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Wilson ME, O'Halloran H, VanderVeen D, Roarty J, Plager DA, Markwardt K, Gedif K, Lambert SR. Difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate for inflammation following cataract surgery in pediatric patients: a randomized safety and efficacy study. Eye (Lond) 2016;30(9):1187-94.Abstract

PurposeTo evaluate safety and efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion for treatment of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in pediatric patients.MethodsThis was a phase 3B, multicentre, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled study of patients aged 0-3 years who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in one eye, with/without intraocular lens implantation. Patients were randomized to receive difluprednate 0.05% four times daily or prednisolone acetate 1% for 14 days post surgery, followed by tapering for 14 days. Safety included evaluation of adverse events. Primary efficacy was the proportion of patients with an anterior cell grade of 0 (no cells) at day 14; secondary efficacy was a global inflammation score.ResultsForty patients were randomized to each treatment group. Adverse drug reactions included corneal oedema (difluprednate 0.5%, n=1; prednisolone acetate 1%, n=0) and increased intraocular pressure or ocular hypertension (n=2/group). Mean intraocular pressure values during treatment were 2-3 mm Hg higher with difluprednate 0.05% compared with prednisolone acetate 1%; mean values were similar between groups by the first week after treatment cessation. At 2 weeks post surgery, the incidence of complete clearing of anterior chamber cells was similar between groups (difluprednate 0.05%, n=30 (78.9%); prednisolone acetate 1%, n=31 (77.5%). Compared with prednisolone acetate 1%, approximately twice as many difluprednate 0.05%-treated patients had a global inflammation assessment score indicating no inflammation on day 1 (n=12 (30.8%) vs n=7 (17.5%) and day 8 (n=18 (48.7%) vs n=10 (25.0%).ConclusionsDifluprednate 0.05% four times daily showed safety and efficacy profiles similar to prednisolone acetate 1% four times daily in children 0-3 years undergoing cataract surgery.

Deiner MS, Lietman TM, McLeod SD, Chodosh J, Porco TC. Surveillance Tools Emerging From Search Engines and Social Media Data for Determining Eye Disease Patterns. JAMA Ophthalmol 2016;134(9):1024-30.Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Internet-based search engine and social media data may provide a novel complementary source for better understanding the epidemiologic factors of infectious eye diseases, which could better inform eye health care and disease prevention. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether data from internet-based social media and search engines are associated with objective clinic-based diagnoses of conjunctivitis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from encounters of 4143 patients diagnosed with conjunctivitis from June 3, 2012, to April 26, 2014, at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center, were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation of each weekly observation to compare demographics and seasonality of nonallergic conjunctivitis with allergic conjunctivitis. Data for patient encounters with diagnoses for glaucoma and influenza were also obtained for the same period and compared with conjunctivitis. Temporal patterns of Twitter and Google web search data, geolocated to the United States and associated with these clinical diagnoses, were compared with the clinical encounters. The a priori hypothesis was that weekly internet-based searches and social media posts about conjunctivitis may reflect the true weekly clinical occurrence of conjunctivitis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Weekly total clinical diagnoses at UCSF of nonallergic conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and influenza were compared using Spearman rank correlation with equivalent weekly data on Tweets related to disease or disease-related keyword searches obtained from Google Trends. RESULTS: Seasonality of clinical diagnoses of nonallergic conjunctivitis among the 4143 patients (2364 females [57.1%] and 1776 males [42.9%]) with 5816 conjunctivitis encounters at UCSF correlated strongly with results of Google searches in the United States for the term pink eye (ρ, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.78]; P < .001) and correlated moderately with Twitter results about pink eye (ρ, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.56]; P < .001) and with clinical diagnosis of influenza (ρ, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.49]; P < .001), but did not significantly correlate with seasonality of clinical diagnoses of allergic conjunctivitis diagnosis at UCSF (ρ, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.02 to 0.42]; P = .06) or with results of Google searches in the United States for the term eye allergy (ρ, 0.13 [95% CI, -0.06 to 0.32]; P = .19). Seasonality of clinical diagnoses of allergic conjunctivitis at UCSF correlated strongly with results of Google searches in the United States for the term eye allergy (ρ, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.24 to 0.60]; P < .001) and eye drops (ρ, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.27 to 0.62]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Internet-based search engine and social media data may reflect the occurrence of clinically diagnosed conjunctivitis, suggesting that these data sources can be leveraged to better understand the epidemiologic factors of conjunctivitis.

Song BJ, Ramanathan M, Morales E, Law SK, Giaconi JAA, Coleman AL, Caprioli J. Trabeculectomy and Combined Phacoemulsification-Trabeculectomy: Outcomes and Risk Factors for Failure in Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2016;25(9):763-9.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate tonometric outcomes of patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) who have undergone trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) with and without concurrent phacoemulsification and to identify risk factors for postoperative failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 44 eyes of 33 phakic patients who underwent trabeculectomy with MMC with or without combined phacoemulsification for PACG. The primary endpoint was qualified tonometric success at 12 months according to predefined criteria. LogMAR visual acuity, number of glaucoma medications, and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for trabeculectomy failure. RESULTS: Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 21.3±7.9 to 12.2±3.9 mm Hg at 12 months (P<0.001) in all patients. A significant reduction in mean number of glaucoma medications (P<0.001) was also seen. There was no change in logMAR visual acuity (P=0.39) after 12 months. There were no significant intergroup differences in mean IOP (P=0.42), number of glaucoma medications (P=0.85), or logMAR visual acuity (P=0.42) between the trabeculectomy versus combined surgery groups after 12 months. Increased age, greater baseline IOP, limbus-based conjunctival flaps, and MMC duration >1 minute were associated with decreased risk of surgical failure. Concurrent phacoemulsification at the time of trabeculectomy did not alter tonometric success or rate of complications. CONCLUSIONS: In phakic patients with PACG, trabeculectomy with MMC significantly reduces IOP and number of glaucoma medications at 12 months without change in visual acuity. However, success rates are modest when based on more demanding tonometric criteria.

Cho H, Shin YU, Siegel NH, Yu HG, Sobrin L, Patel A, Durand ML, Miller JW, Husain D. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in the American and Korean Population: An 8-year Retrospective Study. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;:1-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. METHODS: We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida species were the most common pathogens of EE in the Korean and the American patients, respectively. Endophthalmitis caused by fungi had a better visual prognosis than that caused by bacteria (p = 0.001). Vitrectomy was beneficial for eyes with EE due to virulent bacteria presenting with worse than counting finger vision. CONCLUSIONS: The predisposing conditions and responsible organisms for EE vary in different regions of the world. The visual prognosis was strongly influenced by the underlying pathogen.

Qazi Y, Hurwitz S, Khan S, Jurkunas UV, Dana R, Hamrah P. Validity and Reliability of a Novel Ocular Pain Assessment Survey (OPAS) in Quantifying and Monitoring Corneal and Ocular Surface Pain. Ophthalmology 2016;123(7):1458-68.Abstract

PURPOSE: To validate the Ocular Pain Assessment Survey (OPAS), specifically designed to measure ocular pain and quality of life for use by eye care practitioners and researchers. DESIGN: A single-center cohort study was conducted among patients with and without corneal and ocular surface pain at initial and follow-up visits over a 6-month period. The content of the OPAS was guided by literature review, a body of experts, and incorporating conceptual frameworks from existing pain questionnaires. The Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale served as the gold standard for measuring the intensity of ocular pain. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 patients aged 18 to 80 years completed the OPAS at the initial visit. A total of 21 patients were followed up after treatment. METHODS: Indices of validity and internal consistency (Spearman's rank-order, rs, or Pearson's correlation coefficients, rp), and coefficient of reliability (Cronbach's α) were determined in addition to equivalence testing, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and diagnostic analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Eye pain intensity was the primary outcome measure, and interference with quality of life (QoL), aggravating factors, associated factors, associated non-eye pain intensity, and self-reported symptomatic relief were the secondary outcome measures. RESULTS: The OPAS had criterion validity at both initial (rs = 0.71; n = 102; P < 0.01) and follow-up visits (rs = 0.97; n = 21; P < 0.01). Equivalence tests yielded OPAS and gold standard equivalence for both the initial and follow-up visits. The EFA supported 6 subscales (eye pain intensity at 24 hours and 2 weeks, non-eye pain intensity, QoL, aggravating factors, and associated factors) confirming multidimensionality. Cronbach's α >0.83 for all subscales established strong internal consistency, which correlated with the gold standard, including 24-hour eye pain intensity and QoL interference scores (rp = 0.81, 0.64, respectively P < 0.001). At follow-up, reduction in pain scores was accompanied by improvement in all dimensions of the OPAS. Percentage change in QoL correlated to percentage change in the gold standard (rp = 0.53; P < 0.05). The OPAS was sensitive (94%), specific (81%), and accurate (91%), with a diagnostic odds ratio >50. CONCLUSIONS: The OPAS is a valid, reliable, and responsive tool with strong psychometric and diagnostic properties in the multidimensional quantification of corneal and ocular surface pain intensity, and QoL.

M Mallery R, Poolman P, J Thurtell M, Wang J-K, K Garvin M, Ledolter J, Kardon RH. The Pattern of Visual Fixation Eccentricity and Instability in Optic Neuropathy and Its Spatial Relationship to Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016;57(9):OCT429-37.Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinically useful measures of fixation instability and eccentricity can be derived from retinal tracking data obtained during optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with optic neuropathy (ON) and to develop a method for relating fixation to the retinal ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with ON underwent macular volume OCT with 30 seconds of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO)-based eye tracking during fixation. Kernel density estimation quantified fixation instability and fixation eccentricity from the distribution of fixation points on the retina. Preferred ganglion cell layer loci (PGCL) and their relationship to the GCC thickness map were derived, accounting for radial displacement of retinal ganglion cell soma from their corresponding cones. RESULTS: Fixation instability was increased in ON eyes (0.21 deg2) compared with normal eyes (0.06982 deg2; P < 0.001), and fixation eccentricity was increased in ON eyes (0.48°) compared with normal eyes (0.24°; P = 0.03). Fixation instability and eccentricity each correlated moderately with logMAR acuity and were highly predictive of central visual field loss. Twenty-six of 35 ON eyes had PGCL skewed toward local maxima of the GCC thickness map. Patients with bilateral dense central scotomas had PGCL in homonymous retinal locations with respect to the fovea. CONCLUSIONS: Fixation instability and eccentricity measures obtained during cSLO-OCT assess the function of perifoveal retinal elements and predict central visual field loss in patients with ON. A model relating fixation to the GCC thickness map offers a method to assess the structure-function relationship between fixation and areas of preserved GCC in patients with ON.

Hong J, Qian T, Wei A, Sun Z, Wu D, Chen Y, Marmalidou A, Lu Y, Sun X, Liu Z, Amparo F, Xu J. Nasolacrimal recanalization as an alternative to external dacryocystorhinostomy for treating failed nasolacrimal duct intubation. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(30):e4350.Abstract

To compare the surgical duration and clinical outcomes of nasolacrimal recanalization versus external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in the treatment of failed nasolacrimal duct intubation.This is a retrospective, comparative, and interventional study. We evaluated the outcomes of 66 consecutive patients undergoing either nasolacrimal recanalization (n = 32) or DCR (n = 34) in a tertiary lacrimal disease referral center. Length of surgical duration, clinical outcomes, and rate of recurrence at 18 months postoperatively were compared.The mean surgical duration was 18.5 minutes (range, 15-25 minutes) for nasolacrimal recanalization and 48.2 minutes (range, 45-61 minutes) for DCR, respectively (P < 0.001). The rate of success was 84.4% in the recanalization group and 85.3% in the DCR group, respectively (P = 0.91). The time to recurrence was 2.6 ± 1.1 months in the recanalization group and 5.6 ± 2.1 months in the DCR group (P < 0.001). Five failed cases in each group received a secondary DCR surgery with the same resolution rate (40%). The absence of ocular discharge at baseline was a significant predictor for a successful outcome in the recanalization group (P = 0.04) but not in the DCR group (P = 0.63).Nasolacrimal recanalization is an effective, safe, and time-saving alternative to DCR for the treatment of failed nasolacrimal duct intubation. Clinicians should be cautious in patients with discharge.

Wong LL, Lee NG, Amarnani D, Choi CJ, Bielenberg DR, Freitag SK, D'Amore PA, Kim LA. Orbital Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Thyroid Eye Disease: An Analysis of Vascular Growth Factors with Clinical Correlation. Ophthalmology 2016;123(9):2028-36.Abstract

PURPOSE: The human orbit is an environment that is vulnerable to inflammation and edema in the setting of autoimmune thyroid disease. Our study investigated the tenet that orbital adipose tissue lacks lymphatic vessels and analyzed the clinicopathologic differences between patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED). The underlying molecular mediators of blood and lymphatic vessel formation within the orbital fat also were evaluated. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included fat specimens from 26 orbits of 15 patients with TED undergoing orbital decompression. Orbital fat specimens from patients without TED as well as cadaveric orbital fat served as controls. METHODS: Tissue specimens were processed as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections or frozen cryosections for immunohistochemistry. Total RNA was extracted and analyzed via quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinicopathologic correlation was made by determining the clinical activity score (CAS) of each patient with TED. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Samples were examined for vascular and lymphatic markers including podoplanin, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) by immunohistochemistry, as well as for mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors, semaphorin 3F, neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, podoplanin, and LYVE-1 by quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Clinicopathologic correlation revealed increased staining of CD31-positive blood vessels in patients with acute TED with a CAS more than 4, as well as rare staining of podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels within acutely inflamed orbital fat tissue. Additionally, quantitative (real-time) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated increased expression of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 as well as VEGF signaling molecules VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. CONCLUSIONS: In acute TED, compared with chronic TED and control orbital fat, there is increased blood vessel density, suggesting neovascularization and rare lymphatic vessels suggestive of limited lymphangiogenesis. This proangiogenic and prolymphangiogenic microenvironment is likely the result of the increased expression of VEGFR-2, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D. These findings imply that orbital edema in acute TED may be mediated, in part, by both the formation of new, immature blood vessels and the formation of lymphatic capillaries that are functionally incapable of draining interstitial fluid.

Syed ZA, Chen TC. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma. J Glaucoma 2016;25(8):e759-60.Abstract

We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

Cocho L, Gonzalez-Gonzalez LA, Molina-Prat N, Doctor P, Sainz-de-la-Maza M, Foster SC. Scleritis in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener). Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(8):1062-5.Abstract

AIMS: To describe and compare clinical features, complications and outcomes in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)-associated scleritis with those seen in idiopathic and other autoimmune-associated scleritis, and to further describe the features that may serve as an indicator of life-threatening systemic disease. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic health records of all patients with scleritis seen at two tertiary care centres. Of 500 patients, 14 had GPA-associated scleritis and were included in this analysis. Measures included were age, gender, laterality, visual acuity and underlying systemic or ocular diseases. Clinical features (location, pain, inflammation) and ocular complications of these patients (decrease of vision, concomitant anterior uveitis and ocular hypertension) were studied and correlated. RESULTS: Fourteen of 500 patients with scleritis were GPA associated. Most of the patients with GPA-associated scleritis presented with sudden onset, bilateral, diffuse anterior scleral inflammation, with moderate-or-severe pain. Vision loss was not significantly different, and pain was more severe in these patients than in those with idiopathic scleritis. When compared with patients with other underlying autoimmune diseases, there were no significant differences found in epidemiological or clinical signs. Necrotising scleritis and corneal involvement were more commonly observed in GPA than in idiopathic scleritis and other autoimmune diseases and are often the presenting feature of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of necrotising changes or corneal involvement in the setting of scleral inflammation is highly suggestive of an underlying systemic vasculitis, of which GPA is the most common. These features should alert the doctor/optometrist and prompt a thorough diagnostic approach and an aggressive treatment given that it could reveal a life-threatening disease.

Saeed HN, Kohanim S, Le H-G, Chodosh J, Jacobs DS. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Corneal Ectasia: Management and a Case for Association. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;169:276-81.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of corneal ectasia (ECT) in patients with history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and to make the case for an association between these 2 diagnoses. We also report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment on visual acuity (VA) in these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A manufacturing database of PROSE patients from 2002 to 2014 at Boston Foundation for Sight (BFS), a single-center clinical practice, was reviewed to identify patients with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT. RESULTS: Nine patients were identified with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT. In each case, review of the medical record revealed that diagnosis of SJS preceded that of ECT. The prevalence of ECT in this population exceeded that in the general population (P < .0001). Videokeratography was available for 13 eyes in 7 patients; using Krumeich's classification of keratoconus, 3 eyes were found to be at stage 1, 3 at stage 2, 1 at stage 3, and 6 at stage 4. Sixteen of 18 eyes underwent PROSE treatment. Of these 16 eyes, initial median VA was 20/200 (range, count fingers to 20/20; logMAR 1.0). Median VA after PROSE customization was 20/30 (range, 20/60-20/15; logMAR 0.1761, P < .0025). CONCLUSIONS: ECT occurs at a higher-than-expected rate in patients with a history of SJS. PROSE treatment improves VA in these patients. The basis of the association between SJS and ECT is considered, as well as the role of plausible contributory factors such as corneal microtrauma and matrix metalloproteinases.

Annunziata R, Kheirkhah A, Aggarwal S, Hamrah P, Trucco E. A fully automated tortuosity quantification system with application to corneal nerve fibres in confocal microscopy images. Med Image Anal 2016;32:216-32.Abstract

Recent clinical research has highlighted important links between a number of diseases and the tortuosity of curvilinear anatomical structures like corneal nerve fibres, suggesting that tortuosity changes might detect early stages of specific conditions. Currently, clinical studies are mainly based on subjective, visual assessment, with limited repeatability and inter-observer agreement. To address these problems, we propose a fully automated framework for image-level tortuosity estimation, consisting of a hybrid segmentation method and a highly adaptable, definition-free tortuosity estimation algorithm. The former combines an appearance model, based on a Scale and Curvature-Invariant Ridge Detector (SCIRD), with a context model, including multi-range learned context filters. The latter is based on a novel tortuosity estimation paradigm in which discriminative, multi-scale features can be automatically learned for specific anatomical objects and diseases. Experimental results on 140 in vivo confocal microscopy images of corneal nerve fibres from healthy and unhealthy subjects demonstrate the excellent performance of our method compared to state-of-the-art approaches and ground truth annotations from 3 expert observers.

Modest JR, Johnston SC, Majzoub KM, Moore B, Trudell EK, Ramsey JE, Vernacchio L. Results of a primary care-based quality improvement project to optimize chart-based vision screening for preschool age children. J AAPOS 2016;Abstract

PURPOSE: To design chart-based vision screening for preschool-aged children. METHODS: Our program consisted of educational sessions for providers as well as hands-on training for practice staff. We evaluated the intervention through pre- and post-intervention review of medical records. RESULTS: Completion of full vision screening (distance visual acuity in each eye plus stereovision beginning at 3 years of age, as recommended at the time of the project) at well-child visits improved for 5-year-olds (45.0% to 58.2%; risk difference +13.2% [95% CI, 1.7-24.7]) and 4-year-olds (39.3% to 51.4%; risk difference +12.0% [95% CI, 0.7-23.4]) but declined somewhat among 3-year-olds (23.1% to 14.3%; risk difference, -8.8% [95% CI, -17.7 to 0.0]). Risk factors for not being fully screened included being 3 years old (risk ratio of 4.1 compared to 5-year-olds) and being a patient of a small practice (risk ratio of 1.9 compared to large practices). CONCLUSIONS: This quality improvement project showed that screening for visual acuity and stereovision among preschool-aged children using chart-based techniques is difficult to accomplish and unlikely to be consistently successful, especially among 3-year-olds.

Kang JH, Wu J, Cho E, Ogata S, Jacques P, Taylor A, Chiu C-J, Wiggs JL, Seddon JM, Hankinson SE, Schaumberg DA, Pasquale LR. Contribution of the Nurses' Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma. Am J Public Health 2016;106(9):1684-9.Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

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