Butler NJ, Moradi A, Salek SS, Burkholder BM, Leung TG, Dunn JP, Thorne JE. Acute Retinal Necrosis: Presenting Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Positive Patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;179:179-189.Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify determinants of adverse outcomes in acute retinal necrosis (ARN), presenting characteristics and incidence rates of vision loss and ocular complications in a cohort of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive eyes were analyzed. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. METHODS: Forty-one eyes of 36 patients with clinically diagnosed ARN, PCR-positive for herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus and evaluated between January 2002 and June 2013, were included. Main outcome measures included incidence rates of vision loss and retinal detachment (RD). RESULTS: Presenting visual acuity was generally poor (20/50 to >20/200 in 27%; 20/200 or worse in 56%). The incidence rate of ≤20/200 was 0.66/eye-year (EY), (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32/EY to 1.22/EY); the rate of light perception or no light perception vision was 0.07/EY (95% CI, 0.02/EY to 0.16/EY). During follow-up, 59% of eyes developed at least 1 RD (rate = 0.40/EY, 95% CI, 0.19/EY to 0.58/EY). Eyes with retinitis involving ≥25% of the retina at presentation detached at nearly 12 times the rate, as compared to those with <25% retinal involvement (0.70/EY vs 0.06/EY; P = .001). Development of an RD was the greatest determinant of adverse visual outcomes, with 4% of eyes, that had experienced at least 1 RD, achieving a best-corrected visual acuity of ≥20/40 compared to 53% of eyes that never detached (P = .0003). CONCLUSIONS: Poor outcomes in ARN were common in this cohort. RD confers the greatest risk of incident vision loss, and once 25% or more of the retina is involved the risk of RD and visual loss increases significantly.
Davoudi S, Ebrahimiadib N, Yasa C, Sevgi DD, Roohipoor R, Papavasilieou E, Comander J, Sobrin L. Outcomes in Autoimmune Retinopathy Patients Treated With Rituximab. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;180:124-132.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical and ancillary testing, including adaptive optics, outcomes in autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) patients treated with rituximab. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: patients: Sixteen AIR patients treated with rituximab. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: All patients were treated with a loading and maintenance dose schedule of intravenous rituximab. Visual acuity (VA), electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) and visual field (VF) results were recorded. A subset of patients was also imaged using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of VA change before vs after rituximab initiation were compared with mixed-model linear regression. RESULTS: The rate of visual decline was significantly less after rituximab initiation compared with the rate of visual decline prior to rituximab initiation (P = .005). Seventy-seven percent of eyes had stable or improved VA 6 months after rituximab initiation. Amplitudes and implicit times on ERG, mean deviation on VF, central subfield mean thickness, and total macular volume did not decrease to a significant degree over the rituximab treatment period. Six eyes had serial AO-SLO imaging. Cone densities did not change significantly over the treatment period. CONCLUSION: VA was stable or improved in a majority of AIR patients while they were being treated with rituximab. OCT and ERG parameters, as well as AO-SLO cone densities, were stable during treatment. Studies with additional patients and longer follow-up periods are needed to further explore the utility of rituximab in the management of AIR.
Altschwager P, Moskowitz A, Fulton AB, Hansen RM. Multifocal ERG Responses in Subjects With a History of Preterm Birth. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(5):2603-2608.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess cone-mediated central retinal function in children with a history of preterm birth, including subjects with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) records activity of the postreceptor retinal circuitry. Methods: mfERG responses were recorded to an array of 103 hexagonal elements that subtended 43° around a central fixation target. The amplitude and latency of the first negative (N1) and first positive (P1) response were evaluated in six concentric rings centered on the fovea. Responses were recorded from 40 subjects with a history of preterm birth (severe ROP, mild ROP, no ROP) and 19 term-born control subjects. Results: The amplitude of N1 and P1 varied significantly with eccentricity and ROP severity. For all four groups, these amplitudes were largest in the center and decreased with eccentricity. At all eccentricities, N1 amplitude was significantly smaller in severe ROP and did not differ significantly among the other three groups (mild ROP, no ROP, term-born controls). P1 amplitude in all preterm groups was significantly smaller than in controls; P1 amplitude was similar in no ROP and mild ROP and significantly smaller in severe ROP. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that premature birth alone affects cone-mediated central retinal function and that the magnitude of the effect varies with severity of the antecedent ROP. The lack of difference in mfERG amplitude between the mild and no ROP groups is evidence that the effect of ROP on the neurosensory retina may not depend solely on appearance of abnormal retinal vasculature.
Borkar DS, Homayounfar G, Tham VM, Ray KJ, Vinoya AC, Uchida A, Acharya NR. Association Between Thyroid Disease and Uveitis: Results From the Pacific Ocular Inflammation Study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(6):594-599.Abstract
Importance: Common pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for immune dysregulation in both thyroid disease and uveitis. Studies investigating a possible association are limited. Objective: To determine the association between thyroid disease and uveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, population-based case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007, among 217 061 members of the Kaiser Permanente Hawaii health system during the study period. A clinical diagnosis of uveitis was determined through a query of the electronic medical record followed by individual medical record review for confirmation by a uveitis specialist. Thyroid disease was determined based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, coding. Two control groups were chosen at a 4:1 ratio for comparison with patients with uveitis. A logistic regression analysis was performed with uveitis as the main outcome variable and thyroid disease as the main predictor variable, while adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, and history of autoimmune disease. Data analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: A diagnosis of thyroid disease among patients with uveitis and respective controls. Results: Of the 224 patients with uveitis (127 women and 97 men; mean [SD] age, 54.1 [17.8] years) identified during the study period, 29 (12.9%) had a diagnosis of thyroid disease, compared with 62 of 896 patients (6.9%) in the control group (P = .01) and 78 of 896 patients (8.7%) in the ophthalmology clinic control group (P = .06). Using the general Kaiser Permanente Hawaii population control group, patients who had thyroid disease had a 1.7-fold (95% CI, 1.03-2.80; P = .04) higher odds of having uveitis compared with patients who did not have thyroid disease when controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status, and autoimmune disease. A similar association was found using the ophthalmology clinic control group (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9; P = .02) while adjusting for these factors. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that a history of thyroid disease has a weak to moderate association with uveitis. Similar autoimmune mechanisms could explain the pathogenesis of both conditions. If future studies corroborate these findings, they may have further clinical implications in the laboratory workup of uveitis.
Choi CJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Foster SC, Chodosh J, Freitag SK. Conjunctival Squamous Cell Neoplasia Associated With Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(6):e157-e160.Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe a possible causal relationship between ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Two middle-aged female patients with already diagnosed OCP were studied in regard to the subsequent onset of conjunctival squamous neoplasia. Their clinical histories, ocular examinations, clinical photographs, and results of biopsies and any ancillary immunofluorescent laboratory evaluation studies were carefully reviewed. One patient had a preinvasive squamous dysplasia and the other an invasive squamous cell carcinoma, both in the unequivocal setting of OCP with bilateral conjunctivitis, symblephara, and forniceal foreshortening. The patients had been receiving intensive immunotherapy consisting of some combination of corticosteroids, rituximab, and interferon alpha. Both patients had a positive immunofluorescent study demonstrating immunoreactants at the level of the epithelial basement membrane. Each patient had 2 earlier negative immunofluorescent studies before a third was positive. While rare, there is 1 previous report of an association between OCP and conjunctival squamous neoplasia. The current report provides more data supporting the proposal that this conjunction is more than a random event. Repeat immunofluorescent studies after an initial negative result in a patient with strong clinical signs of OCP are imperative due to the frequency of false negative studies in the context of clinically persuasive disease.
Alkharashi M, Hunter DG. Reduced surgical success rate of rectus muscle plication compared to resection. J AAPOS 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical success of rectus muscle plication compared to resection and to compare the short- and long-term changes in ocular alignment after both procedures. METHODS: The medical records of all patients who underwent a rectus muscle tightening procedure (resection or plication) at a single institution over a 5-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. Binocular alignment was recorded before and immediately after surgery and again at 6-12 weeks and final follow-up visit. Primary outcome was surgical success rate, defined as distance alignment of ≤10(Δ) for horizontal and ≤6(Δ) for vertical strabismus. Secondary outcomes were reoperation rate and postoperative alignment drift. RESULTS: A total of 72 surgeries were identified for inclusion: 48 resections and 24 plications. Surgical success was significantly higher in the resection group than in the plication group (89% vs 58%; P = 0.005) at both 6-12 weeks' follow-up (P = 0.005) and at mean final follow-up of 19 ± 13 months (range, 3-56 months [n = 48]; P = 0.03). Reoperations were performed in 3 patients in the plication group (12.5%), all for undercorrection; there were no reoperations in the resection group (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Rectus muscle plication has many potential advantages over resection, including sparing of the ciliary circulation. In our experience, however, patients treated with plication had lower surgical success rates and a higher reoperation rate. Surgeons should monitor their long-term results before considering plication as their procedure of choice over resection.
Aung T, Ozaki M, Lee MC, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Thorleifsson G, Mizoguchi T, Igo RP, Haripriya A, Williams SE, Astakhov YS, Orr AC, Burdon KP, Nakano S, Mori K, Abu-Amero K, Hauser M, Li Z, Prakadeeswari G, Bailey JCN, Cherecheanu AP, Kang JH, Nelson S, Hayashi K, Manabe S-I, Kazama S, Zarnowski T, Inoue K, Irkec M, Coca-Prados M, Sugiyama K, Järvelä I, Schlottmann P, Lerner FS, Lamari H, Nilgün Y, Bikbov M, Park KH, Cha SC, Yamashiro K, Zenteno JC, Jonas JB, Kumar RS, Perera SA, Chan ASY, Kobakhidze N, George R, Vijaya L, Do T, Edward DP, de Juan Marcos L, Pakravan M, Moghimi S, Ideta R, Bach-Holm D, Kappelgaard P, Wirostko B, Thomas S, Gaston D, Bedard K, Greer WL, Yang Z, Chen X, Huang L, Sang J, Jia H, Jia L, Qiao C, Zhang H, Liu X, Zhao B, Wang Y-X, Xu L, Leruez S, Reynier P, Chichua G, Tabagari S, Uebe S, Zenkel M, Berner D, Mossböck G, Weisschuh N, Hoja U, Welge-Luessen U-C, Mardin C, Founti P, Chatzikyriakidou A, Pappas T, Anastasopoulos E, Lambropoulos A, Ghosh A, Shetty R, Porporato N, Saravanan V, Venkatesh R, Shivkumar C, Kalpana N, Sarangapani S, Kanavi MR, Beni AN, Yazdani S, Lashay A, Naderifar H, Khatibi N, Fea A, Lavia C, Dallorto L, Rolle T, Frezzotti P, Paoli D, Salvi E, Manunta P, Mori Y, Miyata K, Higashide T, Chihara E, Ishiko S, Yoshida A, Yanagi M, Kiuchi Y, Ohashi T, Sakurai T, Sugimoto T, Chuman H, Aihara M, Inatani M, Miyake M, Gotoh N, Matsuda F, Yoshimura N, Ikeda Y, Ueno M, Sotozono C, Jeoung JW, Sagong M, Park KH, Ahn J, Cruz-Aguilar M, Ezzouhairi SM, Rafei A, Chong YF, Ng XY, Goh SR, Chen Y, Yong VHK, Khan MI, Olawoye OO, Ashaye AO, Ugbede I, Onakoya A, Kizor-Akaraiwe N, Teekhasaenee C, Suwan Y, Supakontanasan W, Okeke S, Uche NJ, Asimadu I, Ayub H, Akhtar F, Kosior-Jarecka E, Lukasik U, Lischinsky I, Castro V, Grossmann RP, Megevand GS, Roy S, Dervan E, Silke E, Rao A, Sahay P, Fornero P, Cuello O, Sivori D, Zompa T, Mills RA, Souzeau E, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Hewitt AW, Coote M, Crowston JG, Astakhov SY, Akopov EL, Emelyanov A, Vysochinskaya V, Kazakbaeva G, Fayzrakhmanov R, Al-Obeidan SA, Owaidhah O, Aljasim LA, Chowbay B, Foo JN, Soh RQ, Sim KS, Xie Z, Cheong AWO, Mok SQ, Soo HM, Chen XY, Peh SQ, Heng KK, Husain R, Ho S-L, Hillmer AM, Cheng C-Y, Escudero-Domínguez FA, González-Sarmiento R, Martinon-Torres F, Salas A, Pathanapitoon K, Hansapinyo L, Wanichwecharugruang B, Kitnarong N, Sakuntabhai A, Nguyn HX, Nguyn GTT, Nguyn TV, Zenz W, Binder A, Klobassa DS, Hibberd ML, Davila S, Herms S, Nöthen MM, Moebus S, Rautenbach RM, Ziskind A, Carmichael TR, Ramsay M, Álvarez L, García M, González-Iglesias H, Rodríguez-Calvo PP, Cueto LF-V, Oguz Ç, Tamcelik N, Atalay E, Batu B, Aktas D, Kasım B, Wilson RM, Coleman AL, Liu Y, Challa P, Herndon L, Kuchtey RW, Kuchtey J, Curtin K, Chaya CJ, Crandall A, Zangwill LM, Wong TY, Nakano M, Kinoshita S, den Hollander AI, Vesti E, Fingert JH, Lee RK, Sit AJ, Shingleton BJ, Wang N, Cusi D, Qamar R, Kraft P, Pericak-Vance MA, Raychaudhuri S, Heegaard S, Kivelä T, Reis A, Kruse FE, Weinreb RN, Pasquale LR, Haines JL, Thorsteinsdottir U, Jonasson F, Allingham RR, Milea D, Ritch R, Kubota T, Tashiro K, Vithana EN, Micheal S, Topouzis F, Craig JE, Dubina M, Sundaresan P, Stefansson K, Wiggs JL, Pasutto F, Khor CC. Genetic association study of exfoliation syndrome identifies a protective rare variant at LOXL1 and five new susceptibility loci. Nat Genet 2017;Abstract
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common known risk factor for secondary glaucoma and a major cause of blindness worldwide. Variants in two genes, LOXL1 and CACNA1A, have previously been associated with XFS. To further elucidate the genetic basis of XFS, we collected a global sample of XFS cases to refine the association at LOXL1, which previously showed inconsistent results across populations, and to identify new variants associated with XFS. We identified a rare protective allele at LOXL1 (p.Phe407, odds ratio (OR) = 25, P = 2.9 × 10(-14)) through deep resequencing of XFS cases and controls from nine countries. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of XFS cases and controls from 24 countries followed by replication in 18 countries identified seven genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)). We identified association signals at 13q12 (POMP), 11q23.3 (TMEM136), 6p21 (AGPAT1), 3p24 (RBMS3) and 5q23 (near SEMA6A). These findings provide biological insights into the pathology of XFS and highlight a potential role for naturally occurring rare LOXL1 variants in disease biology.
Wallace DK, Kraker RT, Freedman SF, Crouch ER, Hutchinson AK, Bhatt AR, Rogers DL, Yang MB, Haider KM, VanderVeen DK, Siatkowski MR, Dean TW, Beck RW, Repka MX, Smith LE, Good WV, Hartnett ME, Kong L, Holmes JM, Holmes JM. Assessment of Lower Doses of Intravitreous Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Phase 1 Dosing Study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(6):654-656.Abstract
Importance: Intravitreous bevacizumab (0.25 to 0.625 mg) is increasingly used to treat type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but there remain concerns about systemic toxicity. A much lower dose may be effective while reducing systemic risk. Objective: To find a dose of intravitreous bevacizumab that was lower than previously used for severe ROP, was effective in this study, and could be tested in future larger studies. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between May 2015 and September 2016, 61 premature infants with type 1 ROP in 1 or both eyes were enrolled in a masked, multicenter, phase 1 dose de-escalation study. One eye of 10 to 14 infants received 0.25 mg of intravitreous bevacizumab. If successful, the dose was reduced for the next group of infants (to 0.125 mg, then 0.063 mg, and finally 0.031 mg). Diluted bevacizumab was delivered using 300 µL syringes with 5/16-inch, 30-gauge fixed needles. Interventions: Bevacizumab injections at 0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, and 0.031 mg. Main Outcomes and Measures: Success was defined as improvement in preinjection plus disease or zone I stage 3 ROP by 5 days after injection or sooner, and no recurrence of type 1 ROP or severe neovascularization requiring additional treatment within 4 weeks. Results: Fifty-eight of 61 enrolled infants had 4-week outcomes completed; mean birth weight was 709 g and mean gestational age was 24.9 weeks. Success was achieved in 11 of 11 eyes at 0.25 mg, 14 of 14 eyes at 0.125 mg, 21 of 24 eyes at 0.063 mg, and 9 of 9 eyes at 0.031 mg. Conclusions and Relevance: A dose of bevacizumab as low as 0.031 mg was effective in 9 of 9 eyes in this phase 1 study and warrants further investigation. Identifying a lower effective dose of bevacizumab may reduce the risk for neurodevelopmental disability or detrimental effects on other organs.

PURPOSE: To examine the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in the treatment for noninfectious intermediate uveitis resistant to conventional immunomodulatory therapy. METHODS: Forty-four eyes of 23 patients with resistant noninfectious intermediate uveitis who were treated with infliximab infusions for a minimum period of 3 months were included. Demographic data, clinical data, and fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings were collected from the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution database between August 2005 and February 2014. Clinical response, improvement in ancillary test findings, and major side effects were evaluated. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (82.6%) achieved remission. The mean duration of treatment to induce remission was 3.99 ± 3.06 months (range, 2-14.7). Cystoid macular edema was the only complication observed during the course of the treatment in 1 eye (2.27%). One patient (4.3%) developed major side effects. None of the patients developed central or peripheral demyelinating neuropathies or multiple sclerosis. At 6 months after remission, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (P = 0.006) and central macular thickness (P = 0.03) showed significant improvement in patients who achieved remission. CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients achieved remission on infliximab therapy. The incidence of major side effects in our cohort was low.

Choi CJ, Oropesa S, Callahan AB, Glass LR, Teo L, Cestari DM, Kazim M, Freitag SK. Patterns of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease. Orbit 2017;36(4):201-207.Abstract
This article provides a systematic description of visual field changes in thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON). A retrospective, non-comparative chart review of patients with TED-CON and documented Humphrey Visual Field 24-2 or 30-2 testing was conducted with IRB approval. Ninety-six visual fields in 68 patients were classified into 7 broad categories (superior, inferior, diffuse, temporal, nasal, central/paracentral, enlarged blind spot) and 17 mutually exclusive patterns from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) or "other." Fifty-three of 96 visual fields (55%) showed an inferior defect using the broad categories, with the remaining 6 categories ranging from 2% to 14%. The five most common OHTS patterns were other (28%), partial arcuate (28%), partial peripheral rim (9%), arcuate (8%) and altitudinal (7%). Further sub-classification showed a predominance of inferior visual field defects, ranging from 33% to 93% of each category. Of the 78 visual fields in these five categories combined, 52 (67%) were inferior defects. Inferior defect is the most typical TED-CON-associated visual field change. While the OHTS categories are geared toward classification of glaucomatous patterns, the overall predominance of inferior field defects in TED-CON was clearly demonstrated. These "other" visual field changes showing central inferior defect up to but not crossing the horizontal meridian and not contiguous from blind spot to nasal meridian should be designated as "TED-CON pattern." The high proportion of visual fields falling under the "other" category, however, does demonstrate the need for a more specific and tailored visual field classification system for TED-CON.
Kheirkhah A, Di Zazzo A, Satitpitakul V, Fernandez M, Magilavy D, Dana R. A Pilot Randomized Trial on Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Topical Combined Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 1/3 and Spleen Tyrosine Kinase for GVHD-Associated Ocular Surface Disease. Cornea 2017;36(7):799-804.Abstract
PURPOSE: Janus kinase (JAK) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) play critical functions in T-cell activation and in inflammation. Because of their antiinflammatory effects, JAK and SYK inhibitors have recently been evaluated in several immunopathogenic disorders. This pilot study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of a topical combined JAK/SYK inhibitor, R348, ophthalmic solution for treatment of ocular surface disease in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). METHODS: This phase 2, double-masked, randomized, pilot trial included 30 patients with ocular surface disease due to GVHD who were randomized to receive topical 0.5% R348, 0.2% R348, or vehicle, twice daily for 12 weeks. Before and after treatment, a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation was performed, which included Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Ocular Comfort Index questionnaire, corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and Schirmer test with anesthesia. Changes in these parameters were compared between the 3 groups. RESULTS: The mean decrease in total corneal fluorescein staining at 12 weeks after treatment was higher in the 0.5% R348 group (-6.0 ± 3.9, NEI scoring) compared with the vehicle (-2.1 ± 2.6, P = 0.045) or the 0.2% R348 group (-4.1 ± 3.6, P = 0.34). However, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of treatment-induced changes in OSDI, Ocular Comfort Index, conjunctival lissamine green staining, or Schirmer scores. R348 eye drops were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that 0.5% R348 JAK/SYK inhibitor ophthalmic solution is well tolerated and may have some therapeutic efficacy in treating ocular GVHD. Larger trials are required to derive more definitive data.
Lorch AC, Kloek CE. An evidence-based approach to surgical teaching in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(3):371-377.Abstract

An apprenticeship model has traditionally been used in procedural and surgical teaching. As the pressures of work hours and patient outcome monitoring increase, surgical teachers need a more flexible plan for teaching procedural skills. We attempt to delineate a program of preprocedural, intraprocedural, and postprocedural teaching that can be used in the field of ophthalmology to maximize a resident's skill acquisition in a constructive learning environment. We review the literature on surgical teaching from within ophthalmology as well as other surgical fields and combine this with teaching experience in an ophthalmic surgical training program to produce a collection of procedural teaching guidelines. These guidelines are structured to serve in both individual teaching settings and in curriculum design.

Brodowska K, Stryjewski TP, Papavasileiou E, Chee YE, Eliott D. Validation of the Retinal Detachment after Open Globe Injury (RD-OGI) Score as an Effective Tool for Predicting Retinal Detachment. Ophthalmology 2017;124(5):674-678.Abstract

PURPOSE: The Retinal Detachment after Open Globe Injury (RD-OGI) Score is a clinical prediction model that was developed at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary to predict the risk of retinal detachment (RD) after open globe injury (OGI). This study sought to validate the RD-OGI Score in an independent cohort of patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The predictive value of the RD-OGI Score was evaluated by comparing the original RD-OGI Scores of 893 eyes with OGI that presented between 1999 and 2011 (the derivation cohort) with 184 eyes with OGI that presented from January 1, 2012, to January 31, 2014 (the validation cohort). METHODS: Three risk classes (low, moderate, and high) were created and logistic regression was undertaken to evaluate the optimal predictive value of the RD-OGI Score. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis evaluated survival experience between the risk classes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to RD. RESULTS: At 1 year after OGI, 255 eyes (29%) in the derivation cohort and 66 eyes (36%) in the validation cohort were diagnosed with an RD. At 1 year, the low risk class (RD-OGI Scores 0-2) had a 3% detachment rate in the derivation cohort and a 0% detachment rate in the validation cohort, the moderate risk class (RD-OGI Scores 2.5-4.5) had a 29% detachment rate in the derivation cohort and a 35% detachment rate in the validation cohort, and the high risk class (RD-OGI scores 5-7.5) had a 73% detachment rate in the derivation cohort and an 86% detachment rate in the validation cohort. Regression modeling revealed the RD-OGI to be highly discriminative, especially 30 days after injury, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.939 in the validation cohort. Survival experience was significantly different depending upon the risk class (P < 0.0001, log-rank chi-square). CONCLUSIONS: The RD-OGI Score can reliably predict the future risk of developing an RD based on clinical variables that are present at the time of the initial evaluation after OGI.

Pasquale LR, Hyman L, Wiggs JL, Rosner BA, Joshipura K, McEvoy M, McPherson ZE, Danias J, Kang JH. Reply. Ophthalmology 2017;124(5):e50-e51.
Durand ML. Bacterial and Fungal Endophthalmitis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2017;30(3):597-613.Abstract
Endophthalmitis is a severe eye infection that may result in permanent loss of useful vision in the affected eye. Most cases are exogenous and occur as a complication of cataract surgery, an intravitreal injection, or penetrating ocular trauma. Endogenous endophthalmitis results from hematogenous seeding of the eye by bacteria or fungi, but bacteremia or fungemia may be transient and patients may present without symptoms of systemic infection. Nearly all endophthalmitis patients present with decreased vision, and some also have eye pain. Eye examination usually reveals a hypopyon and intraocular inflammation. Diagnosis is clinical, supported by cultures of the vitreous and/or aqueous or by blood cultures in some endogenous cases. Molecular diagnostic techniques have been used in research laboratories for pathogen identification in endophthalmitis and offer the possibility of rapid diagnosis, including in culture-negative cases. Intravitreal injection of antibiotics is the most important component of treatment; some cases also benefit from surgical debridement of the vitreous by a vitrectomy. The visual outcome depends partly on the pathogen: coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis has a better prognosis than does streptococcal endophthalmitis, for example. Endophthalmitis is a medical emergency, and prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for saving vision.