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Zhu GH, Azharuddin M, Islam R, Rahmoune H, Deb S, Kanji U, Das J, Osterrieth J, Aulakh P, Ibrahim-Hashi H, Manchanda R, Nilsson PH, Mollnes TE, Bhattacharyya M, Islam MM, Hinkula J, Slater NKH, Patra HK. Innate Immune Invisible Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles-Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021;13(20):23410-23422.Abstract
Nanomedicine is seen as a potential central player in the delivery of personalized medicine. Biocompatibility issues of nanoparticles have largely been resolved over the past decade. Despite their tremendous progress, less than 1% of applied nanosystems can hit their intended target location, such as a solid tumor, and this remains an obstacle to their full ability and potential with a high translational value. Therefore, achieving immune-tolerable, blood-compatible, and biofriendly nanoparticles remains an unmet need. The translational success of nanoformulations from bench to bedside involves a thorough assessment of their design, compatibility beyond cytotoxicity such as immune toxicity, blood compatibility, and immune-mediated destruction/rejection/clearance profile. Here, we report a one-pot process-engineered synthesis of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (uGNPs) suitable for better body and renal clearance delivery of their payloads. We have obtained uGNP sizes of as low as 3 nm and have engineered the synthesis to allow them to be accurately sized (almost nanometer by nanometer). The synthesized uGNPs are biocompatible and can easily be functionalized to carry drugs, peptides, antibodies, and other therapeutic molecules. We have performed in vitro cell viability assays, immunotoxicity assays, inflammatory cytokine analysis, a complement activation study, and blood coagulation studies with the uGNPs to confirm their safety. These can help to set up a long-term safety-benefit framework of experimentation to reveal whether any designed nanoparticles are immune-tolerable and can be used as payload carriers for next-generation vaccines, chemotherapeutic drugs, and theranostic agents with better body clearance ability and deep tissue penetration.
Shoshany TN, Chinn RN, Staffa SJ, Bishop K, Michalak S, Hunter DG. Identifying Characteristics Predictive of Lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) Status in Amblyopia. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify demographic and disease-related characteristics predictive of LTFU status in amblyopia treatment and create a risk model for predicting LTFU status. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Setting: Single center, ophthalmology department at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH). PATIENTS: 2037 patients treated for amblyopia at BCH between 2010-2014. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE: LTFU was defined as patients who did not return after initial visit, excluding those who came for second opinion. Multiple variables were tested for association with LTFU status. OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratio of LTFU risk associated with each variable. Multivariate logistic regression was used to create a risk score for predicting LTFU status. RESULTS: A large proportion of patients (23%) were LTFU after first visit. Older age, non-white race, lack of insurance, previous glasses or atropine treatment, and longer requested follow-up intervals were independent predictors of LTFU status. A multivariable risk score was created to predict probability of LTFU (AUC 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive amblyopia database allows us to predict which patients are more likely to be LTFU after baseline visit, and develop strategies to mitigate these effects. These findings may help with practice efficiency and improve patient outcomes in the future by transitioning these analyses to an electronic medical record that could be programmed to provide continually updated decision support for individual patients based on large datasets.
Glassman AR, Beaulieu WT, Maguire MG, Antoszyk AN, Chow CC, Elman MJ, Jampol LM, Salehi-Had H, Sun JK, Sun JK. Visual Acuity, Vitreous Hemorrhage, and Other Ocular Outcomes After Vitrectomy vs Aflibercept for Vitreous Hemorrhage Due to Diabetic Retinopathy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021;139(7):725-733.Abstract
Importance: Although there were no differences in mean visual acuity (VA) over 24 weeks after vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) vs aflibercept in a randomized clinical trial among eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), post hoc analyses may influence treatment choices. Objective: To compare exploratory outcomes between treatment groups that may affect treatment choices for patients with vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites included adults with vision loss due to PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage for whom vitrectomy was considered. Data were collected from November 2016 to January 2020. Interventions: Random assignment to 4 monthly injections of aflibercept vs vitrectomy with PRP. Both groups could receive aflibercept or vitrectomy during follow-up based on protocol-specific criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Visual acuity area under the curve (adjusted for baseline VA) and clearance of vitreous hemorrhage. Results: A total of 205 eyes were included in the analysis (115 male [56%] and 90 [44%] female participants; mean [SD] age, 57 [11] years). Among 89 eyes with a baseline VA of 20/32 to 20/160 (47 receiving aflibercept, including 4 [9%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 42 undergoing vitrectomy, including 3 [7%] that had received aflibercept), the adjusted mean difference in VA letter score over 24 weeks between the aflibercept and vitrectomy groups was -4.3 (95% CI, -10.6 to 1.9) compared with -16.7 (95% CI, -24.4 to -9.1) among 59 eyes with baseline VA worse than 20/800 (P = .02 for interaction; 26 in the aflibercept group, including 6 [23%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 33 in the vitrectomy group, including 8 [24%] that had received aflibercept). In the full cohort, the median time to clearance of the initial vitreous hemorrhage was 36 (interquartile range [IQR], 24-52) weeks in the aflibercept group vs 4 (IQR, 4-4) weeks in the vitrectomy group (difference, 32 [95% CI, 20-32] weeks; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Both initial aflibercept and vitrectomy with PRP are viable treatment approaches for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. Although this study did not find a significant difference between groups in the primary outcome of mean VA over 24 weeks of follow-up, eyes receiving initial vitrectomy with PRP had faster recovery of vision over 24 weeks when baseline VA was worse than 20/800 and faster vitreous hemorrhage clearance. Approximately one-third of the eyes in each group received the alternative treatment (aflibercept or vitrectomy with PRP). These factors may influence treatment decisions for patients initiating therapy for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02858076.
Sharon Y, Anesi SD, Martinez CE, Huang AJW, Foster CS, Chu DS. Repository Corticotropin Injection as an Alternative Treatment for Refractory Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid. Cornea 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical course and outcome of patients with refractory ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) treated by repository corticotropin injection (RCI). METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven ocular MMP treated with RCI from 3 tertiary medical centers were evaluated. Medical records between January 2013 and January 2021 were reviewed and deidentified to retrieve relevant disease-related data. Primary outcome measures included conjunctival inflammatory activity, change in Foster clinical conjunctival scarring staging after RCI treatment, and the development of ocular and systemic complications. RESULTS: Included were 15 patients (10 women and 5 men; 36-95 yrs of age) with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Most of the patients (80%) had Foster stage 3 at presentation, and all patients had active MMP. Each patient had failed to respond to at least 1 immunomodulatory drug during the follow-up, and 9 (60%) patients had treatment failure of at least 2 other agents before the use of RCI. The mean duration of RCI treatment was 21 months (range, 3-54 mo). Foster stage did not change in any of the 15 patients at the last follow-up. Nine patients continued RCI therapy at the last follow-up, and in all of them, the disease activity of MMP was well controlled. No serious adverse events because of RCI were documented during the follow-up in any treated patient. CONCLUSIONS: RCI may serve as an alternative or an adjunctive treatment in patients with severe and refractory ocular MMP. Treatment with RCI seems to be safe and well-tolerated.
Nilsson AK, Andersson MX, Sjöbom U, Hellgren G, Lundgren P, Pivodic A, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Sphingolipidomics of serum in extremely preterm infants: Association between low sphingosine-1-phosphate levels and severe retinopathy of prematurity. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021;1866(7):158939.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants are at risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that can cause impaired vision or blindness. Changes in blood lipids have been associated with ROP. This study aimed to monitor longitudinal changes in the serum sphingolipidome of extremely preterm infants and investigate the relationship to development of severe ROP. METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 47 infants born <28 gestational weeks. Serum samples were collected from cord blood and at postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28, and at postmenstrual weeks (PMW) 32, 36, and 40. Serum sphingolipids and phosphatidylcholines were extracted and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Associations between sphingolipid species and ROP were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. RESULTS: The serum concentration of all investigated lipid classes, including ceramide, mono- di- and trihexosylceramide, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylcholine displayed distinct temporal patterns between birth and PMW40. There were also substantial changes in the lipid species composition within each class. Among the analyzed sphingolipid species, sphingosine-1-phosphate showed the strongest association with severe ROP, and this association was independent of gestational age at birth and weight standard deviation score change. CONCLUSIONS: The serum phospho- and sphingolipidome undergoes significant remodeling during the first weeks of the preterm infant's life. Low postnatal levels of the signaling lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with the development of severe ROP.
Yang S-A, Mitchell W, Hall N, Elze T, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Zebardast N, Zebardast N. Trends and Usage Patterns of Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery in the United States: IRIS® Registry Analysis 2013-2018. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;4(6):558-568.Abstract
PURPOSE: Understanding trends and patterns in the use of minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) and patient profiles undergoing each procedure is important given their relative expense and unknown long-term safety and effectiveness. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries and standard glaucoma surgeries recorded in the American Academy of Ophthalmology Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry. METHODS: We used the data from IRIS Registry between 2013 and 2018 (inclusive) to measure the annual number of MIGS and standard surgical techniques (trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device [GDD] placement) performed in the United States, stratified by demographic characteristics. Secondary analyses of concurrent surgeries and of subsequent surgeries for MIGS and standard surgical technique also were conducted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends and sociodemographic characteristics of MIGS use in the United States. RESULTS: Two hundred three thousand three hundred thirty-two eyes and 232 537 unique procedures had associated, documented International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), Ninth or Tenth Revision, codes for glaucoma and were included in final analyses. Among eyes with documented glaucoma diagnoses, a substantial increase in annual MIGS procedures occurred over the study period (from 7586 in 2013 to 39 677) and a smaller decrease in standard glaucoma procedures (from 16 215 to 13 701). The proportion of iStent procedures almost tripled during the study period (from 14% to 40%), and by 2017 accounted for almost half (43.7%) of all glaucoma surgeries in the United States. Twenty-one thousand twenty-five of all eyes (10.3%) underwent multiple procedures: 7638 (36.3%) on the same day and 13 387 (63.7%) on subsequent days. Endocyclophotocoagulation and iStent placement were the most common concurrent procedures (55.4% of all concurrent procedures). Trabeculectomy and GDD placement were most commonly followed by another standard glaucoma surgery, but when followed by sequential MIGS, endocyclophotocoagulation and goniotomy were the most common procedures performed (33.0% and 21.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in MIGS use occurred over the recent 6-year period, despite limited evidence of their long-term safety or effectiveness, highlighting the need for trials comparing safety and outcomes of novel MIGS versus traditional surgical treatments for glaucoma.
Caranfa JT, Yoon MK. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis: A review. Surv Ophthalmol 2021;66(6):1021-1030.Abstract
Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (SCST) is a rare, yet severe, process typically arising from infections of the paranasal sinuses (predominately ethmoid and/or sphenoid sinusitis) and less commonly, otogenic, odontogenic, and pharyngeal sources. Clinical symptoms of SCST arise from obstruction of venous drainage from the orbit and compression of the cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus. In the preantibiotic era SCST was considered universally fatal (80-100%); however, with the introduction of antibiotics the overall incidence, morbidity, and mortality of SCST have greatly declined. In spite of dramatic improvements, morbidity and mortality remain high, with the majority of patients experiencing neurological sequalae, highlighting the severity of the disease and the need for prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. Here we review of the literature on SCST with a focus on the current recommendations and recent evidence for diagnostic and medical management of this condition.
Succar T, Beaver HA, Lee AG. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Ophthalmology Medical Student Teaching: Educational Innovations, Challenges, and Future Directions. Surv Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
Graduate medical education (GME) in ophthalmology has faced and overcome many challenges over the past years and 2020 has been a game-changing year. Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) pandemic disrupted medical education globally, ophthalmic educators rapidly transformed their curricula to novel and effective virtual learning formats. Thus, while the COVID-19 outbreak has been one of the most significant challenges faced in the history of medical education, it has also provided an impetus to develop innovative teaching practices, bringing with it unprecedented success in allowing medical students to continue their education in ophthalmology despite these challenges. We review and appraise novel educational interventions implemented by various institutions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting their effectiveness, challenges and proposing future directions beyond the pandemic. Many of these innovations will persist even after the end of the pandemic because they have proven that face-to-face learning is not required for all aspects of the ophthalmic GME curriculum. As ophthalmic educators harness the power of educational technology it is critical that their novel educational initiatives are incorporated into competency-based curricula with assessments mapped to the competencies. Future research should focus on evaluating the impact of this transformation to virtual learning environments on student performances as well as implementing longitudinal assessment strategies for clinical competence in workplace-based practice.
Yu-Wai-Man P, Newman NJ, Carelli V, La Morgia C, Biousse V, Bandello FM, Clermont CV, Campillo LC, Leruez S, Moster ML, Cestari DM, Foroozan R, Sadun A, Karanjia R, Jurkute N, Blouin L, Taiel M, Sahel J-A, Sahel J-A. Natural history of patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy-results from the REALITY study. Eye (Lond) 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: REALITY is an international observational retrospective registry of LHON patients evaluating the visual course and outcome in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Demographics and visual function data were collected from medical charts of LHON patients with visual loss. The study was conducted in 11 study centres in the United States of America and Europe. The collection period extended from the presymptomatic stage to at least more than one year after onset of vision loss (chronic stage). A Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) local regression model was used to analyse the evolution of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over time. RESULTS: 44 LHON patients were included; 27 (61%) carried the m.11778G>A ND4 mutation, 8 (18%) carried the m.3460G>A ND1 mutation, and 9 (20%) carried the m.14484T>C ND6 mutation. Fourteen (32%) patients were under 18 years old at onset of vision loss and 5 (11%) were below the age of 12. The average duration of follow-up was 32.5 months after onset of symptoms. At the last observed measure, mean BCVA was 1.46 LogMAR in ND4 patients, 1.52 LogMAR in ND1 patients, and 0.97 LogMAR in ND6 patients. The worst visual outcomes were reported in ND4 patients aged at least 15 years old at onset, with a mean BCVA of 1.55 LogMAR and no tendency for spontaneous recovery. The LOESS modelling curve depicted a severe and permanent deterioration of BCVA. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst LHON patients with the three primary mtDNA mutations, adult patients with the m.11778G>A ND4 mutation had the worst visual outcomes, consistent with prior reports.
Pundlik S, Nigalye A, Laíns I, Mendez KM, Katz R, Kim J, Kim IK, Miller JB, Vavvas D, Miller JW, Luo G, Husain D. Area under the dark adaptation curve as a reliable alternate measure of dark adaptation response. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: Quantification of dark adaptation (DA) response using the conventional rod intercept time (RIT) requires very long testing time and may not be measurable in the presence of impairments due to diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The goal of this study was to investigate the advantages of using area under the DA curve (AUDAC) as an alternative to the conventional parameters to quantify DA response. METHODS: Data on 136 eyes (AMD: 98, normal controls: 38) from an ongoing longitudinal study on AMD were used. DA was measured using the AdaptDx 20 min protocol. AUDAC was computed from the raw DA characteristic curve at different time points, including 6.5 min and 20 min (default). The presence of AMD in the given eye was predicted using a logistic regression model within the leave-one-out cross-validation framework, with DA response as the predictor while adjusting for age and gender. The DA response variable was either the AUDAC values computed at 6.5 min (AUDAC6.5) or at 20 min (AUDAC20) cut-off, or the conventional RIT. RESULTS: AUDAC6.5 was strongly correlated with AUDAC20 (β=86, p<0.001, R=0.87). The accuracy of predicting the presence of AMD using AUDAC20 was 76%, compared with 79% when using RIT, the current gold standard. In addition, when limiting AUDAC calculation to 6.5 min cut-off, the predictive accuracy of AUDAC6.5 was 80%. CONCLUSIONS: AUDAC can be a valuable measure to quantify the overall DA response and can potentially facilitate shorter testing duration while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.
Lonfat N, Wang S, Lee C, Garcia M, Choi J, Park PJ, Cepko C. Cis-regulatory dissection of cone development reveals a broad role for Otx2 and Oc transcription factors. Development 2021;148(9)Abstract
The vertebrate retina is generated by retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), which produce >100 cell types. Although some RPCs produce many cell types, other RPCs produce restricted types of daughter cells, such as a cone photoreceptor and a horizontal cell (HC). We used genome-wide assays of chromatin structure to compare the profiles of a restricted cone/HC RPC and those of other RPCs in chicks. These data nominated regions of regulatory activity, which were tested in tissue, leading to the identification of many cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) active in cone/HC RPCs and developing cones. Two transcription factors, Otx2 and Oc1, were found to bind to many of these CRMs, including those near genes important for cone development and function, and their binding sites were required for activity. We also found that Otx2 has a predicted autoregulatory CRM. These results suggest that Otx2, Oc1 and possibly other Onecut proteins have a broad role in coordinating cone development and function. The many newly discovered CRMs for cones are potentially useful reagents for gene therapy of cone diseases.
Deitch I, Ferenchak K, Miller JB. Quantitative autofluorescence: Review of Current Technical Aspects and Applications in Chorioretinal Disease. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):346-350.Abstract
Purpose: In this review we discuss the broad clinical application of qAF and provide a descriptive summary of the phenotypic findings of different chorioretinal pathologies.Background: Quantitative Fundus autofluorescence (qAF) is a novel developing technology that can aid in diagnosis and longitudinal disease monitoring by measuring and comparing autofluorescence intensities. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a noninvasive imaging method that creates a density map of the fluorophores of the ocular fundus and provides both functional and topographic anatomic information about retinal cells. Fluorophores are molecules that have the ability to temporarily absorb irradiated light, and emit a small amount of light of a different wavelength. Different endogenous fluorophores can be found in the ocular fundus. Changes in accumulation of retinal fluorophores usually indicate retinal pathology and create characteristic patterns of hyper-autofluorescence and hypo-autofluorescence that help establish a diagnosis.Conclusion: qAF allows a safe non-invasive visualization of the retina, enables a standard for AF intensities comparison and aids to the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlations.
Halawa O, Mitchell W, Zebardast N. Fall-related eye injury among older adults in the United States. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify common causes of emergency department-treated eye injury among older adults in the United States (US), and to characterize of fall-related ocular trauma in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a nationally representative database of US emergency department-treated injuries, was used to assemble a cohort of adults 65 years and older with eye injuries between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2019. Demographic information, diagnosis, disposition, injury location and consumer product associated with injury were collected. Narrative descriptions of all injuries were reviewed to identify eye injuries secondary to falls. RESULTS: 4,953 eye injuries among older adults were reported from 2000 to 2019, a stratified probability sample representing approximately 238,162 injuries, with an average annual frequency of 12,000 injuries. Falls accounted for 11.5% of these injuries. Fall-related eye injuries commonly presented from home (66.5%) and were more likely to occur in the winter than eye injuries from other causes (28.1% vs. 18.4%, p<0.01). Risk factors for fall-related eye injury included older age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.10-1.13 per year), female sex (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.1 vs. male), Black race (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5 vs. White) and presentation from a nursing home (OR 12.7, 95% CI 4.9-32.8 vs. other locations). Older adults with fall-related injury were more likely to be hospitalized (OR 22.8, 95% CI 15.3-33.9) and to suffer from a ruptured globe (OR 14.1, 95% CI 6.5-30.6) than those with fall-unrelated injury. CONCLUSIONS: Falls are an important mechanism of ocular trauma in older adults and are associated with worse outcomes compared to eye injuries from other causes.
Soh Z, Yu M, Betzler BK, Majithia S, Thakur S, Tham YC, Wong TY, Aung T, Friedman DS, Cheng C-Y. The Global Extent of Undetected Glaucoma in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2021;128(10):1393-1404.Abstract
TOPIC: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, despite having good prognosis with early treatment. We evaluated the global extent of undetected glaucoma and the factors associated with it in this systematic review and meta-analysis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Undetected glaucoma increases the risk of vision impairment, which leads to detrimental effects on the quality-of-life and socioeconomic well-being of those affected. Detailed information on the extent and factors associated with undetected glaucoma aid in the development of public health interventions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies published between January 1, 1990, and June 1, 2020. Article search was conducted in online databases (PubMED, Web-of-Science), grey literatures (OpenGrey), and nongovernment organization reports. Our outcome measure was the proportion of glaucoma cases that were undetected previously. Manifest glaucoma included any form of glaucoma reported in the original studies and may include primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure-glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, or a combination thereof. Undetected glaucoma was defined as glaucoma cases that were undetected prior to diagnosis in the respective study. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled proportion of undetected glaucoma. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines in our study. RESULTS: We identified 61 articles from 55 population-based studies (n = 189 359 participants; n = 6949 manifest glaucoma). Globally, more than half of all glaucoma cases were undetected previously on average in each geographical region. Africa (odds ratio [OR], 12.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.91-32.86) and Asia (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.63-7.16) showed higher odds of undetected glaucoma as compared with Europe. Countries with low Human Development Index (HDI; <0.55) showed a higher proportion of undetected manifest glaucoma as compared with countries of medium to very high HDI (≥0.55; all P < 0.001). In 2020, 43.78 million POAG cases were projected to be undetected, of which 76.7% were in Africa and Asia. DISCUSSION: Undetected glaucoma is highly prevalent across diverse communities worldwide and more common in Africa and Asia. Strategies to improve detection are needed to prevent excess visual disability and blindness resulting from glaucoma.

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