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Shekhar K, Lapan SW, Whitney IE, Tran NM, Macosko EZ, Kowalczyk M, Adiconis X, Levin JZ, Nemesh J, Goldman M, McCarroll SA, Cepko CL, Regev A, Sanes JR. Comprehensive Classification of Retinal Bipolar Neurons by Single-Cell Transcriptomics. Cell 2016;166(5):1308-1323.e30.Abstract

Patterns of gene expression can be used to characterize and classify neuronal types. It is challenging, however, to generate taxonomies that fulfill the essential criteria of being comprehensive, harmonizing with conventional classification schemes, and lacking superfluous subdivisions of genuine types. To address these challenges, we used massively parallel single-cell RNA profiling and optimized computational methods on a heterogeneous class of neurons, mouse retinal bipolar cells (BCs). From a population of ∼25,000 BCs, we derived a molecular classification that identified 15 types, including all types observed previously and two novel types, one of which has a non-canonical morphology and position. We validated the classification scheme and identified dozens of novel markers using methods that match molecular expression to cell morphology. This work provides a systematic methodology for achieving comprehensive molecular classification of neurons, identifies novel neuronal types, and uncovers transcriptional differences that distinguish types within a class.

Pasquale LR, Hyman L, Wiggs JL, Rosner BA, Joshipura K, McEvoy M, McPherson ZE, Danias J, Kang JH. Prospective Study of Oral Health and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Men: Data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Ophthalmology 2016;123(11):2318-2327.Abstract

PURPOSE: Tooth loss or periodontal disease is associated with systemic endothelial dysfunction, which has been implicated in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The relationship between oral health and POAG has received limited attention. Thus, we evaluated the association between oral health history and risk of POAG and POAG subtypes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants (40 536 men) followed biennially from 1986 to 2012. At each 2-year risk period, eligible participants were aged 40+ years, were free of POAG, and reported eye examinations. METHODS: By using validated questions, we updated participants' status on number of natural teeth, teeth lost, periodontal disease with bone loss, and root canal treatments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: During follow-up, 485 incident cases of POAG were confirmed with medical records and classified into subtypes defined by intraocular pressure (IOP; ≥ or <22 mmHg) or visual field (VF) loss pattern at diagnosis (peripheral loss only or early paracentral loss). Multivariable relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS: Number of natural teeth, periodontal disease, and root canal treatment were not associated with POAG. However, compared with no report of tooth loss, a report of losing teeth within the past 2 years was associated with a 1.45-fold increased risk of POAG (95% CI, 1.06-1.97); in particular, a report within the past 2 years of both losing teeth and having a prevalent diagnosis of periodontal disease was associated with a 1.85-fold increased risk of POAG (95% CI, 1.07-3.18). The associations with recent tooth loss were not significantly different for the POAG subtypes (P for heterogeneity ≥0.36), although associations were strongest in relation to the POAG subtypes with IOP <22 mmHg (MVRR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43) and early paracentral VF loss (MVRR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.32-3.88). CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of natural teeth was not associated with risk of POAG, recent tooth loss was associated with an increased risk of POAG. Because these findings may be due to chance, they need confirmation in larger studies.

Evans KK, Haygood TM, Cooper J, Culpan A-M, Wolfe JM. A half-second glimpse often lets radiologists identify breast cancer cases even when viewing the mammogram of the opposite breast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016;113(37):10292-7.Abstract

Humans are very adept at extracting the "gist" of a scene in a fraction of a second. We have found that radiologists can discriminate normal from abnormal mammograms at above-chance levels after a half-second viewing (d' ∼ 1) but are at chance in localizing the abnormality. This pattern of results suggests that they are detecting a global signal of abnormality. What are the stimulus properties that might support this ability? We investigated the nature of the gist signal in four experiments by asking radiologists to make detection and localization responses about briefly presented mammograms in which the spatial frequency, symmetry, and/or size of the images was manipulated. We show that the signal is stronger in the higher spatial frequencies. Performance does not depend on detection of breaks in the normal symmetry of left and right breasts. Moreover, above-chance classification is possible using images from the normal breast of a patient with overt signs of cancer only in the other breast. Some signal is present in the portions of the parenchyma (breast tissue) that do not contain a lesion or that are in the contralateral breast. This signal does not appear to be a simple assessment of breast density but rather the detection of the abnormal gist may be based on a widely distributed image statistic, learned by experts. The finding that a global signal, related to disease, can be detected in parenchyma that does not contain a lesion has implications for improving breast cancer detection.

Semo M'ayan, Haamedi N, Stevanato L, Carter D, Brooke G, Young M, Coffey P, Sinden J, Patel S, Vugler A. Efficacy and Safety of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2016;5(4):6.Abstract

PURPOSE: We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPC) using established rodent models. METHODS: Efficacy of hRPC was tested initially in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine/dexamethasone. Due to adverse effects of dexamethasone, this drug was omitted from a subsequent dose-ranging study, where different hRPC doses were tested for their ability to preserve visual function (measured by optokinetic head tracking) and retinal structure in RCS rats at 3 to 6 months after grafting. Safety of hRPC was assessed by subretinal transplantation into wild type (WT) rats and NIH-III nude mice, with analysis at 3 to 6 and 9 months after grafting, respectively. RESULTS: The optimal dose of hRPC for preserving visual function/retinal structure in dystrophic rats was 50,000 to 100,000 cells. Human retinal progenitor cells integrated/survived in dystrophic and WT rat retina up to 6 months after grafting and expressed nestin, vimentin, GFAP, and βIII tubulin. Vision and retinal structure remained normal in WT rats injected with hRPC and there was no evidence of tumors. A comparison between dexamethasone-treated and untreated dystrophic rats at 3 months after grafting revealed an unexpected reduction in the baseline visual acuity of dexamethasone-treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Human retinal progenitor cells appear safe and efficacious in the preclinical models used here. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Human retinal progenitor cells could be deployed during early stages of retinal degeneration or in regions of intact retina, without adverse effects on visual function. The ability of dexamethasone to reduce baseline visual acuity in RCS dystrophic rats has important implications for the interpretation of preclinical and clinical cell transplant studies.

Crnej A, Kheirkhah A, Ren A, Mullins A, Lavric A, Suri K, Hamrah P, Dana R. Patients' Perspectives on Their Dry Eye Disease. Ocul Surf 2016;14(4):440-446.Abstract

PURPOSE: Although it has been known that patients' perspectives on their disease can significantly affect their level of functional disability as well as disease outcome, limited data are available on patients' perceptions of their dry eye disease (DED). The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to evaluate patients' perspectives on their DED. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with DED. In addition to clinical evaluation, all patients completed a questionnaire to evaluate their perspectives on their DED. This included their satisfaction with understanding DED, their opinion on the easiness of following doctors' advice, their opinion on the effectiveness of the treatment, their satisfaction with the eye care, and their general outlook on DED. RESULTS: This study included 75 (82%) women and 16 men (18%) with a mean age of 57 ± 14 years who had been treated for DED for 5.2 ± 5.4 years. 93% of the patients were satisfied with their understanding of DED, and 76% found it easy to follow their doctors' advice for DED management. Furthermore, 95% thought that the DED treatment had been helpful and 95% were satisfied with their eye care for DED. Forty-eight percent expressed optimism regarding the long-term prospects of their DED. CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of DED patients have positive perspectives on their disease, close to half report a lack of optimism regarding the long-term outlook for their condition.

Modjtahedi BS, van Zyl T, Pandya HK, Leonard RE, Eliott D. Endophthalmitis After Intravitreal Injections in Patients With Self-reported Iodine Allergy. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;170:68-74.Abstract

PURPOSE: To present cases of endophthalmitis following intravitreal injections where povidone-iodine (PI) was not used as part of the surgical preparation. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All cases of presumed injection-related endophthalmitis presenting to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between June 2008 and November 2014 and Dean McGee Eye Institute between January 2010 and January 2015 were identified. Patients who did not receive PI preparation owing to documented self-reported allergy to iodine, iodine-containing contrast material, or shellfish were identified and their injection histories and clinical courses reviewed. RESULTS: The combined rate of postinjection endophthalmitis at these 2 centers was 0.019%. Among 42 patients with postinjection endophthalmitis, 5 (11.9%) did not receive PI prophylaxis. The mean number of intravitreal injections without PI before the development of endophthalmitis was 10.6 with a 9.4% rate of endophthalmitis (5 cases per 53 injections). All patients underwent tap-and-inject procedures with vancomycin 1 mg and ceftazidime 2 mg. Two patients did not receive PI at the time of tap and inject; 1 of these patients required subsequent pars plana vitrectomy for worsening clinical course. Cultures were positive in 4 of 5 cases; all positive cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. All patients who received subsequent intravitreal injections received PI prophylaxis without allergic reactions, thus demonstrating a lack of true PI allergy. CONCLUSIONS: Avoiding PI owing to self-reported iodine "allergy" risks substantial ocular morbidity. Allergy testing can be pursued per patient request or in rare cases of suspected true PI allergy; however, in cases where delayed treatment would adversely affect visual outcome, the clinician should feel confident that minimal allergic risk exists.

Kim CB, D'Amore PA, Connor KM. Revisiting the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Eye Brain 2016;8:67-79.Abstract

Abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina is a hallmark of many retinal diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. In particular, ROP has been an important health concern for physicians since the advent of routine supplemental oxygen therapy for premature neonates more than 70 years ago. Since then, researchers have explored several animal models to better understand ROP and retinal vascular development. Of these models, the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) has become the most widely used, and has played a pivotal role in our understanding of retinal angiogenesis and ocular immunology, as well as in the development of groundbreaking therapeutics such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for wet age-related macular degeneration. Numerous refinements to the model have been made since its inception in the 1950s, and technological advancements have expanded the use of the model across multiple scientific fields. In this review, we explore the historical developments that have led to the mouse OIR model utilized today, essential concepts of OIR, limitations of the model, and a representative selection of key findings from OIR, with particular emphasis on current research progress.

Jain R, Sharma N, Basu S, Iyer G, Ueta M, Sotozono C, Kannabiran C, Rathi VM, Gupta N, Kinoshita S, Gomes JAP, Chodosh J, Sangwan VS. Stevens-Johnson syndrome: The role of an ophthalmologist. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(4):369-99.Abstract

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Acute SJS leads to the acute inflammation of the ocular surface and chronic conjunctivitis. If not properly treated, it causes chronic cicatricial conjunctivitis and cicatricial lid margin abnormalities. Persistent inflammation and ulceration of the ocular surface with cicatricial complications of the lids leads to chronic ocular sequelae, ocular surface damage, and corneal scarring. The destruction of the glands that secrete the tear film leads to a severe form of dry eye that makes the management of chronic SJS difficult. The option that is routinely used for corneal visual rehabilitation, keratoplasty, is best avoided in such cases. We describe the management strategies that are most effective during the acute and chronic stages of SJS. Although treatments for acute SJS involve immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies, amniotic membrane transplantation is also useful. The options for visual rehabilitation in patients with chronic SJS are undergoing radical change. We describe the existing literature regarding the management of SJS and highlight recent advances in the management of this disorder.

Gómez-Laberge C, Smolyanskaya A, Nassi JJ, Kreiman G, Born RT. Bottom-Up and Top-Down Input Augment the Variability of Cortical Neurons. Neuron 2016;91(3):540-7.Abstract

Neurons in the cerebral cortex respond inconsistently to a repeated sensory stimulus, yet they underlie our stable sensory experiences. Although the nature of this variability is unknown, its ubiquity has encouraged the general view that each cell produces random spike patterns that noisily represent its response rate. In contrast, here we show that reversibly inactivating distant sources of either bottom-up or top-down input to cortical visual areas in the alert primate reduces both the spike train irregularity and the trial-to-trial variability of single neurons. A simple model in which a fraction of the pre-synaptic input is silenced can reproduce this reduction in variability, provided that there exist temporal correlations primarily within, but not between, excitatory and inhibitory input pools. A large component of the variability of cortical neurons may therefore arise from synchronous input produced by signals arriving from multiple sources.

Wilson ME, O'Halloran H, VanderVeen D, Roarty J, Plager DA, Markwardt K, Gedif K, Lambert SR. Difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate for inflammation following cataract surgery in pediatric patients: a randomized safety and efficacy study. Eye (Lond) 2016;30(9):1187-94.Abstract

PurposeTo evaluate safety and efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion for treatment of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in pediatric patients.MethodsThis was a phase 3B, multicentre, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled study of patients aged 0-3 years who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in one eye, with/without intraocular lens implantation. Patients were randomized to receive difluprednate 0.05% four times daily or prednisolone acetate 1% for 14 days post surgery, followed by tapering for 14 days. Safety included evaluation of adverse events. Primary efficacy was the proportion of patients with an anterior cell grade of 0 (no cells) at day 14; secondary efficacy was a global inflammation score.ResultsForty patients were randomized to each treatment group. Adverse drug reactions included corneal oedema (difluprednate 0.5%, n=1; prednisolone acetate 1%, n=0) and increased intraocular pressure or ocular hypertension (n=2/group). Mean intraocular pressure values during treatment were 2-3 mm Hg higher with difluprednate 0.05% compared with prednisolone acetate 1%; mean values were similar between groups by the first week after treatment cessation. At 2 weeks post surgery, the incidence of complete clearing of anterior chamber cells was similar between groups (difluprednate 0.05%, n=30 (78.9%); prednisolone acetate 1%, n=31 (77.5%). Compared with prednisolone acetate 1%, approximately twice as many difluprednate 0.05%-treated patients had a global inflammation assessment score indicating no inflammation on day 1 (n=12 (30.8%) vs n=7 (17.5%) and day 8 (n=18 (48.7%) vs n=10 (25.0%).ConclusionsDifluprednate 0.05% four times daily showed safety and efficacy profiles similar to prednisolone acetate 1% four times daily in children 0-3 years undergoing cataract surgery.

Fox AR, Gordon LK, Heckenlively JR, Davis JL, Goldstein DA, Lowder CY, Nussenblatt RB, Butler NJ, Dalal M, Jayasundera T, Smith WM, Lee RW, Adamus G, Chan C-C, Hooks JJ, Morgans CW, Detrick B, Sen NH. Consensus on the Diagnosis and Management of Nonparaneoplastic Autoimmune Retinopathy Using a Modified Delphi Approach. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;168:183-90.Abstract

PURPOSE: To develop diagnostic criteria for nonparaneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) through expert panel consensus and to examine treatment patterns among clinical experts. DESIGN: Modified Delphi process. METHODS: A survey of uveitis specialists in the American Uveitis Society, a face-to-face meeting (AIR Workshop) held at the National Eye Institute, and 2 iterations of expert panel surveys were used in a modified Delphi process. The expert panel consisted of 17 experts, including uveitis specialists and researchers with expertise in antiretinal antibody detection. Supermajority consensus was used and defined as 75% of experts in agreement. RESULTS: There was unanimous agreement among experts regarding the categorization of autoimmune retinopathies as nonparaneoplastic and paraneoplastic, including cancer-associated retinopathy and melanoma-associated retinopathy. Diagnostic criteria and tests essential to the diagnosis of nonparaneoplastic AIR and multiple supportive criteria reached consensus. For treatment, experts agreed that corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressives should be used (prescribed) as first- or second-line treatments, though a consensus agreed that biologics and intravenous immunoglobulin were considered appropriate in the treatment of nonparaneoplastic AIR patients regardless of the stage of disease. Experts agreed that more evidence is needed to treat nonparaneoplastic AIR patients with long-term immunomodulatory therapy and that there is enough equipoise to justify randomized, placebo-controlled trials to determine if nonparaneoplastic AIR patients should be treated with long-term immunomodulatory therapy. Regarding antiretinal antibody detection, consensus agreed that a standardized assay system is needed to detect serum antiretinal antibodies. Consensus agreed that an ideal assay should have a 2-tier design and that Western blot and immunohistochemistry should be the methods used to identify antiretinal antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi process to develop diagnostic criteria for nonparaneoplastic AIR. There is enough equipoise to justify randomized, placebo-controlled trials to determine whether patients with nonparaneoplastic AIR should be treated with long-term immunomodulatory therapy. Efforts to develop a standardized 2-tier assay system for the detection of antiretinal antibodies have been initiated as a result of this study.

Song BJ, Ramanathan M, Morales E, Law SK, Giaconi JAA, Coleman AL, Caprioli J. Trabeculectomy and Combined Phacoemulsification-Trabeculectomy: Outcomes and Risk Factors for Failure in Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2016;25(9):763-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate tonometric outcomes of patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) who have undergone trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) with and without concurrent phacoemulsification and to identify risk factors for postoperative failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 44 eyes of 33 phakic patients who underwent trabeculectomy with MMC with or without combined phacoemulsification for PACG. The primary endpoint was qualified tonometric success at 12 months according to predefined criteria. LogMAR visual acuity, number of glaucoma medications, and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for trabeculectomy failure. RESULTS: Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 21.3±7.9 to 12.2±3.9 mm Hg at 12 months (P<0.001) in all patients. A significant reduction in mean number of glaucoma medications (P<0.001) was also seen. There was no change in logMAR visual acuity (P=0.39) after 12 months. There were no significant intergroup differences in mean IOP (P=0.42), number of glaucoma medications (P=0.85), or logMAR visual acuity (P=0.42) between the trabeculectomy versus combined surgery groups after 12 months. Increased age, greater baseline IOP, limbus-based conjunctival flaps, and MMC duration >1 minute were associated with decreased risk of surgical failure. Concurrent phacoemulsification at the time of trabeculectomy did not alter tonometric success or rate of complications. CONCLUSIONS: In phakic patients with PACG, trabeculectomy with MMC significantly reduces IOP and number of glaucoma medications at 12 months without change in visual acuity. However, success rates are modest when based on more demanding tonometric criteria.

Deiner MS, Lietman TM, McLeod SD, Chodosh J, Porco TC. Surveillance Tools Emerging From Search Engines and Social Media Data for Determining Eye Disease Patterns. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016;134(9):1024-30.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Internet-based search engine and social media data may provide a novel complementary source for better understanding the epidemiologic factors of infectious eye diseases, which could better inform eye health care and disease prevention. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether data from internet-based social media and search engines are associated with objective clinic-based diagnoses of conjunctivitis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from encounters of 4143 patients diagnosed with conjunctivitis from June 3, 2012, to April 26, 2014, at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center, were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation of each weekly observation to compare demographics and seasonality of nonallergic conjunctivitis with allergic conjunctivitis. Data for patient encounters with diagnoses for glaucoma and influenza were also obtained for the same period and compared with conjunctivitis. Temporal patterns of Twitter and Google web search data, geolocated to the United States and associated with these clinical diagnoses, were compared with the clinical encounters. The a priori hypothesis was that weekly internet-based searches and social media posts about conjunctivitis may reflect the true weekly clinical occurrence of conjunctivitis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Weekly total clinical diagnoses at UCSF of nonallergic conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and influenza were compared using Spearman rank correlation with equivalent weekly data on Tweets related to disease or disease-related keyword searches obtained from Google Trends. RESULTS: Seasonality of clinical diagnoses of nonallergic conjunctivitis among the 4143 patients (2364 females [57.1%] and 1776 males [42.9%]) with 5816 conjunctivitis encounters at UCSF correlated strongly with results of Google searches in the United States for the term pink eye (ρ, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.78]; P < .001) and correlated moderately with Twitter results about pink eye (ρ, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.56]; P < .001) and with clinical diagnosis of influenza (ρ, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.49]; P < .001), but did not significantly correlate with seasonality of clinical diagnoses of allergic conjunctivitis diagnosis at UCSF (ρ, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.02 to 0.42]; P = .06) or with results of Google searches in the United States for the term eye allergy (ρ, 0.13 [95% CI, -0.06 to 0.32]; P = .19). Seasonality of clinical diagnoses of allergic conjunctivitis at UCSF correlated strongly with results of Google searches in the United States for the term eye allergy (ρ, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.24 to 0.60]; P < .001) and eye drops (ρ, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.27 to 0.62]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Internet-based search engine and social media data may reflect the occurrence of clinically diagnosed conjunctivitis, suggesting that these data sources can be leveraged to better understand the epidemiologic factors of conjunctivitis.

Qazi Y, Hurwitz S, Khan S, Jurkunas UV, Dana R, Hamrah P. Validity and Reliability of a Novel Ocular Pain Assessment Survey (OPAS) in Quantifying and Monitoring Corneal and Ocular Surface Pain. Ophthalmology 2016;123(7):1458-68.Abstract

PURPOSE: To validate the Ocular Pain Assessment Survey (OPAS), specifically designed to measure ocular pain and quality of life for use by eye care practitioners and researchers. DESIGN: A single-center cohort study was conducted among patients with and without corneal and ocular surface pain at initial and follow-up visits over a 6-month period. The content of the OPAS was guided by literature review, a body of experts, and incorporating conceptual frameworks from existing pain questionnaires. The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale served as the gold standard for measuring the intensity of ocular pain. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 patients aged 18 to 80 years completed the OPAS at the initial visit. A total of 21 patients were followed up after treatment. METHODS: Indices of validity and internal consistency (Spearman's rank-order, rs, or Pearson's correlation coefficients, rp), and coefficient of reliability (Cronbach's α) were determined in addition to equivalence testing, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and diagnostic analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Eye pain intensity was the primary outcome measure, and interference with quality of life (QoL), aggravating factors, associated factors, associated non-eye pain intensity, and self-reported symptomatic relief were the secondary outcome measures. RESULTS: The OPAS had criterion validity at both initial (rs = 0.71; n = 102; P < 0.01) and follow-up visits (rs = 0.97; n = 21; P < 0.01). Equivalence tests yielded OPAS and gold standard equivalence for both the initial and follow-up visits. The EFA supported 6 subscales (eye pain intensity at 24 hours and 2 weeks, non-eye pain intensity, QoL, aggravating factors, and associated factors) confirming multidimensionality. Cronbach's α >0.83 for all subscales established strong internal consistency, which correlated with the gold standard, including 24-hour eye pain intensity and QoL interference scores (rp = 0.81, 0.64, respectively P < 0.001). At follow-up, reduction in pain scores was accompanied by improvement in all dimensions of the OPAS. Percentage change in QoL correlated to percentage change in the gold standard (rp = 0.53; P < 0.05). The OPAS was sensitive (94%), specific (81%), and accurate (91%), with a diagnostic odds ratio >50. CONCLUSIONS: The OPAS is a valid, reliable, and responsive tool with strong psychometric and diagnostic properties in the multidimensional quantification of corneal and ocular surface pain intensity, and QoL.

Cho H, Shin YU, Siegel NH, Yu HG, Sobrin L, Patel A, Durand ML, Miller JW, Husain D. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in the American and Korean Population: An 8-year Retrospective Study. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. METHODS: We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida species were the most common pathogens of EE in the Korean and the American patients, respectively. Endophthalmitis caused by fungi had a better visual prognosis than that caused by bacteria (p = 0.001). Vitrectomy was beneficial for eyes with EE due to virulent bacteria presenting with worse than counting finger vision. CONCLUSIONS: The predisposing conditions and responsible organisms for EE vary in different regions of the world. The visual prognosis was strongly influenced by the underlying pathogen.

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