Conjunctivochalasis: A Systematic Review. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract.
Conjunctivochalasis (CCH) is a conjunctival condition characterized by loose, redundant conjunctival folds, most typically in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes. Although CCH is a common cause of ocular irritation and discomfort, especially in the elderly, it is often overlooked in clinical practice. Conjunctivochalasis may be associated with various ocular and non-ocular conditions; however, the most important risk factor is aging. Although often asymptomatic, CCH may cause symptoms related to tear film instability and/or delayed tear clearance. Pathogenesis of CCH remains largely unknown, but may involve different elements such as aged conjunctiva, unstable tear film, mechanical friction, ocular surface inflammation, and delayed tear clearance. Contradictory results have been reported on histopathologic changes in CCH, with some studies showing a normal microscopic structure. For symptomatic CCH, medical treatment may include lubrication and anti-inflammatory medications. For symptomatic patients who fail to respond to medical treatment, a surgical procedure may be considered. Although various surgical procedures have been used for CCH, more often it consists of conjunctival cauterization or excision of the redundant conjunctiva, with or without amniotic membrane transplantation.