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Maleki A, Swan RT, Silpa-Archa S, Preble JM, He Y, Foster SC. Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry Parameters at Baseline and Following Remission in Patients With Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;163:83-92.e6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To identify changes in short-wavelength automated perimetry patterns and parameters between the active and inactive states. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with age-matched, normal controls. METHODS: setting: Private tertiary referral center. STUDY POPULATION: Seventy-five eyes of 38 patients with active birdshot retinochoroidopathy and 37 eyes of 37 historical normal controls. INTERVENTION: Thirty-seven patients received immunomodulatory therapy. A fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant (Retisert) was implanted in both eyes of 1 patient as an initial treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in short-wavelength automated perimetry total deviation scores, pattern deviation scores, mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation in the active phase and the remission state. RESULTS: Mean deviation (P = .006), pattern standard deviation (P = .001), total deviation score (P = .002), and pattern deviation score (P = .007) were significantly different from the active phase to the remission state. The length of time required to achieve remission did not significantly affect the changes in mean deviation (regression coefficient = 0.01; P = .92), pattern standard deviation (regression coefficient = 0.01; P = .87), total deviation score (regression coefficient = -0.1; P = .32), or pattern deviation score (regression coefficient = 0.1; P = .36) from the active phase to the remission state. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in total deviation score, pattern deviation score, mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation on short-wavelength automated perimetry as patients achieved remission. Short-wavelength automated perimetry appears to be a useful and complementary modality in monitoring disease activity in birdshot retinochoroidopathy.

Pasquale LR, Borrás T, Fingert JH, Wiggs JL, Ritch R. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces. Acta Ophthalmol 2016;94(6):e505-12.Abstract

PURPOSE: To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. METHODS: The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. RESULTS: Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. CONCLUSION: Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS.

Xiong W, Cepko C. Distinct Expression Patterns of AAV8 Vectors with Broadly Active Promoters from Subretinal Injections of Neonatal Mouse Eyes at Two Different Ages. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;854:501-7.Abstract

The retinal expression patterns were analyzed following the injection of serotype 8 adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vectors that utilize two broadly active and commonly used sets of transcription regulatory sequences. These include the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early (IE) enhancer/promoter and the hybrid CAG element (also known as CAGGS or CBA) composed of a partial human CMV IE enhancer and the chicken β-actin promoter and intron. Subretinal delivery to postnatal day 0 (P0) or 6 (P6) mouse eyes resulted in efficient labeling of retinal cells, but with very distinct patterns. With P0 delivery, AAV8-CMV-GFP selectively labelled photoreceptors, while AAV8-CAG-GFP efficiently labeled both outer and inner retinal neurons, including photoreceptors, horizontal cells, amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells. With P6 delivery, both vectors led to efficient labeling of photoreceptors and Müller glia cells, but not of inner retinal neurons. Our results suggest that the cell types that express the genes encoded by subretinally delivered AAV8 vectors are determined by both the timing of the injection and the regulatory sequences.

Lienert JP, Tarko L, Uchino M, Christen WG, Schaumberg DA. Long-term Natural History of Dry Eye Disease from the Patient's Perspective. Ophthalmology 2016;123(2):425-33.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the natural history of dry eye disease (DED), which chronically affects millions of people in the United States. DESIGN: This study is based on the Women's Health Study and Physicians' Health Studies, and uses questionnaires and medical records. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 398 men and 386 women who reported a diagnosis of DED and responded to a questionnaire about change in disease since diagnosis. METHODS: Three subscales were developed using factor analysis of questionnaire responses: ocular surface symptoms, vision-related symptoms, and social impact. We examined correlates of worsening on each subscale, obtained medical records from a subset of 261 study participants, and examined changes in clinical signs of DED over time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Worsening in ocular surface symptoms, vision-related symptoms, and social impact plus clinical signs. RESULTS: The average duration of DED of 10.5 years (standard deviation, 9.5 years). Worsening was reported by 24% for ocular surface symptoms, 29% for vision-related symptoms, and 10% for social impact. Factors associated with worsening on at least 2 of 3 subscales included a previous report of severe DED symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 2.17 for ocular surface symptoms; OR, 2.35 for vision-related symptoms), spending >$20 per month on DED treatments (OR, 1.80 for ocular surface symptoms; OR, 1.99 for vision-related symptoms), history of blepharitis or meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) (OR, 1.57 for vision-related symptoms; OR, 2.12 for social impact), and use of systemic beta-blockers (OR, 1.62 for ocular surface symptoms; OR, 1.84 for vision-related symptoms; OR, 1.86 for the social impact of DED). Presence of corneal staining based on review of medical records was associated with use of level 2 or higher DED treatments (OR, 1.54; confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.36), a previous report of severe DED symptoms (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.07-3.00), having a tear break-up test performed (OR, 2.73; CI, 1.72-4.36), and having blepharitis or MGD (OR, 0.59; CI, 0.35-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of patients with DED experience worsening over time, tending to report with more severe symptoms earlier in the disease. Forthcoming data on the natural history of DED from prospective studies should help clarify some of the limitations of this retrospective study.

Kim C, Smith KE, Castillejos A, Diaz-Aguilar D, Saint-Geniez M, Connor KM. The alternative complement pathway aids in vascular regression during the early stages of a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. FASEB J 2016;30(3):1300-5.Abstract

Proliferative retinopathic diseases often progress in 2 phases: initial regression of retinal vasculature (phase 1) followed by subsequent neovascularization (NV) (phase 2). The immune system has been shown to aid in vascular pruning in such retinopathies; however, little is known about the role of the alternative complement pathway in the initial vascular regression phase. Using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), we observed that alternative complement pathway-deficient mice (Fb(-/-)) exhibited a mild decrease in vascular loss at postnatal day (P)8 compared with age- and strain-matched controls (P = 0.035). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the retinal blood vessels. Expression of the complement inhibitors Cd55 and Cd59 was significantly decreased in blood vessels isolated from hyperoxic retinas compared with those from normoxic control mice. Vegf expression was measured at P8 and found to be significantly lower in OIR mice than in normoxic control mice (P = 0.0048). Further examination of specific Vegf isoform expression revealed a significant decrease in Vegf120 (P = 0.00032) and Vegf188 (P = 0.0092). In conjunction with the major modulating effects of Vegf during early retinal vascular development, our data suggest a modest involvement of the alternative complement pathway in targeting vessels for regression in the initial vaso-obliteration stage of OIR.-Kim, C., Smith, K. E., Castillejos, A., Diaz-Aguilar, D., Saint-Geniez, M., Connor, K. M. The alternative complement pathway aids in vascular regression during the early stages of a murine model of proliferative retinopathy.

Carvalho LS, Vandenberghe LH. Understanding Cone Photoreceptor Cell Death in Achromatopsia. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;854:231-6.Abstract

Colour vision is only achieved in the presence of healthy and functional cone photoreceptors found in the retina. It is an essential component of human vision and usually the first complaint patients undergoing vision degeneration have is the loss of daylight colour vision. Therefore, an understanding of the biology and basic mechanisms behind cone death under the degenerative state of retinal dystrophies and how the activation of the apoptotic pathway is triggered will provide valuable knowledge. It will also have broader applications for a spectrum of visual disorders and will be critical for future advances in translational research.

Grishchuk Y, Stember KG, Matsunaga A, Olivares AM, Cruz NM, King VE, Humphrey DM, Wang SL, Muzikansky A, Betensky RA, Thoreson WB, Haider N, Slaugenhaupt SA. Retinal Dystrophy and Optic Nerve Pathology in the Mouse Model of Mucolipidosis IV. Am J Pathol 2016;186(1):199-209.Abstract

Mucolipidosis IV is a debilitating developmental lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neuromotor retardation and progressive loss of vision, leading to blindness by the second decade of life. Mucolipidosis IV is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes the transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1. Ophthalmic pathology in patients includes corneal haze and progressive retinal and optic nerve atrophy. Herein, we report ocular pathology in Mcoln1(-/-) mouse, a good phenotypic model of the disease. Early, but non-progressive, thinning of the photoreceptor layer, reduced levels of rhodopsin, disrupted rod outer segments, and widespread accumulation of the typical storage inclusion bodies were the major histological findings in the Mcoln1(-/-) retina. Electroretinograms showed significantly decreased functional response (scotopic a- and b-wave amplitudes) in the Mcoln1(-/-) mice. At the ultrastructural level, we observed formation of axonal spheroids and decreased density of axons in the optic nerve of the aged (6-month-old) Mcoln1(-/-) mice, which indicates progressive axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that mucolipin-1 plays a role in postnatal development of photoreceptors and provides a set of outcome measures that can be used for ocular therapy development for mucolipidosis IV.

Castle MJ, Turunen HT, Vandenberghe LH, Wolfe JH. Controlling AAV Tropism in the Nervous System with Natural and Engineered Capsids. Methods Mol Biol 2016;1382:133-49.Abstract

More than one hundred naturally occurring variants of adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been identified, and this library has been further expanded by an array of techniques for modification of the viral capsid. AAV capsid variants possess unique antigenic profiles and demonstrate distinct cellular tropisms driven by differences in receptor binding. AAV capsids can be chemically modified to alter tropism, can be produced as hybrid vectors that combine the properties of multiple serotypes, and can carry peptide insertions that introduce novel receptor-binding activity. Furthermore, directed evolution of shuffled genome libraries can identify engineered variants with unique properties, and rational modification of the viral capsid can alter tropism, reduce blockage by neutralizing antibodies, or enhance transduction efficiency. This large number of AAV variants and engineered capsids provides a varied toolkit for gene delivery to the CNS and retina, with specialized vectors available for many applications, but selecting a capsid variant from the array of available vectors can be difficult. This chapter describes the unique properties of a range of AAV variants and engineered capsids, and provides a guide for selecting the appropriate vector for specific applications in the CNS and retina.

Taub DG, Liu Q. The Role of Intraflagellar Transport in the Photoreceptor Sensory Cilium. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;854:627-33.Abstract

The photoreceptor is a complex specialized cell in which a major component responsible for visual transduction is the photoreceptor sensory cilium (PSC). Building and maintenance of the PSC requires the transport of large proteins along microtubules that extend from the inner segments to the outer segments. A key process, termed intraflagellar transport (IFT), has been recognized as an essential phenomenon for photoreceptor development and maintenance, and exciting new studies have highlighted its importance in retinal and cilia related diseases. This review focuses on the important roles of IFT players, including motor proteins, IFT proteins, and photoreceptor-specific cargos in photoreceptor sensory cilium. In addition, specific IFT components that are involved in inherited human diseases are discussed.

Kheirkhah A, Saboo US, Marmalidou A, Dana R. Overestimation of Corneal Endothelial Cell Density in Smaller Frame Sizes in In Vivo Confocal Microscopy. Cornea 2016;35(3):363-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of frame size on the calculated corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) in images of laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: Forty-nine corneal endothelial images acquired by laser scanning IVCM (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 with Rostock Corneal Module) with different endothelial cell densities were analyzed. In each image (160,000 μm), the CECD was calculated using the fixed-frame method by counting cells in the following frame sizes: 80,000 μm, 40,000 μm, 20,000 μm, 10,000 μm, 5000 μm, and 2500 μm. The calculated CECD was then compared with that of the variable-frame method as the reference value. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the calculated CECD between the variable-frame method (2004 ± 832 cells/mm), and the fixed-frame method using a 40,000-μm frame (2023 ± 810 cells/mm). On the other hand, the calculated CECD showed significant overestimations in frame sizes of 20,000 μm (2066 ± 820 cells/mm), 10,000 μm (2156 ± 785 cells/mm), 5000 μm (2352 ± 783 cells/mm), and 2500 μm (2715 ± 754 cells/mm), with P < 0.001 in all. This resulted in overestimations of 4.8 ± 9.8%, 11.9 ± 16.2%, 24.9 ± 23.1%, and 49.1 ± 38.8% for these frame sizes, respectively. Images with lower CECD demonstrated higher overestimations of cell density in smaller frame sizes. CONCLUSIONS: In laser scanning IVCM images, there is significant overestimation of CECD if the cells are counted in frames smaller than 25% of the image. Similar frame sizes should be used when monitoring CECD over time.

Rudnisky CJ, Belin MW, Guo R, Ciolino JB, Group BTKS1. Visual Acuity Outcomes of the Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1: Multicenter Study Results. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;162:89-98.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual outcomes of the Boston keratoprosthesis type 1. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters of 300 eyes of 300 patients who underwent implantation of a Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 device between January 2003 and July 2008 by 1 of 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers were collected. RESULTS: After an average of 17.1 ± 14.8 months, visual acuity improved significantly (P < .0001) to a mean final value of 0.89 ± 0.64 (20/150). There were also significantly fewer eyes with light perception (6.7%; n = 19; P < .0001), although 3.1% (n = 9) progressed to no light perception. There was no association between age (P = .08), sex (P = .959), operative side (P = .167), or failure (P = .494) and final visual acuity. The median time to achieve 20/200 visual acuity was 1 month (95% confidence interval 1.0-6.0) and it was retained for an average of 47.8 months. Multivariate analysis, controlling for preoperative visual acuity, demonstrated 2 factors associated with final visual outcome: chemical injury was associated with better final vision (P = .007), whereas age-related macular degeneration was associated with poorer vision (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 is an effective device for rehabilitation in advanced ocular surface disease, resulting in a significant improvement in visual acuity. Eyes achieved a mean value of 20/150 (0.89 ± 0.64 logMAR units) after 6 months and this was relatively stable thereafter. The best visual prognosis is observed in chemical injury eyes, whereas the worst prognosis is in aniridia, although the latter has limited visual potential.

Jaffe GJ, Eliott D, Wells JA, Prenner JL, Papp A, Patel S. A Phase 1 Study of Intravitreous E10030 in Combination with Ranibizumab in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology 2016;123(1):78-85.Abstract

PURPOSE: To assess the safety and tolerability of E10030 (Fovista; Ophthotech, New York, NY), a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist, when administered in combination with an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) 0.5 mg, by intravitreal injection in participants with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD). DESIGN: Prospective phase 1 clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 23 participants diagnosed with NVAMD and aged 50 years or older were enrolled. METHODS: Part 1 included 15 participants. Three participants received a single intravitreal E10030 (0.03 mg) injection and were subsequently given intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg) injections at weeks 2, 6, and 10. Twelve participants (3 per group) received E10030 (0.03, 0.3, 1.5, or 3.0 mg) in combination with ranibizumab (0.5 mg) at day 0, month 1, and month 2 in an ascending manner. In Part 2 (8 participants), E10030 (0.3, 1.5, or 3.0 mg) in combination with ranibizumab (0.5 mg) was injected at day 0, month 1, and month 2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Safety at week 12 was the primary outcome and included assessment of vital signs, laboratory tests, and serial eye examinations. Other safety metrics included assessment through week 24 of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity (VA) and biomarker changes evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA). RESULTS: All doses of intravitreal E10030 administered in combination with ranibizumab were well tolerated. No dose-limiting toxicities or relevant safety events were noted at any dose level during the study. Investigators did not report adverse events related to E10030 or ranibizumab. Mean VA change was a gain of 14 letters, and 59% of participants gained ≥15 letters from baseline at week 12. On FA at week 12, there was an 85.5% mean reduction from baseline in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) size. On OCT at the week 12 visit, there was a mean decrease in center point thickness and central subfield thickness of 38.9% and 33.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal E10030 administered at doses up to 3 mg in combination with ranibizumab was well tolerated without evidence of systemic or ocular toxicity in participants with NVAMD. The changes in both mean VA and imaging biomarkers suggest a favorable short-term safety profile for the combination therapy of E10030 and ranibizumab.

Stagner AM, Jakobiec FA, Freitag SK. Primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the eyelid skin: Diagnostic clues and distinction from other ocular adnexal diseases. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(3):333-8.Abstract

A 60-year-old man developed a rubbery thickening and erythema of his left lateral upper and lower eyelids and lateral canthus over several months. He was treated for an extended period of time for blepharitis and chalazia. Incisional biopsy eventually disclosed microscopically a hypercellular lymphoid population sparing the epidermis that surrounded adnexal structures and infiltrated between orbicularis muscle fibers. Immunohistochemically, the lesion was found to be composed of neoplastic, kappa-restricted B cells with an equal number of reactive T cells and small reactive follicles. The diagnosis was a primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the eyelid skin (EMZL). We review the distinguishing clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of cutaneous EMZL and contrast those with EMZL of other ocular adnexal sites. Also offered is a differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphomas of the eyelid skin, which are predominately T-cell lesions.

Chan KW, Deng L, Weissberg EM. Detection of Strabismus by Non-Health Care Professionals in an Ethnically Diverse Set of Images. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016;134(1):30-6.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Understanding the criteria for when strabismus becomes detectable by non-health care professionals could influence the goals for determining the success of surgical intervention and how patients with such misalignments are counseled. OBJECTIVE: To examine the magnitude at which strabismus is detectable by lay observers in an ethnically diverse set of images. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Photographs of 12 ethnically diverse models (black, white, and Asian) were simulated to have strabismus from esotropia of 21 prism diopters (∆) to exotropia of 21∆. From July 1, 2007, to October, 1, 2008, images were presented to 120 non-health care professionals aged 21 years or older from the general community in Boston, Massachusetts, who were asked whether strabismus was present. Analysis was conducted from November 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The threshold angle for detecting strabismus to enable 70% of lay observers to make a positive determination whether strabismus is present. RESULTS: In white and black models, the threshold allowing a 70% positive detection rate was higher for esotropia than for exotropia (P < .001 for both). For white models, the threshold was 23.2∆ (95% CI, 21.0∆ to 26.5∆) for esotropia and 13.5∆ (95% CI, 12.5∆ to 14.6∆) for exotropia. For black models, the threshold was 20.8∆ (95% CI, 19.2∆ to 22.2∆) for esotropia and 16.3∆ (95% CI, 15.5∆ to 17.2∆) for exotropia. Asian models showed an opposite trend, with the threshold allowing a 70% positive detection rate for esotropia (14.3∆; 95% CI, 13.2∆ to 15.7∆) being lower than that for exotropia (20.9∆; 95% CI, 18.0∆ to 24.6∆) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Esotropia was easier for lay observers to detect than exotropia in Asian models, and exotropia was easier to detect than esotropia in white and black models. This information should be considered when managing patients who have concerns about the social significance of their strabismus. Future studies should include diverse individuals and make an effort to account for individual factors that may alter the perception of strabismus.

Jakobiec FA. Conjunctival Primary Acquired Melanosis: Is It Time for a New Terminology?. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;162:3-19.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review the diagnostic categories of a group of conditions referred to as "primary acquired melanosis." DESIGN: Literature review on the subject and proposal of an alternative diagnostic schema with histopathologic and immunohistochemical illustrations. METHODS: Standard hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemical stains for MART-1, HMB-45, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), and Ki-67 for calculating the proliferation index are illustrated. RESULTS: "Melanosis" is an inadequate and misleading term because it does not distinguish between conjunctival intraepithelial melanin overproduction ("hyperpigmentation") and intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation. It is recommended that "intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation" be adopted for histopathologic diagnosis. Atypical proliferations are characterized either by bloated dendritic melanocytes with enlarged cell components (dendrites, cell bodies, and nuclei) or by epithelioid melanocytes without dendrites. Atypical polygonal or epithelioid pagetoid cells may reach higher levels of the epithelium beyond the basal layer. Immunohistochemistry defines the degree of melanocytic proliferation or the cellular shape (dendritic or nondendritic) (MART-1, HMB-45) or identifies the melanocytic nuclei (MiTF). Intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation without atypia represents increased numbers of normal-appearing dendritic melanocytes (hyperplasia or early neoplasia) that generally remain confined to the basal/basement membrane region. Intraepithelial nonproliferative melanocytic pigmentation signifies the usually small number of conjunctival basal dendritic melanocytes that synthesize increased amounts of melanin that is transferred to surrounding keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: All pre- and postoperative biopsies of flat conjunctival melanocytic disorders should be evaluated immunohistochemically if there is any question regarding atypicality. This should lead to a clearer microscopic descriptive diagnosis that is predicated on an analysis of the participating cell types and their architectural patterns. This approach is conducive to a better appreciation of features indicating when to intervene therapeutically. An accurate early diagnosis should forestall unnecessary later surgery.

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