS DEWS II Sex, Gender, and Hormones Report. Ocul Surf 2017;15(3):284-333.Abstract
One of the most compelling features of dry eye disease (DED) is that it occurs more frequently in women than men. In fact, the female sex is a significant risk factor for the development of DED. This sex-related difference in DED prevalence is attributed in large part to the effects of sex steroids (e.g. androgens, estrogens), hypothalamic-pituitary hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and thyroid hormones, as well as to the sex chromosome complement, sex-specific autosomal factors and epigenetics (e.g. microRNAs). In addition to sex, gender also appears to be a risk factor for DED. "Gender" and "sex" are words that are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings. "Gender" refers to a person's self-representation as a man or woman, whereas "sex" distinguishes males and females based on their biological characteristics. Both gender and sex affect DED risk, presentation of the disease, immune responses, pain, care-seeking behaviors, service utilization, and myriad other facets of eye health. Overall, sex, gender and hormones play a major role in the regulation of ocular surface and adnexal tissues, and in the difference in DED prevalence between women and men. The purpose of this Subcommittee report is to review and critique the nature of this role, as well as to recommend areas for future research to advance our understanding of the interrelationships between sex, gender, hormones and DED.
Wang T, Huang T, Heianza Y, Sun D, Zheng Y, Ma W, Jensen MK, Kang JH, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR, Rimm EB, Manson JAE, Hu FB, Willett WC, Qi L. Genetic Susceptibility, Change in Physical Activity, and Long-term Weight Gain. Diabetes 2017;66(10):2704-2712.Abstract
Whether change in physical activity over time modifies the genetic susceptibility to long-term weight gain is unknown. We calculated a BMI-genetic risk score (GRS) based on 77 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a body fat percentage (BF%)-GRS based on 12 BF%-associated SNPs in 9,390 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 5,291 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). We analyzed the interactions between each GRS and change in physical activity on BMI/body weight change within five 4-year intervals from 1986 to 2006 using multivariable generalized linear models with repeated-measures analyses. Both the BMI-GRS and the BF%-GRS were associated with long-term increases in BMI/weight, and change in physical activity consistently interacted with the BF%-GRS on BMI change in the NHS (P for interaction = 0.025) and HPFS (P for interaction = 0.001). In the combined cohorts, 4-year BMI change per 10-risk allele increment was -0.02 kg/m(2) among participants with greatest increase in physical activity and 0.24 kg/m(2) among those with greatest decrease in physical activity (P for interaction < 0.001), corresponding to 0.01 kg versus 0.63 kg weight changes every 4 years (P for interaction = 0.001). Similar but marginal interactions were observed for the BMI-GRS (P for interaction = 0.045). Our data indicate that the genetic susceptibility to weight gain may be diminished by increasing physical activity.
Willcox MDP, Argüeso P, Georgiev GA, Holopainen JM, Laurie GW, Millar TJ, Papas EB, Rolland JP, Schmidt TA, Stahl U, Suarez T, Subbaraman LN, Uçakhan OÖ, Jones L. TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report. Ocul Surf 2017;15(3):366-403.Abstract
The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership.
Stapleton F, Alves M, Bunya VY, Jalbert I, Lekhanont K, Malet F, Na K-S, Schaumberg D, Uchino M, Vehof J, Viso E, Vitale S, Jones L. TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report. Ocul Surf 2017;15(3):334-365.Abstract
The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/non-modifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research.
Vera-Diaz FA, Woods RL, Peli E. Blur Adaptation to Central Retinal Disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(9):3646-3655.Abstract
Purpose: The long-term, low-resolution vision experienced by individuals affected by retinal disease that causes central vision loss (CVL) may change their perception of blur through adaptation. This study used a short-term adaptation paradigm to evaluate adaptation to blur and sharpness in patients with CVL. Methods: A variation of Webster's procedure was used to measure the point of subjective neutrality (PSN). The image that appeared normal after adaptation to each of seven blur and sharpness levels (PSN) was measured in 12 patients with CVL (20/60 to 20/320) and 5 subjects with normal sight (NS). Patients with CVL used a preferred retinal locus to view the images. Small control studies investigated the effects of long-term and medium-term (1 hour) defocus and diffusive blur. Results: Adaptation was reliably measured in patients with CVL and in the peripheral vision of NS subjects. The shape of adaptation curves was similar in patients with CVL and both central and peripheral vision of NS subjects. No statistical correlations were found between adaptation and age, visual acuity, retinal eccentricity, or contrast sensitivity. Long-term blur experience by a non-CVL myopic participant caused a shift in the adaptation function. Conversely, medium-term adaptation did not cause a shift in the adaptation function. Conclusions: Blur and sharp short-term adaptation occurred in peripheral vision of normal and diseased retinas. In most patients with CVL, neither adaptation nor blur perception was affected by long-term attention to peripheral low-resolution vision. The impact of blur/sharp adaptation on the benefit of image enhancement techniques for patients with CVL is discussed.
Wang Y, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Lee NG. A Lacrimal Gland Choristoma of the Lacrimal Sac. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;Abstract
Choristomatous lacrimal gland tissue has been detected in many different sites of the ocular adnexa, but has never before been convincingly described in the submucosa of the lacrimal sac. A 77-year-old woman with epiphora had a biopsy of the sac wall preformed during a dacryocystorhinostomy that contained such a lacrimal choristoma. Zymogen granules were found in the cytoplasm of the secretory cells with the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. No mucus-producing cells, as found in normal sac submucosal glands, were detected using the Alcian blue, mucicarmine, and Gomori methenamine silver histochemical stains. Gross cystic fluid protein-15 positivity was demonstrated immunohistochemically. The clinical implications of this choristoma are explored.

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