García-Posadas L, Hodges RR, Li D, Shatos MA, Storr-Paulsen T, Diebold Y, Dartt DA. Interaction of IFN-γ with cholinergic agonists to modulate rat and human goblet cell function. Mucosal Immunol 2016;9(1):206-17.Abstract

Goblet cells populate wet-surfaced mucosa including the conjunctiva of the eye, intestine, and nose, among others. These cells function as part of the innate immune system by secreting high molecular weight mucins that interact with environmental constituents including pathogens, allergens, and particulate pollutants. Herein, we determined whether interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a Th1 cytokine increased in dry eye, alters goblet cell function. Goblet cells from rat and human conjunctiva were cultured. Changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i), high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion, and proliferation were measured after stimulation with IFN-γ with or without the cholinergic agonist carbachol. IFN-γ itself increased [Ca(2+)]i in rat and human goblet cells and prevented the increase in [Ca(2+)]i caused by carbachol. Carbachol prevented IFN-γ-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i. This cross-talk between IFN-γ and muscarinic receptors may be partially due to use of the same Ca(2+)i reservoirs, but also from interaction of signaling pathways proximal to the increase in [Ca(2+)]i. IFN-γ blocked carbachol-induced high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion and reduced goblet cell proliferation. We conclude that increased levels of IFN-γ in dry eye disease could explain the lack of goblet cells and mucin deficiency typically found in this pathology. IFN-γ could also function similarly in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

Davies EC, Pavan-Langston D, Chodosh J. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus: declining age at presentation. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(3):312-4.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the age of occurrence of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in patients presenting to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) from 2007 through 2013. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Academic tertiary referral centre for ophthalmic conditions. PARTICIPANTS: 913 patients with acute HZO. METHODS: A total of 1283 potential cases were identified by searching the MEEI electronic medical record for patient charts with International Classification of Diseases 9 codes for herpes zoster, shingles and varicella from 2007 through 2013. The cases were reviewed to confirm diagnosis of acute HZO, requiring documentation of a skin rash or pain in the V1 distribution, resulting in inclusion of 913 cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of HZO cases each year, mean age of HZO cases each year, number of HZO cases with an immunodeficiency state. RESULTS: The number of patients with HZO presenting to MEEI increased from 71 cases in 2007 to 195 cases in 2013. The mean age of patients with acute HZO reduced significantly from 61.2 years in 2007 to 55.8 years in 2013 (p=0.0119). The number of patients with acute HZO in the setting of an immunodeficiency state did not change significantly over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Ever since the introduction of varicella vaccination in children, there has been debate regarding its effect on zoster epidemiology, particularly regarding the potential to reduce population exposure and limit repeated immunological boosts against varicella zoster virus in adults. Patients presenting to MEEI with HZO were younger on average in 2013 than in 2007. Although a population-based study is necessary to test the hypothesis, our study suggests that varicella vaccination of children remains a possible explanation for the increased number of cases and reduction in mean age of newly diagnosed patients.

Trief D, Gray ST, Jakobiec FA, Durand ML, Fay A, Freitag SK, Lee GN, Lefebvre DR, Holbrook E, Bleier B, Sadow P, Rashid A, Chhabra N, Yoon MK. Invasive fungal disease of the sinus and orbit: a comparison between mucormycosis and Aspergillus. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(2):184-8.Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Invasive fungal infections of the head and neck are rare life-threatening infections where prompt diagnosis and intervention is critical for survival. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of invasive fungal disease of the sinus and orbit, and to compare mucormycosis and Aspergillus infection. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted from a single tertiary care eye and ear hospital over 20 years (1994-2014). Twenty-four patients with a confirmed pathological diagnosis of invasive fungal disease of the sinus and/or orbit were identified and their medical records were reviewed. The main outcome measures were type of fungus, location of disease, mortality and visual outcome. RESULTS: Patients with orbital involvement had a higher mortality and higher likelihood of mucormycosis infection compared with those with sinus-only disease (78.6% vs 20%, p=0.01; 86% vs 30%, p=0.01, respectively). Patients with mucormycosis had a higher mortality (71%) than patients with Aspergillus (29%); however, this was not statistically significant (p=0.16). All patients with orbital involvement and/or mucormycosis infections were immunosuppressed or had inadequately controlled diabetes, and had a cranial neuropathy or ocular motility dysfunction. All five post-transplant patients with orbital infections died, while the two transplant patients with sinus infections survived. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with orbital fungal infections are more likely to be infected with mucormycosis compared with Aspergillus and have a higher mortality compared with infections sparing the orbit. History of transplant portends a dismal prognosis in orbital infections. Invasive fungal disease should be considered in any immunocompromised patient presenting with a new cranial neuropathy or ocular motility abnormality.

Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Sassoon J, Goldstein S, Mihm MC. A Hyalinized Trichilemmoma of the Eyelid in a Teenager. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):e9-e12.Abstract

A 16-year-old African American male, the youngest patient to date, presented with a well-circumscribed upper eyelid lesion. On excision, the dermal nodule was contiguous with the epidermis, displayed trichohyalin-like bodies in an expanded outer root sheath, and was composed chiefly of small cellular clusters separated by a prominent network of periodic acid Schiff -positive hyaline bands of basement membrane material. The tumor cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratins (CK) 5/6, CK14, and CK34βE12 and were negative for CK7, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Negative S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and smooth muscle actin immunoreactions ruled out a myoepithelial lesion. The Ki-67 proliferation index was <10%. The diagnosis was a hyalinized trichilemmoma, contrasting with the more common lobular type. As an isolated lesion, trichilemmoma does not portend Cowden syndrome.


PURPOSE: To report swept-source optical coherence tomography findings of sarcoid choroidal granulomas in the posttreatment convalescent stage of disease. PATIENTS/METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed charts from patients with sarcoid-related choroidal granulomas and recorded pertinent examination and imaging findings. Swept-source optical coherence tomography was performed using the DRI 3D-OCT-1 Atlantis (Topcon) over the areas of previous choroidal granulomas after the patients had been treated. RESULTS: Three patients with sarcoid choroidal granulomas were imaged with swept-source optical coherence tomography. Findings included loss or alteration of choroidal architecture, subretinal fibrosis, and outer retinal tubulations in the areas of the sarcoid granulomas after treatment. In one case with an associated choroidal neovascular membrane, there was also disruption of Bruch membrane and loss of normal choroidal vascular network in the area of the lesion. CONCLUSION: Swept-source optical coherence tomography demonstrated significant anatomical sequelae that persisted after treatment of sarcoid granulomas. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of outer retinal tubulations over healed sarcoid granulomas.

Saeed H, Mantagos IS, Chodosh J. Complications of Stevens-Johnson syndrome beyond the eye and skin. Burns 2016;42(1):20-7.Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Ocular and cutaneous disease are common chronic sequelae of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and have been well described in the literature. Long-term complications affecting other organ systems have not been so well described. The purpose of this review article is to highlight non-ocular and non-cutaneous chronic complications of SJS/TEN. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for the keywords "Stevens-Johnson syndrome" and "toxic epidermal necrolysis" through September 1, 2014. Relevant articles were then reviewed in full. RESULTS: 138 articles in the English language were found that described chronic sequelae of SJS/TEN. Our search revealed six affected organ systems other than the eyes and integument, with chronic sequelae from SJS/TEN: respiratory, gastrointestinal/hepatic, oral, otorhinolaryngologic, gynecologic/genitourinary, and renal. Complications involving these organs systems appeared likely to reduce the quality of life for SJS/TEN survivors. DISCUSSION: SJS/TEN is a multi-organ disease requiring multidisciplinary care from a variety of specialists. Affected patients have complex hospital stays, and their quality of life may be severely impacted by multiple long-term complications. We believe that preventative care in the acute setting might limit the development and progression of many of the sequelae described above.

Teo L, Lagler CP, Mannor G, Glass LD, Freitag SK. Mullers Muscle Conjunctival Resection for Treatment of Contact Lens-Associated Ptosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(4):257-60.Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to look at the surgical outcomes of posterior approach Mullers muscle conjunctival resection surgery for contact lens-related ptosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective, comparative interventional case series. All patients and controls underwent phenylephrine 10% testing and had a positive response prior to surgical intervention. RESULTS: Thirty-one eyelids with ptosis were identified in 20 contact lens wearing patients, which were matched with 27 eyelids in 15 controls. The contact lens wearing patients wore contact lenses for a mean of 20.6 ± 12.1 years. More than half (60%) wore soft contact lenses, as opposed to rigid gas-permeable contact lenses. Preoperative margin-to-reflex distance-1 was lower in patients who wore rigid contact lenses (0.8 ± 0.7 mm) as compared with patients with soft contact lenses (1.7 ± 1.1 mm) (p = 0.01). Surgical success, as defined by margin-to-reflex distance-1 ≥3 mm or symmetry of upper eyelid height (within 1 mm), was achieved in 93.5% in the contact lens group and 92.6% of controls. Postoperative margin-to-reflex distance-1 was significantly higher in the contact lens wearers (3.9 ± 1.3 mm) compared with the controls (3.2 ± 1.1 mm; p = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the amount of tissue resected intraoperatively and the improvement in margin-to-reflex distance-1 (Pearsons correlation coefficient, r =0.36; p = 0.006). There were no surgical complications of any patients in the study. CONCLUSION: Mullers muscle conjunctival resection surgery is an effective surgical correction for contact lens-associated ptosis. Patients can achieve excellent results with minimal risk of residual ptosis or asymmetry.

Murphy RM, Bakir B, O'Brien C, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. Drug-induced Bilateral Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma: A Literature Synthesis. J Glaucoma 2016;25(2):e99-e105.Abstract

PURPOSE: We performed a literature synthesis to identify the full spectrum of compounds implicated in drug-induced, bilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma (2° ACG). METHODS: Systematic PubMed literature review identified relevant bilateral 2° ACG case reports. We evaluated these reports with both the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale to assess the causality of reported drug reactions and a 2° ACG scale scoring system we developed to determine the likelihood that the event represented bilateral 2° ACG. Two independent graders performed these analyses and their scores were averaged for interpretation. The Naranjo scale ranges from -4 to +13 and the drug reaction was considered definite if the score was ≥9, probable if 5 to 8, possible if 1 to 4, and doubtful if ≤0. The 2° ACG score ranges from 0 to 7. We considered a 2° ACG score of ≥4 as evidence of significant likelihood that the drug reaction represented bilateral 2° ACG. RESULTS: No drug had a definite Naranjo score, but the following drug entities had probable Naranjo scores and 2° ACG scores ≥4: acetazolamide, "anorexiant mix," bupropion, cabergoline, "ecstasy," escitalopram, flavoxate, flucloxacillin, hydrochlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene, mefenamic acid, methazolamide, oseltamivir, topiramate, topiramate/bactrim, and venlafaxine. Root chemical analysis revealed that sulfur-containing and non-sulfur-containing compounds contributed to bilateral 2° ACG. CONCLUSIONS: Several compound preparations were implicated in drug-induced bilateral 2° ACG. Treating physicians should be aware that some forms of recreational drug use, which the patient may not admit to, could contribute to this vision-threatening side effect.

Katikireddy KR, Jurkunas UV. Limbal Stromal Tissue Specific Stem Cells and Their Differentiation Potential to Corneal Epithelial Cells. Methods Mol Biol 2016;1341:437-44.Abstract

From the derivation of the first human embryonic stem (hES) cell line to the development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; it has become evident that tissue specific stem cells are able to differentiate into a specific somatic cell types. The understanding of key processes such as the signaling pathways and the role of the microenvironment in epidermal/epithelial development has provided important clues for the derivation of specific epithelial cell types.Various differentiation protocols/methods were used to attain specific epithelial cell types. Here, we describe in detail the procedure to follow for isolation of tissue specific stem cells, mimicking their microenvironment to attain stem cell characteristics, and their potential differentiation to corneal epithelial cells.

Choi CJ, Chou JC, Lefebvre DR, Yoon MK. Margin Reflex Distance: Differences Based on Camera and Flash Positions. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(3):199-203.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of camera flash position on the measurement of photographic margin reflex distances (MRD). METHODS: Subjects without any ophthalmic disease were prospectively enrolled after institutional review board approval. Clinical measurements of MRD1 and interpalpebral fissure were obtained. Photographs were then taken with a digital single lens reflex with built-in pop-up flash (dSLR-pop), a dSLR with lens-mounted ring flash (dSLR-ring), a point-and-shoot camera, and a smartphone, each in 4 positions: with the camera upright, rotated 90°, 180°, and 270°. The images were analyzed using ImageJ software to measure MRD1, interpalpebral fissure, horizontal white-to-white, and distance from nasal limbus to the corneal light reflex. RESULTS: Thirty-two eyes of 16 subjects were included (ages 27-65). When using the dSLR-ring, point-and-shoot, and smartphone, the difference between clinical and photographic MRD1 did not reach statistical significance. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in the upright position with dSLR-pop (mean difference 0.703 mm, σ = 0.984 mm, p = 0.0008). For dSLR-pop, photographic MRD1 in upright versus inverted position differed significantly (mean difference -0.562 mm, σ =0.348 mm, p < 0.0001). Photographic MRD1 between dSLR-pop and dSLR-ring showed significant difference in upright position (mean difference -0.572 mm, σ = 0.701 mm, p = 0.0002). There were no statistically significant differences between clinical and photographic interpalpebral fissure, and among white-to-white and nasal limbus to light reflex measurements in any position in all 4 cameras. CONCLUSIONS: When using photographs for measurement of MRD1, cameras with a near-coaxial light source and aperture have values that are most similar to clinical measurements.

Papavasileiou E, Prasad S, Freitag SK, Sobrin L, Lobo A-M. Ipilimumab-induced Ocular and Orbital Inflammation-A Case Series and Review of the Literature. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;24(2):140-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the immune protein cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), characteristically induces side effects called "immune-related adverse events" (IRAE). Although ophthalmic involvement is rare, we report 7 cases of eye and orbit complications related to ipilimumab therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with metastatic melanoma who developed ipilimumab-related ocular or orbital inflammation who were seen at our institutions. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified: 4 patients had orbital inflammation, 2 had uveitis, and 1 had peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Four patients developed inflammation after the second ipilimumab infusion, 2 after the third infusion and 1 after the first infusion. All 4 patients with orbital inflammation were treated with systemic corticosteroids. Two patients with uveitis were treated with topical steroids, but were also treated with systemic corticosteroids for other IRAE, including colitis and hypophysitis. The patient with keratitis was treated with topical corticosteroids alone with resolution of inflammation. All 7 patients discontinued ipilimumab therapy, 5 due to systemic IRAE and 2 due to tumor progression. Five of 7 patients had tumor progression on ipilimumab therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular and orbital inflammation may occur in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ipilimumab, is frequently accompanied by other IRAEs, and resolves with corticosteroid treatment, often leaving no long-term sequelae.

Stagner AM, Jakobiec FA. Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors of the Eyelid Dermis: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Analysis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):40-5.Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the incidences, clinical features, and detailed histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of 10 peripheral nerve tumors (isolated neurofibromas, solitary circumscribed neuromas [SCNs], and schwannomas) localized to the eyelid dermis. METHODS: In this retrospective clinicopathologic study, clinical records and paraffin sections subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff, reticulin, and Alcian blue staining were critically reviewed from each case. Additional paraffin sections were immunoreacted for S100, neurofilament, CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), glucose transporter-1 (glut-1), and calretinin. RESULTS: Ten patients with a median age of 57 years had solitary, small, flesh-colored papules, 70% at the eyelid margin. Microscopically, they were diagnosed either as a SCN or an isolated neurofibroma. SCN was diffusely S100-positive (and sometimes diffusely calretinin-positive) with myriad neurofilaments. Fascicles of cells were separated by CD34-positive septa, and the lesions were surrounded by a glut-1/EMA-positive capsule. Neurofibromas were calretinin-negative and had a moderate number of S100-positive cells, with widely scattered neurofilaments, many CD34-postive intermixed cells, and no capsule. No schwannomas were diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral nerve tumors of the eyelid have a distinct clinical presentation at the eyelid margin. Careful histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies can reliably separate the entities in the categories of isolated neurofibroma, SCN, and schwannoma when the last occurs. These distinctions can have important systemic implications.

Jakobiec FA, Roh M, Stagner AM, Yoon MK. Choristomatous Respiratory Cyst Restricted to the Upper Eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(1):e15-8.Abstract

A 79-year-old man underwent excision of an upper eyelid mass that had been enlarging for 3 months. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated a cyst lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with myriad goblet cells and cilia, and immunostaining revealed cytokeratins indicative of a respiratory origin. This rare condition, the first described exclusively in an eyelid, arises either from a congenital embryologic respiratory epithelial ectopia or the displacement of mature sinus mucosa following trauma or chronic sinus disease. The current case lacked any signs or symptoms of sinus disease or a history of trauma.

Cho H, Pillai P, Nicholson L, Sobrin L. Inflammatory Papillitis in Uveitis: Response to Treatment and Use of Optic Nerve Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;24(2):194-206.Abstract

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical course of uveitis-associated inflammatory papillitis and evaluate the utility and reproducibility of optic nerve spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Data on 22 eyes of 14 patients with uveitis-related papillitis and optic nerve imaging were reviewed. SD-OCT measure reproducibility was determined and parameters were compared in active vs. inactive uveitis. RESULTS: Papillitis resolution lagged behind uveitis resolution in three patients. For SD-OCT measures, the intraclass correlation coefficients were 99.1-100% and 86.9-100% for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility, respectively. All SD-OCT optic nerve measures except inferior and nasal peripapillary retinal thicknesses were significantly higher in active vs. inactive uveitis after correction for multiple hypotheses testing. Mean optic nerve central thickness decreased from 545.1 to 362.9 µm (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Resolution of inflammatory papillitis can lag behind resolution of uveitis. SD-OCT assessment of papillitis is reproducible and correlates with presence vs. resolution of uveitis.

Rai R, Yoon MK, Stacy RC. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(3):e55-8.Abstract

Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided.