Innate Immune Invisible Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles-Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021;13(20):23410-23422.Abstract.
Nanomedicine is seen as a potential central player in the delivery of personalized medicine. Biocompatibility issues of nanoparticles have largely been resolved over the past decade. Despite their tremendous progress, less than 1% of applied nanosystems can hit their intended target location, such as a solid tumor, and this remains an obstacle to their full ability and potential with a high translational value. Therefore, achieving immune-tolerable, blood-compatible, and biofriendly nanoparticles remains an unmet need. The translational success of nanoformulations from bench to bedside involves a thorough assessment of their design, compatibility beyond cytotoxicity such as immune toxicity, blood compatibility, and immune-mediated destruction/rejection/clearance profile. Here, we report a one-pot process-engineered synthesis of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (uGNPs) suitable for better body and renal clearance delivery of their payloads. We have obtained uGNP sizes of as low as 3 nm and have engineered the synthesis to allow them to be accurately sized (almost nanometer by nanometer). The synthesized uGNPs are biocompatible and can easily be functionalized to carry drugs, peptides, antibodies, and other therapeutic molecules. We have performed in vitro cell viability assays, immunotoxicity assays, inflammatory cytokine analysis, a complement activation study, and blood coagulation studies with the uGNPs to confirm their safety. These can help to set up a long-term safety-benefit framework of experimentation to reveal whether any designed nanoparticles are immune-tolerable and can be used as payload carriers for next-generation vaccines, chemotherapeutic drugs, and theranostic agents with better body clearance ability and deep tissue penetration.