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Zhang P, Zhu M, Geng-Spyropoulos M, Shardell M, Gonzalez-Freire M, Gudnason V, Eiriksdottir G, Schaumberg D, Van Eyk JE, Ferrucci L, Semba RD. A novel, multiplexed targeted mass spectrometry assay for quantification of complement factor H (CFH) variants and CFH-related proteins 1-5 in human plasma. Proteomics 2017;17(6)Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual loss among older adults. Two variants in the complement factor H (CFH) gene, Y402H and I62V, are strongly associated with risk of AMD. CFH is encoded in regulator of complement activation gene cluster in chromosome 1q32, which includes complement factor related (CFHR) proteins, CFHR1 to CFHR5, with high amino acid sequence homology to CFH. Our goal was to build a SRM assay to measure plasma concentrations of CFH variants Y402, H402, I62, and V62, and CFHR1-5. The final assay consisted of 24 peptides and 72 interference-free SRM transition ion pairs. Most peptides showed good linearity over 0.3-200 fmol/μL concentration range. Plasma concentrations of CFH variants and CFHR1-5 were measured using the SRM assay in 344 adults. Plasma CFH concentrations (mean, SE in μg/mL) by inferred genotype were: YY402, II62 (170.1, 31.4), YY402, VV62 (188.8, 38.5), HH402, VV62 (144.0, 37.0), HY402, VV62 (164.2, 42.3), YY402, IV62 (194.8, 36.8), HY402, IV62 (181.3, 44.7). Mean (SE) plasma concentrations of CFHR1-5 were 1.63 (0.04), 3.64 (1.20), 0.020 (0.001), 2.42 (0.18), and 5.49 (1.55) μg/mL, respectively. This SRM assay should facilitate the study of the role of systemic complement and risk of AMD.

Papavasileiou E, Davoudi S, Roohipoor R, Cho H, Kudrimoti S, Hancock H, Wilson JG, Andreoli C, Husain D, James M, Penman A, Chen CJ, Sobrin L. Association of serum lipid levels with retinal hard exudate area in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017;255(3):509-517.Abstract
PURPOSE: Previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding whether serum lipid levels are associated with retinal hard exudates in diabetic retinopathy. The majority of studies have assessed hard exudates only as a dichotomous trait (presence vs. absence) and included limited numbers of African Americans (AA). The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any associations between serum lipid levels and hard exudates in AA with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: 890 AA participants with T2D were enrolled from 5 sites. Macular fundus photographs were graded by masked ophthalmologist investigators. Hard exudate areas were measured using a semi-automated algorithm and ImageJ software. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the association between serum lipid levels and (1) presence of hard exudate and (2) area of hard exudate. RESULTS: Presence of hard exudates was associated with higher total cholesterol [(odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.13, P = 0.001)] and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI 1.03-1.14, P = 0.005) in models controlling for other risk factors. Hard exudate area was also associated with both higher total and LDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) in multivariate models controlling for other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total and LDL cholesterol were associated with the presence of hard exudates and a greater hard exudate area in AA with T2D. This information can be used to counsel diabetic patients regarding the importance of lipid control to decrease the risk of macular hard exudates.
Finn AP, Bleier B, Cestari DM, Kazlas MA, Dagi LR, Lefebvre DR, Yoon MK, Freitag SK. A Retrospective Review of Orbital Decompression for Thyroid Orbitopathy with Endoscopic Preservation of the Inferomedial Orbital Bone Strut. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017;33(5):334-339.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine incidence of new-onset diplopia, resolution of preexisting diplopia, and impact on proptosis resulting from endoscopic orbital decompression with and without preservation of the inferomedial orbital strut for thyroid orbitopathy. METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients undergoing endoscopic 2- or 3-wall decompression with or without preservation of the strut for thyroid orbitopathy from January 2012 to June 2015. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients (45 orbits) were included and divided into 4 primary categories: 2-wall decompression with strut preservation (4 orbits, 8%), 2-wall decompression with strut removal (7 orbits, 16%), 3-wall decompression with strut preservation (27 orbits, 60%), and 3-wall decompression with strut removal (7 orbits, 16%). The incidence of new-onset diplopia was 20% (2/10 patients without preoperative diplopia) overall and 16% in the strut preservation group (1/6 patients without preoperative diplopia). Resolution of diplopia occurred in 4 of 16 patients (25%) with preoperative diplopia, and all 4 had been treated with a 3-wall decompression with strut preservation. Resolution of diplopia in the group treated with strut preservation was 36% (4/11 patients with preoperative diplopia), and 0% of the 5 diplopic patients treated without strut preservation. Reduction in proptosis was statistically greater in those treated with strut removal (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that endoscopic orbital decompression with preservation of the inferomedial bone strut results in a comparable to lower rate of new-onset diplopia compared with other reported techniques. When combined with 3-wall balanced decompression, this technique demonstrates a high rate of resolution of preexisting diplopia.
Hong J, Yang Y, Cursiefen C, Mashaghi A, Wu D, Liu Z, Sun X, Dana R, Xu J. Optimising keratoplasty for Peters' anomaly in infants using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Br J Ophthalmol 2017;101(6):820-827.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present in vivo anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of infants with Peters' anomaly obtained during presurgical examination under general anaesthesia, and to evaluate the impact of OCT features on surgical decision making. METHODS: This is a single-centre, consecutive, observational case series including 44 eyes of 27 infants with Peters' anomaly (5-18 months) undergoing keratoplasty. Medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical features and OCT findings, along with their impact on surgical decision-making were analysed. RESULTS: Of 27 patients, 10 had unilateral and 17 had bilateral disease. Two patients with mild disease (three eyes) had a posterior corneal defect with leukoma (2/27, 7.4%). Twenty patients (32 eyes) with iridocorneal adhesions were classified as having moderate Peters' anomaly (20/27, 74.1%) and five patients (nine eyes) with lenticulocorneal adhesions were classified as having severe Peters' anomaly (5/27, 18.5%). The range of angle closure, anterior chamber depth and maximum iridocorneal adhesion length (all p<0.001) were significantly different among groups, indicating that they might serve as novel OCT parameters for assessing the severity of Peters' anomaly. The surgical approach in seven patients (21.2%) was altered in response to intraoperative OCT findings, which provided information regarding the anatomical structure of the anterior chamber not provided by the surgical microscope. The use of OCT prevented unnecessary cataract surgeries in five patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that information gained from OCT under anaesthesia allows surgeons to classify type and severity of Peters' anomaly and supports surgical decision making.
Zhou X, Ramke M, Chintakuntlawar AV, Lee JY, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Role of MyD88 in adenovirus keratitis. Immunol Cell Biol 2017;95(1):108-116.Abstract

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical to the early detection and innate immune responses to pathogens. In particular, the toll-like receptor (TLR) system and its associated adaptor proteins have essential roles in early host responses to infection. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, caused by the human adenovirus, is a severe ocular surface infection associated with corneal inflammation (stromal keratitis). We previously showed that adenovirus capsid was a key molecular pattern in adenovirus keratitis, with viral DNA having a lesser role. We have now investigated the role of the adaptor molecule MyD88 in a mouse model of adenovirus keratitis in which there is no viral replication. In MyD88(-/-) mice infected with human adenovirus type 37, clinical keratitis was markedly reduced, along with infiltration of CD45(+) cells, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines was also observed in infected primary human corneal fibroblasts pretreated with a MyD88 inhibitory peptide. Keratitis similar to wild type mice was observed in TLR2, TLR9 and IL-1R knockout mice, but was reduced in TLR2/9 double knockout mice, consistent with synergy of TLR2 and TLR9 in the response to adenovirus infection. MyD88 co-immunoprecipitated with Src kinase in mice corneas and in human corneal fibroblasts infected with adenovirus, and MyD88 inhibitory peptide reduced Src phosphorylation, linking MyD88 activation to inflammatory gene expression through a signaling cascade previously shown to be directed by Src. Our findings reveal a critical role for the PRRs TLR2 and 9, and their adaptor protein MyD88, in corneal inflammation upon adenovirus infection.

Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Akula JD, Fulton AB. The neural retina in retinopathy of prematurity. Prog Retin Eye Res 2017;56:32-57.Abstract

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina. Rod photoreceptor and post-receptor responses are significantly altered years after the preterm days during which ROP is an active disease. The alterations include persistent rod dysfunction, and evidence of compensatory remodeling of the post-receptor retina is found in ERG responses to full-field stimuli and in psychophysical thresholds that probe small retinal regions. In the central retina, both Mild and Severe ROP delay maturation of parafoveal scotopic thresholds and are associated with attenuation of cone mediated multifocal ERG responses, significant thickening of post-receptor retinal laminae, and dysmorphic cone photoreceptors. These results have implications for vision and control of eye growth and refractive development and suggest future research directions. These results also lead to a proposal for noninvasive management using light that may add to the currently invasive therapeutic armamentarium against ROP.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Eagle RC, Lally SE, Krane JF. Unusual pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal Gland: Immunohistochemical demonstration of PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncoproteins. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;62(2):219-226.Abstract

Painless low-grade right proptosis with 20/25 visual acuity developed slowly in a 49-year-old woman with a past history of breast cancer. Imaging studies disclosed an oval-to-round superotemporal mass in the right lacrimal fossa without bone erosion. Excisional biopsy revealed a pseudoencapsulated, bosselated tumor with a spindled, hypocellular, and heavily periodic acid Schiff-positive stroma constituted of abundant basement membrane material and collagen. Scattered lumens and focal cribriform cellular clusters were present in the peripheries of several of the lobules. Immunohistochemistry showed epithelial membrane antigen+ and cytokeratin (CK) 7+ in many small luminal structures. The spindled cells were calponin+, CK5/6+, CK14+, and p63+, confirming their myoepithelial nature. The Ki67 proliferation index was 2-3%, and upregulation of nuclear p53, a tumor suppressor gene product which may be aberrantly overexpressed in malignancy, was observed in rare cells. Immunohistochemical probes for HMGA2 and PLAG1 oncoproteins, characteristic of pleomorphic adenoma, were stained intensely and less intensely, respectively. MYB and c-KIT (CD117) were negative, thereby strongly arguing against the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma. In atypical epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland, genetic probes identifying distinctive gene translocations or their oncoprotein products complement traditional immunohistochemical biomarkers such as cytokeratins and other structural or secretory molecules. Characteristic genetic abnormalities demonstrated by immunohistochemistry for their upregulated protein products, or by in situ hybridization for translocations, are increasingly being relied on for diagnostic precision.

Lee R, Khoueir Z, Tsikata E, Chodosh J, Dohlman CH, Chen TC. Long-term Visual Outcomes and Complications of Boston Keratoprosthesis Type II Implantation. Ophthalmology 2017;124(1):27-35.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the long-term visual outcomes and complications after Boston keratoprosthesis type II implantation in the largest single-center case series with the longest average follow-up. DESIGN: Retrospective review of consecutive clinical case series. PARTICIPANTS: Between January 1992 and April 2015 at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 48 eyes of 44 patients had keratoprosthesis type II implanted by 2 surgeons (C.H.D. and J.C.). METHODS: For each eye, data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative characteristics, intraoperative procedures, and postoperative course. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity outcomes, postoperative complications, and device retention. RESULTS: The most common indications for surgery were Stevens-Johnson syndrome in 41.7% (20 of 48 eyes) and mucous membrane pemphigoid in 41.7% (20 of 48 eyes). Mean follow-up duration was 70.2 months (standard deviation, 61.8 months; median, 52 months; range, 6 months to 19.8 years). Almost all patients (95.8%, 46 of 48 eyes) had a preoperative visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. Postoperative visual acuity improved to 20/200 or better in 37.5% (18 of 48 eyes) and to 20/100 or better in 33.3% (16 of 48 eyes) at the last follow-up visit. The most common postoperative complication was retroprosthetic membrane formation in over half (60.4%, 29 of 48 eyes). The most pressing postoperative complication was glaucoma onset or progression in about a third. Preexisting glaucoma was present in 72.9% (35 of 48 eyes). Glaucoma progressed in 27.1% (13 of 48 eyes) and was newly diagnosed in 8.3% (4 of 48 eyes) after surgery. Other postoperative complications were tarsorrhaphy revision in 52.1% (25 of 48 eyes), retinal detachment in 18.8% (9 of 48 eyes), infectious endophthalmitis in 6.3% (3 of 48 eyes), and choroidal detachment or hemorrhage in 8.3% (4 of 48 eyes). Half of eyes retained their initial keratoprosthesis at the last follow-up (50.0%, 24 of 48 eyes). CONCLUSIONS: The Boston keratoprosthesis type II is a viable option to salvage vision in patients with poor prognosis for other corneal procedures. Retroprosthetic membranes, keratoprosthesis retention, and glaucoma are major challenges in the postoperative period; however, the keratoprosthesis can still provide improved vision in a select group of patients.

Houston KE, Barrett AM. Patching for Diplopia Contraindicated in Patients with Brain Injury?. Optom Vis Sci 2017;94(1):120-124.Abstract

PURPOSE: Patching for double vision is a common palliative treatment for head-trauma patients with acquired strabismus when prisms are not feasible. METHODS: We review literature on spatial neglect and discuss possible effects of monocular occlusion on spatial attention. RESULTS: Patching the left eye has been shown to worsen spatial judgments in some brain-injured patients with left neglect by inhibiting the right superior colliculus further impairing contralateral leftward orienting (the Sprague Effect). CONCLUSIONS: Because more peripheral parts of the visual field increasingly project to the contralateral superior colliculus with the temporal crescent being entirely contralateral, avoiding patching of the temporal crescent was advised, and in most cases can be achieved by taping off the spectacle lens and avoiding an elastic eye patch.

Kobashi H, Kamiya K, Shimizu K. Dry Eye After Small Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted LASIK: Meta-Analysis. Cornea 2017;36(1):85-91.Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare postoperative ocular surface integrity and innervation between small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMED, and EMBASE were searched for prospective comparative studies. Trials meeting the selection criteria were quality appraised, and the data were extracted by 2 independent authors. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare dry eye examinations and corneal subbasal nerve density (SMILE-FS-LASIK). RESULTS: The study covered 5 trials. No significant difference was found in the Schirmer test score between both groups (WMD = -1.91 and 0.27; 95% CI, -5.02 to 1.20 and -0.99 to 1.54; P = 0.23 and 0.67 at 1- and 6-month follow-ups, respectively). Tear breakup time in the SMILE group significantly exceeded that in the FS-LASIK group (WMD = 0.65 and 1.14; 95% CI, 0.20-1.10 and 0.18-2.10; P = 0.004 and 0.02, at 1- and 6-month follow-ups, respectively). Ocular surface disease index scores were significantly better in the SMILE group 6 months postoperatively (WMD = -10.12, 95% CI, -16.07 to -4.18, P = 0.0008). No significant difference was found in tear osmolarity between both groups (WMD = -5.19 and -6.37; 95% CI, -17.15 to 6.76 and -22.74 to 10.00; P = 0.39 and 0.45 at 1- and 6-month follow-ups, respectively). Higher corneal sensitivity was observed in the SMILE group 1 and 6 months postoperatively (WMD = 11.35 and 3.49; 95% CI, 7.29-15.40 and 1.76-5.21; P < 0.00001 and <0.0001, at 1- and 6-month follow-ups, respectively). Corneal subbasal nerve density was also significantly higher in SMILE-treated eyes than it was in FS-LASIK-treated eyes 1 month postoperatively (WMD = 4.72, 95% CI, 1.10-8.34, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: According to this meta-analysis, the SMILE procedure has fewer negative impacts on the ocular surface and corneal innervation than does FS-LASIK. Furthermore, SMILE shows superiority over FS-LASIK by a exhibiting a lower risk of postoperative dry eye.

Houston KE, Paschalis EI, Angueira DC, Bronstad MP, Barrett AM, Iaccarino MA. Restoration of Vision After Brain Injury Using Magnet Glasses. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2017;96(4):e70-e74.Abstract

Visual impairments are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and negatively affect quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old woman with a severe TBI who was evaluated by the inpatient optometry and vision rehabilitation service with findings of complete right homonymous hemianopia and right cranial nerve III palsy with 30-degree right exotropia (eye turn out) and complete right ptosis (eyelid will not open). The 30-degree exotropia advantageously generated 30 degrees of right visual field expansion when the right ptosis was treated with a magnetic levator prosthesis, which restores eyelid opening. Once opened, the patient used visual field expansion derived from a right exotropia to overcome functional impairments caused by right hemianopia. Field expansion improved the patient's wheelchair mobility and reaching tasks during inpatient therapy. This is the first report of visual field expansion by strabismus facilitated by correction of ptosis. Strabismus should be considered for its potential field expansion benefits when homonymous visual deficits are present, before considering patching. A multidisciplinary vision rehabilitation team is well suited to make this determination.

Birnbaum FA, Hamrah P, Jacobs DS, Song BJ. Acquired Corneal Neuropathy and Photoallodynia Associated With Malposition of an Ex-PRESS Shunt. J Glaucoma 2017;26(1):e19-e21.Abstract

PURPOSE: Corneal neuropathy is a recently described disease process that is not well understood and is likely underdiagnosed as a result. This is the first reported case of an acquired corneal neuropathy associated with malposition of an Ex-PRESS shunt. METHODS: A single case report. RESULTS: We report the case of a 50-year-old man with a history of multiple procedures for glaucoma who subsequently developed photoallodynia and corneal neuropathy in association with malposition of an Ex-PRESS shunt in the peripheral cornea. Laser confocal microscopy (HRT3/RCM) of the cornea showed the presence of neuromas, decreased nerve density, and a significant increase of dendritiform immune cells consistent with our diagnosis. Initial treatment with steroid pulse therapy did not result in decreased inflammation or symptomatic improvement leading to surgical explantation of the shunt. One month after surgery, there was noticeable improvement in the patient's pain and photoallodynia (approximately 40%) as well as the abnormalities seen on confocal microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that poor Ex-PRESS shunt positioning can act as a nidus for corneal inflammation, resulting in corneal neuropathy and lowering of the nociception threshold.

Jee D, Keum N, Kang S, Arroyo JG. Sleep and diabetic retinopathy. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;95(1):41-47.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between sleep duration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study using a nation-wide, systemically stratified, multistage, clustered sampling method included a total of 1670 subjects aged ≥40 years with diabetes who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2012. All participants performed standardized interviews, including self-reported sleep duration, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Seven standard retinal fundus photographs were obtained from both eyes after pupil dilatation. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded and classified as any DR and vision-threatening DR. Participants were stratified into men and women. RESULTS: The mean sleep duration was 6.71 hr/day. In men, adjusted OR of any DR was 1.88 [95% confidence interval (OR), 1.01-3.59] in those with ≤5 hr sleep, and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.01-4.89) in those with ≥9 hr sleep, compared to in subjects with 6-8 hr sleep, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes duration, fasting glucose level, haemoglobin A1c levels and hypertension. In women, however, no significant association between sleep duration and DR was found. The vision-threatening DR was not significantly associated with sleep duration in either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: Short and long sleep was associated with high prevalence of DR in men. Sleep deprivation may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR development.

Di Zazzo A, Tahvildari M, Subbarayal B, Yin J, Dohlman TH, Inomata T, Mashaghi A, Chauhan SK, Dana R. Proangiogenic Function of T Cells in Corneal Transplantation. Transplantation 2017;101(4):778-785.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Corneal neovascularization increases the risk of T cell-mediated allograft rejection. Here, we investigate whether T cells promote angiogenesis in transplantation. METHODS: Conventional effector T cells were collected from draining lymph nodes of allogeneic or syngeneic corneal transplanted BALB/c mice. T cells were either cocultured with vascular endothelial cells (VECs) to assess VEC proliferation or used in a mixed lymphocyte reaction assay. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -C, and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) in VECs was assessed by real-time PCR. VEGF-A protein expression was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow cytometry was used to analyze VEGF-R2 expression in corneal CD31 cells, and VEGF-A and IFNγ expression in corneal CD4 T cells. RESULTS: Allogeneic T cells from high-risk (HR) grafted mice induced more VEC proliferation than those from syngeneic transplant recipients (P = 0.03). Vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA and protein expression were higher in T cells from draining lymph nodes (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) and cornea (protein; P = 0.04) of HR compared with low-risk (LR) grafted hosts. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-R2 mRNA expression were increased in VECs when cocultured with T cells from HR transplants compared with LR transplants and naive mice. In addition, IFNγ blockade in T cell/VEC coculture increased VEC proliferation and VEGF-A protein expression, whereas blocking VEGF-A significantly reduced VEC proliferation (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic T cells from corneal transplant hosts promote VEC proliferation, probably via VEGF-A signaling, whereas IFNγ shows an antiangiogenic effect. Our data suggest that T cells are critical mediators of angiogenesis in transplantation.

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