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Abud TB, Amparo F, Saboo US, Di Zazzo A, Dohlman TH, Ciolino JB, Hamrah P, Dana R. A Clinical Trial Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus versus Methylprednisolone in Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease. Ophthalmology 2016;123(7):1449-57.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.05% versus topical methylprednisolone 0.5% in patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). DESIGN: Phase 1/2 prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD were enrolled. METHODS: Forty patients with ocular GVHD were randomized; 24 patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.05% and 16 patients were treated with topical methylprednisolone 0.5% twice daily for 10 weeks, in addition to continuing their baseline treatment regimen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Safety was evaluated based on occurrence of adverse events. Tolerability was assessed based on subject reports of discomfort after drop instillation. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored. The main efficacy end points were corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer test results, and expression of the ocular surface inflammatory markers human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Symptoms were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). RESULTS: After 10 weeks of treatment, no major adverse events occurred in either treatment group, and there was no significant difference in the composite tolerability scores between the 2 groups (P = 0.06). However, burning sensation was more pronounced with tacrolimus (P = 0.002). Topical tacrolimus was more effective than methylprednisolone in reducing the CFS score at week 10 (55% vs. 23% reduction, respectively; P = 0.01) and achieved significant improvement in TBUT when compared with baseline (P < 0.001). Reduction in OSDI score achieved statistical significance with tacrolimus (27% reduction; P = 0.02), but was marginal with methylprednisolone (32% reduction; P = 0.06). Expression of ICAM-1 by ocular surface epithelium decreased significantly in both groups (tacrolimus, P = 0.003; methylprednisolone, P = 0.008), whereas HLA-DR expression decreased significantly only in the tacrolimus group (P = 0.03). Schirmer test scores did not change significantly in either group during the study; IOP increased significantly with methylprednisolone at week 10 (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Topical tacrolimus 0.05% is safe, generally well tolerated, and effective for the treatment of ocular GVHD without the hypertensive effects of topical corticosteroids.

Tecilazich F, Feke GT, Mazzantini S, Sobrin L, Lorenzi M. Defective Myogenic Response of Retinal Vessels Is Associated With Accelerated Onset of Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetic Individuals. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57(4):1523-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: We seek to identify pathogenic mechanisms for diabetic retinopathy that can become therapeutic targets beyond hyperglycemia and hypertension. We investigated if a defective myogenic response of retinal arteries to increased perfusion pressure, which exposes capillaries to increased pressure and flow, is associated with the onset of clinical retinopathy. METHODS: We examined prospectively the incidence of retinopathy in type 1 diabetic individuals tested 4 years earlier for the retinal arterial myogenic response, and in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of defective myogenic response in type 1 patients who had diabetic retinopathy. Among these, we contrasted early-onset (after 15 ± 2 years of diabetes, E-DR; n = 5) to late-onset (after 26 ± 3 years of diabetes, L-DR; n = 7) retinopathy. We measured the myogenic response using a laser Doppler blood flowmeter after a change in posture from sitting to reclining, which increases retinal perfusion pressure. RESULTS: Five of seven participants who 4 years prior had a defective myogenic response had now developed clinical retinopathy; as compared with only one of six participants who 4 years prior had a normal response (P = 0.10). In the cross-sectional study, all participants had normal retinal hemodynamics at steady state. In response to the postural change, only the E-DR group showed defective myogenic response (P = 0.005 versus controls, P = 0.02 versus L-DR) and abnormally high retinal blood flow (P = 0.016 versus controls). CONCLUSIONS: In type 1 diabetic patients, a defective myogenic response of retinal arteries to pressure is not required for the development of clinical retinopathy, but is prominently associated with an accelerated onset of retinopathy.

Vavvas DG, Daniels AB, Kapsala ZG, Goldfarb JW, Ganotakis E, Loewenstein JI, Young LH, Gragoudas ES, Eliott D, Kim IK, Tsilimbaris MK, Miller JW. Regression of Some High-risk Features of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Patients Receiving Intensive Statin Treatment. EBioMedicine 2016;5:198-203.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the leading cause of blindness in developed countries, and affects more than 150 million worldwide. Despite effective anti-angiogenic therapies for the less prevalent neovascular form of AMD, treatments are lacking for the more prevalent dry form. Similarities in risk factors and pathogenesis between AMD and atherosclerosis have led investigators to study the effects of statins on AMD incidence and progression with mixed results. A limitation of these studies has been the heterogeneity of AMD disease and the lack of standardization in statin dosage. OBJECTIVE: We were interested in studying the effects of high-dose statins, similar to those showing regression of atherosclerotic plaques, in AMD. DESIGN: Pilot multicenter open-label prospective clinical study of 26 patients with diagnosis of AMD and the presence of many large, soft drusenoid deposits. Patients received 80 mg of atorvastatin daily and were monitored at baseline and every 3 months with complete ophthalmologic exam, best corrected visual acuity (VA), fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and blood work (AST, ALT, CPK, total cholesterol, TSH, creatinine, as well as a pregnancy test for premenopausal women). RESULTS: Twenty-three subjects completed a minimum follow-up of 12 months. High-dose atorvastatin resulted in regression of drusen deposits associated with vision gain (+ 3.3 letters, p = 0.06) in 10 patients. No subjects progressed to advanced neovascular AMD. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose statins may result in resolution of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) and improvement in VA, without atrophy or neovascularization in a high-risk subgroup of AMD patients. Confirmation from larger studies is warranted.

Hoguet A, Grajewski A, Hodapp E, Chang TCP. A retrospective survey of childhood glaucoma prevalence according to Childhood Glaucoma Research Network classification. Indian J Ophthalmol 2016;64(2):118-23.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classification system and describe the prevalence of each subtype according to this classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, the medical records of 205 consecutive childhood glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients at an urban tertiary care center were reviewed. The initial diagnosis and new diagnosis according to CGRN classification were recorded. RESULTS: All patients fit one of the seven categories of the new classification. Seventy-one percent of diagnoses were changed upon reclassification. Twenty-three percent of patients had primary glaucoma (juvenile open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma [PCG]); 36% had secondary glaucoma (glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies; glaucoma associated with nonacquired systemic disease or syndrome; glaucoma associated with acquired condition; and glaucoma following cataract surgery); and 39% were glaucoma suspect. Of the patients diagnosed with glaucoma, PCG was the most common diagnosis, seen in 32% of patients. CONCLUSION: The CGRN classification provides a useful method of classifying childhood glaucoma.

Laíns I, Bartosch C, Mondim V, Healy B, Kim I, Husain D, Miller JW. Second primary neoplasms in patients with uveal melanoma: a SEER database analysis. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the risk of second primary neoplasms (SPNs) in subjects previously diagnosed with uveal melanoma (UM), including an analysis on whether radiotherapy is a risk factor to develop these SPNs. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 database, we identified patients diagnosed with UM as their first malignancy between 1973 and 2011 (n= 3,976). We obtained standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks of SPNs on patients with UM compared to a reference population. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy in SPNs risk. RESULTS: Sixteen percent (n= 641) of the patients developed SPNs during a median follow-up of 83 months (range: 1 - 463 months). This represented an 11% excess risk compared to the reference population, mainly due to a significantly increased risk of skin melanomas (SIR= 2.93, 95% CI: 2.23 - 3.78) and kidney tumors (SIR= 1.91, 95% CI: 1.27 - 2.76), primarily in those diagnosed between 30-59 years. The occurrence of second UM was also increased (SIR= 16.90, 95% CI: 9.00 - 28.90), which likely includes recurrences misclassified as a second cancer. Radiotherapy was performed in 39% (n= 1,538) of the patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that this treatment was not an independent risk factor for SPNs (Hazard Ratio= 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88 - 1.26, p= 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with UM presented an 11% higher risk of SPNs compared to the reference population. Radiotherapy does not seem to be a risk factor. SPNs should be considered in the surveillance of UM.

Wang YE, Kakigi C, Barbosa D, Porco T, Chen R, Wang S, Li Y, Singh K, Pasquale LR, Lin SC. Oral Contraceptive Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension in the United States. Ophthalmology 2016;123(4):729-36.Abstract

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and glaucoma prevalence in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3406 female participants, aged 40 years or older, from the 2005 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, who reported a presence or absence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension completed both the vision and the reproductive health questionnaires and underwent eye examinations. METHODS: Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between OC use and self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension (n = 231 cases), controlling for potential confounders, including age, ethnicity, systemic comorbidities such as hypertension and stroke, ocular diseases such as cataract and diabetic retinopathy, and reproductive health factors, including age at menopause, age at menarche, history of hormone replacement therapy, and gynecological surgical history. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome variable was self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, those with ≥3 years of OC use had greater odds (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.07) of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Other factors associated with higher glaucoma or ocular hypertension prevalence included older age, African American race, and later age at menarche. CONCLUSIONS: Oral contraceptive use may be associated with increased risk of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Silpa-Archa S, Silpa-Archa N, Preble JM, Foster SC. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: Perspectives for immunogenetics, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options. Autoimmun Rev 2016;15(8):809-19.Abstract

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) is a bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis associated with neurological, audiovestibular, and dermatological systems. The primary pathogenesis is T-cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards melanocyte or melanocyte-associated antigens causing inflammation of the choroidal layer. This phenomenon usually leads to diffuse inflammatory conditions throughout most parts of eye before ocular complications ensue. The diagnosis is achieved mainly by clinical features according to the revised diagnostic criteria of VKH published in 2001, without confirmatory serologic tests as a requirement. However, ancillary tests, especially multimodal imaging, can reliably provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of early cases, atypical presentations, and evaluation of management. Prompt treatment with systemic corticosteroids and early non-steroidal immunosuppressive drug therapy can lessen visually threatening ocular complications and bring about good visual recovery. Close monitoring warrants visual stabilization from disease recurrence and ocular complications. This article review aims not only to update comprehensive knowledge regarding VKH but also to emphasize three major perspectives of VKH: immunogenetics as the major pathogenesis of the disease, multimodal imaging, and therapeutic options. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and drug-induced VKH is also provided.

Hutchinson AK, Melia M, Yang MB, VanderVeen DK, Wilson LB, Lambert SR. Clinical Models and Algorithms for the Prediction of Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2016;123(4):804-16.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy with which available retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) predictive models detect clinically significant ROP and to what extent and at what risk these models allow for the reduction of screening examinations for ROP. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases was conducted last on May 1, 2015, and yielded 305 citations. After screening the abstracts of all 305 citations and reviewing the full text of 30 potentially eligible articles, the panel members determined that 22 met the inclusion criteria. One article included 2 studies, for a total of 23 studies reviewed. The panel extracted information about study design, study population, the screening algorithm tested, interventions, outcomes, and study quality. The methodologist divided the studies into 2 categories-model development and model validation-and assigned a level of evidence rating to each study. One study was rated level I evidence, 3 studies were rated level II evidence, and 19 studies were rated level III evidence. RESULTS: In some cohorts, some models would have allowed reductions in the number of infants screened for ROP without failing to identify infants requiring treatment. However, the small sample size and limited generalizability of the ROP predictive models included in this review preclude their widespread use to make all-or-none decisions about whether to screen individual infants for ROP. As an alternative, some studies proposed approaches to apply the models to reduce the number of examinations performed in low-risk infants. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to optimize ROP predictive model development, validation, and application before such models can be used widely to reduce the burdensome number of ROP screening examinations.

Stryjewski TP, Papakostas TD, Eliott D. Multimodal Imaging of Elschnig Spots: A Case of Simultaneous Hypertensive Retinopathy, Choroidopathy, and Neuropathy. Semin Ophthalmol 2016;:1-3.Abstract

A 65-year-old woman with chronic hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, and schizophrenia self-discontinued her medications and presented complaining of decreased vision; she was found to have a blood pressure of 256/156 and visual acuity 20/70 OD. In the emergency department, her blood pressure was rapidly lowered to a nadir of 134/104. During the course of her hospitalization, her visual acuity declined from 20/70 to 20/200 OD in parallel with a decline in her renal function. Multi-modal imaging revealed simultaneous hypertensive retinopathy, choroidopathy, and optic neuropathy. Autofluorescence can play an important role in the diagnosis of hypertensive choroidopathy.

Oray M, Khachatryan N, Ebrahimiadib N, Abusamra K, Lee S, Foster SC. Ocular morbidities of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in adulthood: results from a tertiary center study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2016;254(9):1841-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and visual outcomes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis in adults and to examine risk factors for ongoing inflammation in adulthood. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients with JIA-associated uveitis who were >16 years old at the final visit (the last visit prior to data collection). RESULTS: In total, 135 eyes of 77 patients (70 female, 7 male) were included. The mean age of patients at the final visit was 29.72 ± 11.27 years. The number of eyes with visual acuity of ≤20/50 and ≤20/200 at the final visit was 37 (28 %) and 20 (15 %), respectively; at least one ocular complication was present in 72 % of eyes. Band keratopathy was the most frequent complication (42 %), followed by cataract (25 %), posterior synechiae (22 %), maculopathy (22 %), ocular hypertension (13 %), and hypotony (5 %). At the final visit, patients who were >16 years of age at presentation to the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution had more ocular complications and a greater degree of vision loss than patients who were ≤16 years of age. Ongoing inflammation at the final visit was noted in 40 patients (52 %). The presence of posterior synechiae, hypotony, cataract at presentation, and a history of cataract surgery prior to presentation were predictive of ongoing inflammation in adulthood in univariate analysis. The presence of hypotony and posterior synechiae at the initial visit were predictive factors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: JIA-associated uveitis may be associated with ongoing inflammation, ocular complications, and severe visual impairment in adulthood. The presence of posterior synechiae and hypotony at the initial visit is predictive of ongoing inflammation.

Haleem MS, Han L, van Hemert J, Fleming A, Pasquale LR, Silva PS, Song BJ, Aiello LP. Regional Image Features Model for Automatic Classification between Normal and Glaucoma in Fundus and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) Images. J Med Syst 2016;40(6):132.Abstract

Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. There is no cure for glaucoma but detection at its earliest stage and subsequent treatment can aid patients to prevent blindness. Currently, optic disc and retinal imaging facilitates glaucoma detection but this method requires manual post-imaging modifications that are time-consuming and subjective to image assessment by human observers. Therefore, it is necessary to automate this process. In this work, we have first proposed a novel computer aided approach for automatic glaucoma detection based on Regional Image Features Model (RIFM) which can automatically perform classification between normal and glaucoma images on the basis of regional information. Different from all the existing methods, our approach can extract both geometric (e.g. morphometric properties) and non-geometric based properties (e.g. pixel appearance/intensity values, texture) from images and significantly increase the classification performance. Our proposed approach consists of three new major contributions including automatic localisation of optic disc, automatic segmentation of disc, and classification between normal and glaucoma based on geometric and non-geometric properties of different regions of an image. We have compared our method with existing approaches and tested it on both fundus and Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images. The experimental results show that our proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches using either geometric or non-geometric properties. The overall glaucoma classification accuracy for fundus images is 94.4 % and accuracy of detection of suspicion of glaucoma in SLO images is 93.9 %.

Salvador-Culla B, Kolovou PE, Arzeno L, Martínez S, López MA. Boston Keratoprosthesis Type 1 in Chemical Burns. Cornea 2016;35(6):911-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe and further analyze the long-term results in visual acuity (VA), anatomical retention, and rate of complications from patients who underwent Boston keratoprosthesis (B-Kpro) type 1 after ocular chemical burns in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: A retrospective review of 42 eyes (22 OD:20 OS) of 36 patients who underwent B-Kpro type 1 implantation after severe ocular burn at Hospital Elías Santana in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, between April 2006 and October 2014, were included. RESULTS: Demographics, VA, anatomical retention, and the rates of postoperative complications and concurrent surgeries were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The excellent anatomical retention rates and visual outcomes presented in this study support the remarkable capability of B-Kpro type 1 to restore functional VA in eyes with severe chemical injuries. However, strict control of the postoperative complications is necessary for long-term success. In conclusion, the use of a B-Kpro type 1 after severe chemical burn is a viable option in patients otherwise condemned to the high risk of failure associated with conventional corneal grafts.

Hong J, Zhong T, Li H, Xu J, Ye X, Mu Z, Lu Y, Mashaghi A, Zhou Y, Tan M, Li Q, Sun X, Liu Z, Xu J. Ambient air pollution, weather changes, and outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis: A retrospective registry study. Sci Rep 2016;6:23858.Abstract

Allergic conjunctivitis is a common problem that significantly impairs patients' quality of life. Whether air pollution serves as a risk factor for the development of allergic conjunctivitis remains elusive. In this paper, we assess the relationship between air pollutants and weather conditions with outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. By using a time-series analysis based on the largest dataset ever assembled to date, we found that the number of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis was significantly correlated with the levels of NO2, O3, and temperature, while its association with humidity was statistically marginal. No associations between PM10, PM2.5, SO2, or wind velocity and outpatient visits were seen. Subgroup analyses showed that sex seemed to modify the effects of humidity on outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis, but not for NO2, O3, or temperature. People younger than 40 were found to be susceptible to changes of all four parameters, while those older than 40 were only consistently affected by NO2 levels. Our findings revealed that higher levels of ambient NO2, O3, and temperature increase the chances of outpatient visits for allergic conjunctivitis. Ambient air pollution and weather changes may contribute to the worsening of allergic conjunctivitis.

Zhang MM, Papakostas TD, Malcolm AW, Ancell KK, Biscotti CV, Gragoudas ES, Daniels AB. Multiple simultaneous choroidal melanomas arising in the same eye: globe salvage by radiotherapy. Acta Ophthalmol 2016;94(8):e799-e802.Abstract

PURPOSE: Multiple choroidal melanomas arising in the same eye is a very rare entity, usually leading ophthalmologists to entertain other diagnoses. Historically, the only available treatment reported for this rare entity was enucleation. In this study we demonstrate in a series of patients with multiple simultaneous choroidal melanomas that eye salvage is possible using a variety of radiotherapy techniques. OBSERVATIONS: Both patients presented with two simultaneous choroidal melanomas in one eye. The first patient was only 30 years old and presented with two largely amelanotic tumours with large exudative retinal detachment. Cytology from fine needle aspiration biopsies from both tumours with immunohistochemistry confirmed two separate melanomas. Sequential radioactive iodine plaque brachytherapy led to regression of both tumours. The second, older patient's two tumours both had the typical appearance of choroidal melanoma and he underwent proton beam irradiation to the entire field leading to tumour regression. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple choroidal melanomas can rarely arise simultaneously in the same eye, and despite their variable appearance, a definitive diagnosis can be aided by cytology and immunohistochemistry in atypical-appearing cases. While all other previously reported cases have necessitated enucleation, we demonstrate that globe salvage is possible using either proton beam irradiation to the entire tumour field, or with sequential radioactive plaque brachytherapy.

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