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Li S, Tang L, Zhou J, Anchouche S, Li D, Yang Y, Liu Z, Wu J, Hu J, Zhou Y, Yin J, Liu Z, Li W. Sleep deprivation induces corneal epithelial progenitor cell over-expansion through disruption of redox homeostasis in the tear film. Stem Cell Reports 2022;17(5):1105-1119.Abstract
Sleep deficiency, a common public health problem, causes ocular discomfort and affects ocular surface health. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we identified that short-term sleep deprivation (SD) resulted in hyperproliferation of corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) in mice. The expression levels of p63 and Keratin 14, the biomarkers of CEPCs, were upregulated in the corneal epithelium after short-term SD. In addition, SD led to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and subsequent decrease in antioxidant capacity, in the tear film. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could directly stimulate the proliferation of CEPCs in vivo and in vitro. Topical treatment of antioxidant L-glutathione preserved the over-proliferation of CEPCs and attenuated corneal epithelial defects in SD mice. Moreover, the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is essential to ROS-stimulated cell proliferation in CEPCs. However, long-term SD ultimately led to early manifestation of limbal stem cell deficiency.
Lin LY, Reshef ER, Lansberg MP, Barshak MB, Chwalisz BK, Holbrook EH, Wolkow N. Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in the Setting of Cocaine-Induced Orbital and Sinonasal Inflammation. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(5):e141-e144.Abstract
Intranasal cocaine abuse can lead to significant sinus and orbital complications, including optic neuropathy. A 46-year-old man with a history of recurrent cocaine-induced sino-orbital inflammation and infection with bony destruction presented with acute, painless, vision loss. Examination revealed no light perception vision. MRI of the orbits demonstrated new restricted diffusion of the right optic nerve on diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient sequences, consistent with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. This is the first among cases of cocaine-induced optic neuropathy in the literature to illustrate ischemic changes on MRI in the optic nerve, highlighting the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient sequences when optic neuropathy is suspected and further suggesting an underlying ischemic etiology in similar cases.
Lundgren P, Morsing E, Hård A-L, Rakow A, Hellström-Westas L, Jacobson L, Johnson M, Holmström G, Nilsson S, Smith LE, Sävman K, Hellström A. National cohort of infants born before 24 gestational weeks showed increased survival rates but no improvement in neonatal morbidity. Acta Paediatr 2022;Abstract
AIM: To describe survival and neonatal morbidities in infants born before 24 weeks of gestation during a 12-year period. METHODS: Data were retrieved from national registries and validated in medical files of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation 2007-2018 in Sweden. Temporal changes were evaluated. RESULTS: In 2007-2018, 282 live births were recorded at 22 weeks and 460 at 23 weeks of gestation. Survival to discharge from hospital of infants born alive at 22 and 23 weeks increased from 20% to 38% (p = 0.006) and from 45% to 67% (p < 0.001) respectively. Caesarean section increased from 12% to 22% (p = 0.038) for infants born at 22 weeks. Neonatal morbidity rates in infants alive at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age (n = 399) were unchanged except for an increase in necrotising enterocolitis from 0 to 33% (p = 0.017) in infants born at 22 weeks of gestation. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was more common in boys than girls, 90% versus 82% (p = 0.044). The number of infants surviving to 40 weeks doubled over time. CONCLUSION: Increased survival of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation resulted in increasing numbers of very immature infants with severe neonatal morbidities likely to have a negative impact on long-term outcome.
Maciorowski D, Diop C, Bhatt U, Estelien R, Li D, Chauhan R, Vandenberghe LH, Zabaleta N. Immunogenicity of an AAV-Based COVID-19 Vaccine in Murine Models of Obesity and Aging. Viruses 2022;14(4)Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a disastrous impact on global health. Although some vaccine candidates have been effective in combating SARS-CoV-2, logistical, economical, and sociological aspects still limit vaccine access globally. Recently, we reported on two room-temperature stable AAV-based COVID-19 vaccines that induced potent and protective immunogenicity following a single injection in murine and primate models. Obesity and old age are associated with increased mortality in COVID-19, as well as reduced immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of the AAVCOVID vaccine candidates in murine models of obesity and aging. Results demonstrate that obesity did not significantly alter the immunogenicity of either vaccine candidate. In aged mice, vaccine immunogenicity was impaired. These results suggest that AAV-based vaccines may have limitations in older populations and may be equally applicable in obese and non-obese populations.
Tam EK, Elhusseiny AM, Shah AS, Mantagos IS, VanderVeen DK. Etiology and outcomes of childhood glaucoma at a tertiary referral center. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes for a large contemporary cohort of children presenting with glaucoma at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: The medical records of patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital from January 2014 to July 2019 with a diagnosis of childhood glaucoma were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding etiology, treatment, and visual and anatomic outcomes were collected; visual acuity outcomes were analyzed by laterality and diagnosis categories, using the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classifications. RESULTS: A total of 373 eyes of 246 patients (51% males) diagnosed with glaucoma before 18 years of age were identified. Mean follow-up was 7.04 ± 5.61 years; 137 cases were bilateral. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.55 ± 5.20 years. The most common diagnoses were glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS, 36.5%) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, 29.0%). Overall, 164 eyes (44.0%) underwent at least one glaucoma surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was ≤21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications in 300 eyes (80.4%) at the last follow-up visit. Poor final best-corrected visual acuity (≤20/200) was found in 110 eyes; patients with poor final visual acuity tended to have poor visual acuity at presentation. The most common reason for poor vision was amblyopia. Uncontrolled IOP was an uncommon cause for vision loss. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood glaucoma can be challenging to manage, but poor vision usually results from amblyopia or presence of other ocular abnormalities or syndromes rather than glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Salamzade R, Manson AL, Walker BJ, Brennan-Krohn T, Worby CJ, Ma P, He LL, Shea TP, Qu J, Chapman SB, Howe W, Young SK, Wurster JI, Delaney ML, Kanjilal S, Onderdonk AB, Bittencourt CE, Gussin GM, Kim D, Peterson EM, Ferraro MJ, Hooper DC, Shenoy ES, Cuomo CA, Cosimi LA, Huang SS, Kirby JE, Pierce VM, Bhattacharyya RP, Earl AM. Inter-species geographic signatures for tracing horizontal gene transfer and long-term persistence of carbapenem resistance. Genome Med 2022;14(1):37.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are an urgent global health threat. Inferring the dynamics of local CRE dissemination is currently limited by our inability to confidently trace the spread of resistance determinants to unrelated bacterial hosts. Whole-genome sequence comparison is useful for identifying CRE clonal transmission and outbreaks, but high-frequency horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of carbapenem resistance genes and subsequent genome rearrangement complicate tracing the local persistence and mobilization of these genes across organisms. METHODS: To overcome this limitation, we developed a new approach to identify recent HGT of large, near-identical plasmid segments across species boundaries, which also allowed us to overcome technical challenges with genome assembly. We applied this to complete and near-complete genome assemblies to examine the local spread of CRE in a systematic, prospective collection of all CRE, as well as time- and species-matched carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacterales, isolated from patients from four US hospitals over nearly 5 years. RESULTS: Our CRE collection comprised a diverse range of species, lineages, and carbapenem resistance mechanisms, many of which were encoded on a variety of promiscuous plasmid types. We found and quantified rearrangement, persistence, and repeated transfer of plasmid segments, including those harboring carbapenemases, between organisms over multiple years. Some plasmid segments were found to be strongly associated with specific locales, thus representing geographic signatures that make it possible to trace recent and localized HGT events. Functional analysis of these signatures revealed genes commonly found in plasmids of nosocomial pathogens, such as functions required for plasmid retention and spread, as well survival against a variety of antibiotic and antiseptics common to the hospital environment. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the framework we developed provides a clearer, high-resolution picture of the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance importation, spread, and persistence in patients and healthcare networks.
Gotti G, Stevenson K, Kay-Green S, Blonquist TM, Mantagos JS, Silverman LB, Place AE. Ocular abnormalities at diagnosis and after the completion of treatment in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022;69(4):e29542.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ocular abnormalities (OA) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are common findings both at diagnosis and later in follow-up. The frequency, predictors, and prognostic impact of OA in the context of recent ALL protocols are not well characterized. PROCEDURE: Single-center retrospective analysis of the medical records of 224 patients with ALL enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) ALL Consortium Protocol 05-001. RESULTS: Overall, 217 (98%) patients had at least one ophthalmic exam. Retinal hemorrhages were the most frequent abnormalities at diagnosis (11%) and cataracts at later time points (13%). OA at diagnosis were associated with age ≥10 years and with the severity of anemia and thrombocytopenia; they were also univariately associated with lower 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (high risk [HR] = 3.09 [95% CI: 1.38-6.94]; p = .006), but not in a disease-free survival (DFS) model adjusted for end-induction minimal residual disease (p = .82). The cumulative incidence of cataract was 13.1% ± 2.8% at 43 months from diagnosis; its development was associated with high presenting white blood cell count (≥50,000/μl) (p = .010), male sex (p = .036), higher risk group (p = .025), and cranial radiation (p = .004). Cataract was associated with decreased visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: OA at diagnosis, present in 12% of patients, were associated with older age, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and did not carry a significant prognostic impact. Cataracts were detected in over 10% of patients and were associated with decreased visual acuity, thus supporting routine screening after completion of therapy, especially for those treated with high-risk protocols.
Hallal R, Armstrong GW, Pineda R. Long-Term Outcomes of Big Bubble Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty in Mucopolysaccharidoses: A Retrospective Case Series and Review of the Literature. Cornea 2022;41(7):809-814.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the long-term surgical and visual outcomes of patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) after big bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (BB-DALK). METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of patients with MPS who underwent BB-DALK at a single academic institution. All patients had corneal clouding secondary to MPS limiting visual acuity for which keratoplasty was indicated. Each patient was evaluated and underwent surgery by a single surgeon. Reported data included age at keratoplasty, sex, MPS type, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, change in pachymetry, ocular comorbidities, surgical complications, and MPS-related medication use. RESULTS: Outcomes of 12 eyes from 7 patients with MPS type I (Hurler, Scheie, and Hurler-Scheie) are reported using the newest nomenclature. The mean follow-up was 5.58 years (range: 1-10 years). All cases underwent BB-DALK with a type 1 big bubble during the surgery. Two cases (16.6%) required rebubbling because of partial Descemet membrane detachment. One case was complicated by a suture abscess and required a penetrating keratoplasty. No episodes of rejection occurred. Statistically significant improvement in the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (from a mean 0.85-0.33 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, P = logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution 0.0054) and pachymetry (mean reduction of -145.4 μm, P = 0.0018) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: BB-DALK seems to be an acceptable long-term surgical option in patients with MPS. Our findings suggest that this technique is reproducible and can achieve clear corneal grafts with good visual results on a long-term follow-up.
Fan N-W, Wang S, Ortiz G, Chauhan SK, Chen Y, Dana R. Autoreactive memory Th17 cells are principally derived from T-bet+RORγt+ Th17/1 effectors. J Autoimmun 2022;129:102816.Abstract
Effector Th17 cells, including IFN-γ-IL-17+ (eTh17) and IFN-γ+IL-17+ (eTh17/1) subsets, play critical pathogenic functions in the induction of autoimmunity. As acute inflammation subsides, a small proportion of the effectors survive and convert to memory Th17 cells (mTh17), which sustain chronic inflammation in autoimmune diseases. Herein, we investigated the differential contributions of eTh17 versus eTh17/1 to the memory pool using an experimental model of ocular autoimmune disease. Our results show that adoptive transfer of Tbx21-/- CD4+ T cells or conditional deletion of Tbx21 in Th17 cells leads to diminished eTh17/1 in acute phase and functionally compromised mTh17 in chronic phase. Further, adoptive transfer of disease-specific eTh17/1, but not eTh17, leads to generation of mTh17 and sustained ocular inflammation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that T-bet-dependent eTh17/1 cells generated during the acute inflammation are the principal effector precursors of pathogenic mTh17 cells that sustain the chronicity of autoimmune inflammation.
Fjaervoll K, Fjaervoll H, Magno M, Nøland ST, Dartt DA, Vehof J, Utheim TP. Review on the possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying visual display terminal-associated dry eye disease. Acta Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Visual display terminal (VDT) use is a key risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). Visual display terminal (VDT) use reduces the blink rate and increases the number of incomplete blinks. However, the exact mechanisms causing DED development from VDT use have yet to be clearly described. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to conduct a review on pathophysiological mechanisms promoting VDT-associated DED. METHODS: A PubMed search of the literature investigating the relationship between dry eye and VDT was performed, and relevance to pathophysiology of DED was evaluated. FINDINGS: Fifty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Several pathophysiological mechanisms were examined, and multiple hypotheses were extracted from the articles. Visual display terminal (VDT) use causes DED mainly through impaired blinking patterns. Changes in parasympathetic signalling and increased exposure to blue light, which could disrupt ocular homeostasis, were proposed in some studies but lack sufficient scientific support. Together, these changes may lead to a reduced function of the tear film, lacrimal gland, goblet cells and meibomian glands, all contributing to DED development. CONCLUSION: Visual display terminal (VDT) use appears to induce DED through both direct and indirect routes. Decreased blink rates and increased incomplete blinks increase the exposed ocular evaporative area and inhibit lipid distribution from meibomian glands. Although not adequately investigated, changes in parasympathetic signalling may impair lacrimal gland and goblet cell function, promoting tear film instability. More studies are needed to better target and improve the treatment and prevention of VDT-associated DED.
Mitchell WG, Azuara-Blanco A, Foster PJ, Halawa O, Burr J, Ramsay CR, Cooper D, Cochran C, Norrie J, Friedman D, Chang D. Predictors of long-term intraocular pressure control after lens extraction in primary angle closure glaucoma: results from the EAGLE trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess baseline ocular parameters in the prediction of long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control after clear lens extraction (CLE) or laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in patients with primary angle closure (PAC) disease using data from the Effectiveness of Early Lens Extraction for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE) tria. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of EAGLE data where we define the primary outcome of 'good responders' as those with IOP<21 mm Hg without requiring additional surgery and 'optimal responders' as those who in addition were medication free, at 36-month follow-up. Primary analysis was conducted using a multivariate logistic regression model to assess how randomised interventions and ocular parameters predict treatment response. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients (182 in CLE arm and 187 in LPI arm) completed the 36-month follow-up examination. After CLE, 90% met our predefined 'good response' criterion compared with 67% in the LPI arm, and 66% met 'optimal response' criterion compared with 18% in the LPI arm, with significantly longer drops/surgery-free survival time (p<0.05 for all). Patients randomised to CLE (OR=10.1 (6.1 to 16.8)), Chinese (OR=2.3 (1.3 to 3.9)), and those who had not previously used glaucoma drops (OR=2.8 (1.6 to 4.8)) were more likely to maintain long-term optimal IOP response over 36 months. CONCLUSION: Patients with primary angle closure glaucoma/PAC are 10 times more likely to maintain drop-free good IOP control with initial CLE surgery than LPI. Non-Chinese ethnicity, higher baseline IOP and using glaucoma drops prior to randomisation are predictors of worse long-term IOP response.
Ofuji Y, Katada Y, Tomita Y, Nagai N, Sonobe H, Watanabe K, Shinoda H, Ozawa Y, Negishi K, Tsubota K, Kurihara T. Non-Perfusion Area Index for Prognostic Prediction in Diabetic Retinopathy. Life (Basel) 2022;12(4)Abstract
Fundus fluorescent angiography is a standard examination in Japan that can directly visualize the circulatory failure in diabetic retinopathy but is not used in Western countries. In this study, we examine the relationship between the non-perfusion area in fundus fluorescent angiography and the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated 22 eyes between 22 patients who had their first fundus fluorescent angiography during a clinical episode at Keio University Hospital from January 2012 to May 2015, were diagnosed as having preproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and could be followed for at least three years. The non-perfusion area index (%) in nine segmented fundi in the initial fundus fluorescent angiography was calculated, and the progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy over three years was evaluated. Three out of the 22 eyes (13.6%) developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy over three years. The non-perfusion area index for the initial fundus fluorescent angiography was significantly associated with progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The non-perfusion area index in the posterior pole was most strongly correlated with the progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Thus, the non-perfusion area index in the posterior pole among those with preproliferative diabetic retinopathy may predict the progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the subsequent three years.

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