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Abusamra K, Maghsoudlou A, Roohipoor R, Valdes-Navarro M, Lee S, Foster SC. Current Treatment Modalities of JIA-associated Uveitis and its Complications: Literature Review. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;24(4):431-9.Abstract

Uveitis is a common and serious complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Up to 75% of all cases of anterior uveitis in childhood are associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Despite the remarkable progress in early detection and treatment of inflammation, vision-threatening complications of uveitis still occur in almost 60% of patients. Structural complications include band keratopathy, maculopathy (macular edema, macular cysts, and epiretinal membrane), glaucomatous optic neuropathy, and cataracts. The management of complications in juvenile idiopathic arthritis is usually complex and requires early surgical intervention. In this paper, we review the general concepts of common ocular complications seen in patients with JIA-associated uveitis, with special attention to the recent diagnostic and preferred treatment approaches at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution. Received 9 March 2015; revised 30 September 2015; accepted 30 October 2015; published online 14 January 2016.

Jun G, Ibrahim-Verbaas CA, Vronskaya M, Lambert J-C, Chung J, Naj AC, Kunkle BW, Wang L-S, Bis JC, Bellenguez C, Harold D, Lunetta KL, Destefano AL, Grenier-Boley B, Sims R, Beecham GW, Smith AV, Chouraki V, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Ikram MA, Fievet N, Denning N, Martin ER, Schmidt H, Kamatani Y, Dunstan ML, Valladares O, Laza AR, Zelenika D, Ramirez A, Foroud TM, Choi S-H, Boland A, Becker T, Kukull WA, van der Lee SJ, Pasquier F, Cruchaga C, Beekly D, Fitzpatrick AL, Hanon O, Gill M, Barber R, Gudnason V, Campion D, Love S, Bennett DA, Amin N, Berr C, Tsolaki M, Buxbaum JD, Lopez OL, Deramecourt V, Fox NC, Cantwell LB, Tárraga L, Dufouil C, Hardy J, Crane PK, Eiriksdottir G, Hannequin D, Clarke R, Evans D, Mosley TH, Letenneur L, Brayne C, Maier W, De Jager P, Emilsson V, Dartigues J-F, Hampel H, Kamboh MI, de Bruijn RFAG, Tzourio C, Pastor P, Larson EB, Rotter JI, O'Donovan MC, Montine TJ, Nalls MA, Mead S, Reiman EM, Jonsson PV, Holmes C, St George-Hyslop PH, Boada M, Passmore P, Wendland JR, Schmidt R, Morgan K, Winslow AR, Powell JF, Carasquillo M, Younkin SG, Jakobsdóttir J, Kauwe JSK, Wilhelmsen KC, Rujescu D, Nöthen MM, Hofman A, Jones L, Jones L, Haines JL, Psaty BM, Van Broeckhoven C, Holmans P, Launer LJ, Mayeux R, Lathrop M, Goate AM, Escott-Price V, Seshadri S, Pericak-Vance MA, Amouyel P, Williams J, van Duijn CM, Schellenberg GD, Farrer LA. A novel Alzheimer disease locus located near the gene encoding tau protein. Mol Psychiatry 2016;21(1):108-117.Abstract

APOE ɛ4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ɛ4+ (10 352 cases and 9207 controls) and APOE ɛ4- (7184 cases and 26 968 controls) subgroups as well as in the total sample testing for interaction between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and APOE ɛ4 status. Suggestive associations (P<1 × 10(-4)) in stage 1 were evaluated in an independent sample (stage 2) containing 4203 subjects (APOE ɛ4+: 1250 cases and 536 controls; APOE ɛ4-: 718 cases and 1699 controls). Among APOE ɛ4- subjects, novel genome-wide significant (GWS) association was observed with 17 SNPs (all between KANSL1 and LRRC37A on chromosome 17 near MAPT) in a meta-analysis of the stage 1 and stage 2 data sets (best SNP, rs2732703, P=5·8 × 10(-9)). Conditional analysis revealed that rs2732703 accounted for association signals in the entire 100-kilobase region that includes MAPT. Except for previously identified AD loci showing stronger association in APOE ɛ4+ subjects (CR1 and CLU) or APOE ɛ4- subjects (MS4A6A/MS4A4A/MS4A6E), no other SNPs were significantly associated with AD in a specific APOE genotype subgroup. In addition, the finding in the stage 1 sample that AD risk is significantly influenced by the interaction of APOE with rs1595014 in TMEM106B (P=1·6 × 10(-7)) is noteworthy, because TMEM106B variants have previously been associated with risk of frontotemporal dementia. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis revealed that rs113986870, one of the GWS SNPs near rs2732703, is significantly associated with four KANSL1 probes that target transcription of the first translated exon and an untranslated exon in hippocampus (P⩽1.3 × 10(-8)), frontal cortex (P⩽1.3 × 10(-9)) and temporal cortex (P⩽1.2 × 10(-11)). Rs113986870 is also strongly associated with a MAPT probe that targets transcription of alternatively spliced exon 3 in frontal cortex (P=9.2 × 10(-6)) and temporal cortex (P=2.6 × 10(-6)). Our APOE-stratified GWAS is the first to show GWS association for AD with SNPs in the chromosome 17q21.31 region. Replication of this finding in independent samples is needed to verify that SNPs in this region have significantly stronger effects on AD risk in persons lacking APOE ɛ4 compared with persons carrying this allele, and if this is found to hold, further examination of this region and studies aimed at deciphering the mechanism(s) are warranted.

Coleman AL, Lum FC, Gliklich RE, Velentgas P, Su Z, Su Z. Quality of life and visual acuity outcomes in the Registry in Glaucoma Outcomes Research study. J Comp Eff Res 2016;5(1):99-111.Abstract

AIMS: The RiGOR study evaluated the association of treatment and patient-reported outcomes for open-angle glaucoma patients. METHODS: The Glaucoma Symptom Scale (National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) and visual acuity (VA) were collected as quality of life measures. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with improvement of at least two lines of vision was highest in the incisional surgery group (14.2% compared with 9.9% for laser surgery and 10.9% for additional medication). CONCLUSION: No clinically relevant differences were seen in benefit for the laser surgery or incisional surgery groups compared with additional medications for the Glaucoma Symptom Scale or NEI-VFQ measures or subscales. Differences in quality of life by race need to be explored in further studies.

Cao JH, Oray M, Cocho L, Foster SC. Rituximab in the Treatment of Refractory Noninfectious Scleritis. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;164:22-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes of the use of rituximab in the treatment of refractory noninfectious scleritis. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Review of the medical charts of patients with noninfectious scleritis refractory to conventional immunomodulatory therapy who were seen at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution between 2005 and 2015. The primary outcome measure in this study was steroid-free remission. Secondary outcomes were favorable response (decrease in scleritis activity score) and decrease in steroid dependence. RESULTS: There were 15 patients, with a mean follow-up duration of 34 months. Fourteen patients (93.3%) showed a clinical improvement, with 13 (86.6%) achieving a scleritis activity score of zero at 6 months. To date, 2 patients continue to enjoy durable drug-free remission (28 and 32 months follow-up). There was only 1 adverse effect recorded (infusion hypotension) requiring cessation of rituximab. CONCLUSION: Rituximab can be an effective treatment modality for recalcitrant noninfectious scleritis and, in some, can result in long-term durable drug-free remission.

Gonzalez-Andrades M, Alonso-Pastor L, Mauris J, Cruzat A, Dohlman CH, Argüeso P. Establishment of a novel in vitro model of stratified epithelial wound healing with barrier function. Sci Rep 2016;6:19395.Abstract

The repair of wounds through collective movement of epithelial cells is a fundamental process in multicellular organisms. In stratified epithelia such as the cornea and skin, healing occurs in three steps that include a latent, migratory, and reconstruction phases. Several simple and inexpensive assays have been developed to study the biology of cell migration in vitro. However, these assays are mostly based on monolayer systems that fail to reproduce the differentiation processes associated to multilayered systems. Here, we describe a straightforward in vitro wound assay to evaluate the healing and restoration of barrier function in stratified human corneal epithelial cells. In this assay, circular punch injuries lead to the collective migration of the epithelium as coherent sheets. The closure of the wound was associated with the restoration of the transcellular barrier and the re-establishment of apical intercellular junctions. Altogether, this new model of wound healing provides an important research tool to study the mechanisms leading to barrier function in stratified epithelia and may facilitate the development of future therapeutic applications.

Oray M, Abusamra K, Ebrahimiadib N, Meese H, Foster SC. Long-term side effects of glucocorticoids. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2016;15(4):457-65.Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids represent the standard therapy for reducing inflammation and immune activation in various diseases. However, as with any potent medication, they are not without side effects. Glucocorticoid-associated side effects may involve most major organ systems. Musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuropsychiatric, dermatologic, ocular, and immunologic side effects are all possible. AREAS COVERED: This article analyzes English-language literature and provides an update on the most recent literature regarding side effects of systemic glucocorticoid treatment. EXPERT OPINION: The risk/benefit ratio of glucocorticoid therapy can be improved by proper use. Careful monitoring and using appropriate preventive strategies can potentially minimize side effects.

Coleman AL, Lum FC, Velentgas P, Su Z, Gliklich RE, Gliklich RE. Practice patterns and treatment changes for open-angle glaucoma: the RiGOR study. J Comp Eff Res 2016;5(1):79-85.Abstract

AIMS: The RiGOR study provides a current picture of the types of glaucoma treatment over 12 months. METHODS: Patients were identified and enrolled at the time of decision to proceed with laser surgery procedure or other procedure such as incisional surgery or drainage device implantation, or initiation of a new or additional course of therapy with medication for glaucoma treatment. RESULTS: The most frequent type of treatments were prostaglandin analogues (60%) among patients with additional medication, selective laser trabeculoplasty (87%) among patients with laser surgery and trabeculectomy (57%) among patients with incisional surgery. CONCLUSION: For 36% of patients, a treatment cascade involves two or more therapies over a year. This demonstrates the complex nature of open-angle glaucoma treatment.

Silpa-Archa S, Lee JJ, Foster SC. Ocular manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(1):135-41.Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can involve many parts of the eye, including the eyelid, ocular adnexa, sclera, cornea, uvea, retina and optic nerve. Ocular manifestations of SLE are common and may lead to permanent blindness from the underlying disease or therapeutic side effects. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common manifestation. However, vision loss may result from involvement of the retina, choroid and optic nerve. Ocular symptoms are correlated to systemic disease activity and can present as an initial manifestation of SLE. The established treatment includes prompt systemic corticosteroids, steroid-sparing immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents. Local ocular therapies are options with promising efficacy. The early recognition of disease and treatment provides reduction of visual morbidity and mortality.

Kempen JH, Gewaily DY, Newcomb CW, Liesegang TL, Kaçmaz OR, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Foster SC, Jabs DA, Payal A, Fitzgerald TD, for Group SITED (SITE) R. Remission of Intermediate Uveitis: Incidence and Predictive Factors. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;164:110-117.e2.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of remission among patients with intermediate uveitis; to identify factors potentially predictive of remission. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Involved eyes of patients with primary noninfectious intermediate uveitis at 4 academic ocular inflammation subspecialty practices, followed sufficiently long to meet the remission outcome definition, were studied retrospectively by standardized chart review data. Remission of intermediate uveitis was defined as a lack of inflammatory activity at ≥2 visits spanning ≥90 days in the absence of any corticosteroid or immunosuppressant medications. Factors potentially predictive of intermediate uveitis remission were evaluated using survival analysis. RESULTS: Among 849 eyes (of 510 patients) with intermediate uveitis followed over 1934 eye-years, the incidence of intermediate uveitis remission was 8.6/100 eye-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4-10.1). Factors predictive of disease remission included prior pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (hazard ratio [HR] [vs no PPV] = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.42-4.00), diagnosis of intermediate uveitis within the last year (HR [vs diagnosis >5 years ago] =3.82; 95% CI, 1.91-7.63), age ≥45 years (HR [vs age <45 years] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.11), female sex (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.04-2.49), and Hispanic race/ethnicity (HR [vs white race] = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.23-6.41). Presence/absence of a systemic inflammatory disease, laterality of uveitis, and smoking status were not associated with differential incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that intermediate uveitis is a chronic disease with an overall low rate of remission. Recently diagnosed patients and older, female, and Hispanic patients were more likely to remit. With regard to management, pars plana vitrectomy was associated with increased probability of remission.

Wen G, Aizenman A, Drew T, Wolfe JM, Haygood TM, Markey MK. Computational assessment of visual search strategies in volumetric medical images. J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2016;3(1):015501.Abstract

When searching through volumetric images [e.g., computed tomography (CT)], radiologists appear to use two different search strategies: "drilling" (restrict eye movements to a small region of the image while quickly scrolling through slices), or "scanning" (search over large areas at a given depth before moving on to the next slice). To computationally identify the type of image information that is used in these two strategies, 23 naïve observers were instructed with either "drilling" or "scanning" when searching for target T's in 20 volumes of faux lung CTs. We computed saliency maps using both classical two-dimensional (2-D) saliency, and a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic saliency that captures the characteristics of scrolling through slices. Comparing observers' gaze distributions with the saliency maps showed that search strategy alters the type of saliency that attracts fixations. Drillers' fixations aligned better with dynamic saliency and scanners with 2-D saliency. The computed saliency was greater for detected targets than for missed targets. Similar results were observed in data from 19 radiologists who searched five stacks of clinical chest CTs for lung nodules. Dynamic saliency may be superior to the 2-D saliency for detecting targets embedded in volumetric images, and thus "drilling" may be more efficient than "scanning."

Whitman MC, Andrews C, Chan W-M, Tischfield MA, Stasheff SF, Brancati F, Ortiz-Gonzalez X, Nuovo S, Garaci F, MacKinnon SE, Hunter DG, Grant EP, Engle EC. Two unique TUBB3 mutations cause both CFEOM3 and malformations of cortical development. Am J Med Genet A 2016;170(2):297-305.Abstract

One set of missense mutations in the neuron specific beta tubulin isotype 3 (TUBB3) has been reported to cause malformations of cortical development (MCD), while a second set has been reported to cause isolated or syndromic Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles type 3 (CFEOM3). Because TUBB3 mutations reported to cause CFEOM had not been associated with cortical malformations, while mutations reported to cause MCD had not been associated with CFEOM or other forms of paralytic strabismus, it was hypothesized that each set of mutations might alter microtubule function differently. Here, however, we report two novel de novo heterozygous TUBB3 amino acid substitutions, G71R and G98S, in four patients with both MCD and syndromic CFEOM3. These patients present with moderately severe CFEOM3, nystagmus, torticollis, and developmental delay, and have intellectual and social disabilities. Neuroimaging reveals defective cortical gyration, as well as hypoplasia or agenesis of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, malformations of hippocampi, thalami, basal ganglia and cerebella, and brainstem and cranial nerve hypoplasia. These new TUBB3 substitutions meld the two previously distinct TUBB3-associated phenotypes, and implicate similar microtubule dysfunction underlying both. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sparrow JR, Duncker T, Woods R, Delori FC. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: RPE Lipofuscin is not Increased in Non-Lesion Areas of Retina. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;854:285-90.Abstract

Since the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, we quantified fundus autofluorescence (quantitative fundus autofluorescence, qAF) as an indirect measure of RPE lipofuscin levels. Mean non-lesion qAF was found to be within normal limits for age. By spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) vitelliform lesions presented as fluid-filled subretinal detachments containing reflective material. We discuss photoreceptor outer segment debris as the source of the intense fluorescence of these lesions and loss of anion channel functioning as an explanation for the bullous photoreceptor-RPE detachment. Unexplained is the propensity of the disease for central retina.

Fernandez-Godino R, Pierce EA, Garland DL. Extracellular Matrix Alterations and Deposit Formation in AMD. Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;854:53-8.Abstract

Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of vision loss in the western world (Friedman et al., Arch Ophthalmol 122:564-572, 2004). The first clinical indication of AMD is the presence of drusen. However, with age and prior to the formation of drusen, extracellular basal deposits accumulate between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane (BrM). Many studies on the molecular composition of the basal deposits and drusen have demonstrated the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, complement components and cellular debris. The evidence reviewed here suggests that alteration in RPE cell function might be the primary cause for the accumulation of ECM and cellular debri found in basal deposits. Further studies are obviously needed in order to unravel the specific pathways that lead to abnormal formation of ECM and complement activation.

Maleki A, Swan RT, Silpa-Archa S, Preble JM, He Y, Foster SC. Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry Parameters at Baseline and Following Remission in Patients With Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;163:83-92.e6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To identify changes in short-wavelength automated perimetry patterns and parameters between the active and inactive states. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with age-matched, normal controls. METHODS: setting: Private tertiary referral center. STUDY POPULATION: Seventy-five eyes of 38 patients with active birdshot retinochoroidopathy and 37 eyes of 37 historical normal controls. INTERVENTION: Thirty-seven patients received immunomodulatory therapy. A fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant (Retisert) was implanted in both eyes of 1 patient as an initial treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in short-wavelength automated perimetry total deviation scores, pattern deviation scores, mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation in the active phase and the remission state. RESULTS: Mean deviation (P = .006), pattern standard deviation (P = .001), total deviation score (P = .002), and pattern deviation score (P = .007) were significantly different from the active phase to the remission state. The length of time required to achieve remission did not significantly affect the changes in mean deviation (regression coefficient = 0.01; P = .92), pattern standard deviation (regression coefficient = 0.01; P = .87), total deviation score (regression coefficient = -0.1; P = .32), or pattern deviation score (regression coefficient = 0.1; P = .36) from the active phase to the remission state. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in total deviation score, pattern deviation score, mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation on short-wavelength automated perimetry as patients achieved remission. Short-wavelength automated perimetry appears to be a useful and complementary modality in monitoring disease activity in birdshot retinochoroidopathy.

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